Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 48555

Psychological and Behavioral Sciences

882
81254
Improving the Social Interactions of Students with Conduct Disorder in Dil Betigil Primary School
Abstract:
Conduct disorder has become a major health and social problem; it is the most common psychiatric problem diagnosed among students which affect the academic and social interaction of students. This intervention was conducted in Dil Betigil primary school. After identifying six students with conduct disorder in Dil Betigil primary school, the intervention was conducted using a true experimental research design specifically pretest and posttest control group design. Data from teachers and parents of the students with conduct disorder were collected using adapted conduct disorder scale and semi-structured interview. The independent sample t-test of Pretest results of both experimental and control group indicated that there is no statistically significant difference between experimental and control groups. Intervention is carried out to enhance their social interaction and to decrees aggressive, a serious violation of rules and theft behavior of students in collaboration with teachers and parents. After six intervention weeks the post-test result showed that there was statistically significant difference in aggression and serious violation between the experimental and control groups, but there was no statistically significant mean difference regarding deceitful or theft between the experimental and control group.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
881
79134
Mental Health Stigma: Barriers to Treatment and Participation in Mental Health Care among University Students in Kenya
Abstract:
Stigma is commonly associated with mental health patients and may act as a barrier to individuals who may seek or engage in treatment services. Stigmatization among university students is common whether they know someone with a mental health problem, or have a good knowledge and experience of mental health issues. The objective of this study was to establish the various barriers that prevent university students who have mental health challenges from seeking treatment and care. The study was a descriptive in nature where 320 respondents helped to establish the barriers to treatment or participation in mental health care among university students. A questionnaire was used to help establish the barriers and attitude towards mental illness among the respondents. Results from this study revealed that mental illnesses are common among university students and they are manifested in different forms like; anxiety and panic attacks, mood and eating disorders, Impulse control leading to gambling, alcohol and drug addictions, anger and depression leading to loneliness. Mental stigma (both social and self) was the major barrier with 62% of the respondents stating that social stigma was worse than self-stigma. This is because of the social discrimination towards the victim of mental challenges. On issues of attitude, 71% of the respondents said that they can never admit that they have a mental issue and would rather secretly seek clinical or psychological help for fear of being discriminated or excluded by peers. This view is informed by the societal belief that people with mental health challenges were dangerous (associating them with criminal behavior) and hard to socialize with or help. From the findings of this study, it is concluded that mental health problems are real among university students in Kenya and it is important for the university environment to minimize or eradicate stigma within the social circles. Stigma can be minimized or eradicated by creating awareness among university students and fostering social inclusion so that the students who have mental health challenges can experience a sense of belonging and acceptance hence build their self-esteem.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
880
78619
Ultrasound Enhanced Release of Active Targeting Liposomes Used for Cancer Treatment
Abstract:
Liposomes are popular lipid bilayer nanoparticles that are highly efficient in encapsulating both hydrophilic and hydrophobic therapeutic drugs. Liposomes promote a low risk controlled release of the drug avoiding the side effects of the conventional chemotherapy. One of the great potentials of liposomes is the ability to attach a wide range of ligands to their surface producing ligand-mediated active targeting of cancer tumour with limited adverse off-target effects. Ultrasound can also aid in the controlled and specified release of the drug from the liposomes by breaking it apart and releasing the drug in the specific location where the ultrasound is applied. Our research focuses on the synthesis of PEGylated liposomes (contain poly-ethylene glycol) encapsulated with the model drug calcein and studying the effect of low frequency ultrasound applied at different power densities on calcein release. In addition, moieties are attached to the surface of the liposomes for specific targeting of the cancerous cells which over-express the receptors of these moieties, ultrasound is then applied and the release results are compared with the moiety free liposomes. The results showed that attaching these moieties to the surface of the PEGylated liposomes not only enhance their active targeting but also stimulate calcein release from these liposomes.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
879
78372
Measuring the Effectiveness of Response Inhibition regarding to Motor Complexity: Evidence from the Stroop Effect
Abstract:
We studied the effectiveness of response inhibition in movements with different degrees of motor complexity when they were executed in isolation and alternately. Sixteen participants performed the Stroop task which was used as a measure of response inhibition. Participants responded by lifting the index finger and reaching the screen with the same finger. Both actions were performed separately and alternately in different experimental blocks. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to compare reaction time, movement time, kinematic errors and Movement errors across conditions (experimental block, movement, and congruency). Delta plots were constructed to perform distributional analyses of response inhibition and accuracy rate. The effectiveness of response inhibition did not show difference when the movements were performed in separated blocks. Nevertheless, it showed differences when they were performed alternately in the same experimental block, being more effective for the lifting action. This could be due to a competition of the available resources during a more complex scenario which also demands to adopt some strategy to avoid errors.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
878
77406
Emotional Intelligence as a Correlate of Conflict Management Styles among Managers and Supervisors in Work Organizations in Nigeria
Authors:
Abstract:
The study investigated emotional intelligence as a correlate of conflict management styles among managers and supervisors in work organization. The study was a survey and Ex-post facto design was employed. A total of 407 participants took part in the study, and the participants were selected across different work organizations in the six (6) existing Geo-political zones in Nigeria, namely South-West, South East, South-South, North-East, North-West and North-Central. Questionnaire format was used for data collection in the study. Collected data were analyzed by both the Descriptive and Inferential Statistics, specifically using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 21.0. The findings revealed that considerate leadership style was significantly and positively related to the use of collaborating conflict management style, [r(405) = .50**, P < .01]; Considerate leadership style was significantly and positively related to the use of compromising conflict management style, [r(405) = .3**, P < .01]; Considerate leadership style was significantly and positively related to accommodation conflict management style, [r(405) = .64**, P < .01]; Considerate leadership style was not significantly related to competing conflict management style, [r(405) = .07, P > .05]; Considerate leadership style was significantly and negatively related to avoiding conflict management style, [r(405) = -.38**, P < .01]. Further, initiating structural leadership style was significantly and positively related to competing conflict management style, [r(405) = .33**, P < .01], avoiding conflict management style, [r(405) = .41**, P < .01]; collaborating conflict management style [r(405) = 51**, P < .01]. However, the findings showed that initiating structural leadership style was significantly and negatively related to compromising style, [r(405) = -.57**, P < .01] and accommodating style, [r(405) = -.13**, P < .01]. The findings were extensively discussed in relation to the existing body of literature. Moreover, it was concluded that leadership styles of managers and supervisors play a crucial role in the choice and use of conflict management styles in work organizations in Nigeria.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
877
77198
Moving on or Deciding to Let Go: The Effects of Emotional and Decisional Forgiveness on Intentional Forgetting
Abstract:
Different types of forgiveness (emotional and decisional) have been shown to have differential effects on incidental forgetting of information related to a prior transgression. The present study explored the extent to which emotional and decisional forgiveness also influenced intentional forgetting; that is, the extent to which forgetting occurs following an explicit instruction to forget. Using the List-Method Directed Forgetting (LMDF) paradigm, 236 participants were presented with a hypothetical transgression and then assigned to an emotional forgiveness, a decisional forgiveness, or a no-forgiveness manipulation. Participants were then presented with two-word lists each comprising transgression-relevant and transgression-irrelevant words. Following the presentation of the first list, participants were told to either remember or forget the previously learned list of words. Participants in the emotional forgiveness condition were found to remember fewer relevant and more irrelevant transgression-related words, while the opposite was true for both decisional forgiveness and no-forgiveness conditions. Furthermore, when directed to forget words in List 1, participants in the decisional and no-forgiveness conditions were less able to forget relevant transgression-related words in comparison to participants in the emotional forgiveness condition. This study suggests that emotional forgiveness plays a pivotal role in the intentional forgetting of transgression-related information. The potential implications of these findings for coping with unpleasant incidents will be considered.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
876
77079
Informational Habits and Ideology as Predictors for Political Efficacy: A Survey Study of the Brazilian Political Context
Abstract:
Political participation, can be a somewhat tricky subject to define, not in small part due to the constant changes in the concept fruit of the effort to include new forms of participatory behavior that go beyond traditional institutional channels. With the advent of the internet and mobile technologies, defining political participation has become an even more complicated endeavor, given de amplitude of politicized behaviors that are expressed throughout these mediums, be it in the very organization of social movements, in the propagation of politicized texts, videos and images, or in the micropolitical behaviors that are expressed in daily interaction. In fact, the very frontiers that delimit physical and digital spaces have become ever more diluted due to technological advancements, leading to a hybrid existence that is simultaneously physical and digital, not limited, as it once was, to the temporal limitations of classic communications. Moving away from those institutionalized actions of traditional political behavior, an idea of constant and fluid participation, which occurs in our daily lives through conversations, posts, tweets and other digital forms of expression, is discussed. This discussion focuses on the factors that precede more direct forms of political participation, interpreting the relation between informational habits, ideology, and political efficacy. Though some of the informational habits can be considered political participation, by some authors, a distinction is made to establish a logical flow of behaviors leading to participation, that is, one must gather and process information before acting on it. To reach this objective, a quantitative survey is currently being applied in Brazilian social media, evaluating feelings of political efficacy, social and economic issue-based ideological stances and informational habits pertaining to collection, fact-checking, and diversity of sources and ideological positions present in the participant’s political information network. The measure being used for informational habits relies strongly on a mix of information literacy and political sophistication concepts, bringing a more up-to-date understanding of information and knowledge production and processing in contemporary hybrid (physical-digital) environments. Though data is still being collected, preliminary analysis point towards a strong correlation between information habits and political efficacy, while ideology shows a weaker influence over efficacy. Moreover, social ideology and economic ideology seem to have a strong correlation in the sample, such intermingling between social and economic ideals is generally considered a red flag for political polarization.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
875
76726
Development and Psychometric Properties of the Relational Mobility Scale for the Indonesian Population
Abstract:
This study aims to develop the Relational Mobility Scale for the Indonesian population and to investigate its psychometric properties. New items of the scale were created taking into account the Indonesian population which consists of two parallel forms (A and A&rsquo;). This study uses 30 newly orchestrated items while keeping in mind the characteristics of the targeted population. The scale was administered to 433 public high school students in Malang, Indonesia. Construct validity of its factor structure was demonstrated using exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis. The result exhibits that he model fits the data, and that the delayed alternate form method shows acceptable result. Results yielded that 21 items of the three-dimensional Relational Mobility Scale is suitable for measuring relational mobility in high school students of Indonesian population.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
874
76385
Methodological Proposal, Archival Thesaurus in Colombian Sign Language
Abstract:
Having the opportunity to communicate in a social, academic and work context is very relevant for any individual and more for a deaf person when oral language is not their natural language, and written language is their second language. Currently, in Colombia, there is not a specialized dictionary for our best knowledge in sign language archiving. Archival is one of the areas that the deaf community has a greater chance of performing. Nourishing new signs in dictionaries for deaf people extends the possibility that they have the appropriate signs to communicate and improve their performance. The aim of this work was to illustrate the importance of designing pedagogical and technological strategies of knowledge management, for the academic inclusion of deaf people through proposals of lexicon in Colombian sign language (LSC) in the area of archival. As a method, the analytical study was used to identify relevant words in the technical area of the archival and its counterpart with the LSC, 30 deaf people, apprentices - students of the Servicio Nacional de Aprendizaje (SENA) in Documentary or Archival Management programs, were evaluated through direct interviews in LSC. For the analysis tools were maintained to evaluate correlation patterns and linguistic methods of visual, gestural analysis and corpus; besides, methods of linear regression were used. Among the results, significant data were found among the variables socioeconomic stratum, academic level, labor location. The need to generate new signals on the subject of the file to improve communication between the deaf person, listener and the sign language interpreter. It is concluded that the generation of new signs to nourish the LSC dictionary in archival subjects is necessary to improve the labor inclusion of deaf people in Colombia.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
873
76371
Architecture for Hearing Impaired: A Study on Conducive Learning Environments for Deaf Children with Reference to Sri Lanka
Abstract:
Conducive Architecture for learning environments is an area of interest for many scholars around the world. Loss of sense of hearing leads to the assumption that deaf students are visual learners. Comprehending favorable non-hearing attributes of architecture can lead to effective, rich and friendly learning environments for hearing impaired. The objective of the current qualitative investigation is to explore the nature and parameters of a sense of place of deaf children to support optimal learning. The investigation was conducted with hearing-impaired children (age: between 8-19, Gender: 15 male and 15 female) of Yashodhara deaf and blind school at Balangoda, Sri Lanka. A sensory ethnography study was adopted to identify the nature of perception and the parameters of most preferred and least preferred spaces of the learning environment. The common perceptions behind most preferred places in the learning environment were found as being calm and quiet, sense of freedom, volumes characterized by openness and spaciousness, sense of safety, wide spaces, privacy and belongingness, less crowded, undisturbed, availability of natural light and ventilation, sense of comfort and the view of green colour in the surroundings. On the other hand, the least preferred spaces were found to be perceived as dark, gloomy, warm, crowded, lack of freedom, smells (bad), unsafe and having glare. Perception of space by deaf considering the hierarchy of sensory modalities involved was identified as; light - color perception (34 %), sight - visual perception (32%), touch - haptic perception (26%), smell - olfactory perception (7%) and sound – auditory perception (1%) respectively. Sense of freedom (32%) and sense of comfort (23%) were the predominant psychological parameters leading to an optimal sense of place perceived by hearing impaired. Privacy (16%), rhythm (14%), belonging (9%) and safety (6%) were found as secondary factors. Open and wide flowing spaces without visual barriers, transparent doors and windows or open port holes to ease their communication, comfortable volumes, naturally ventilated spaces, natural lighting or diffused artificial lighting conditions without glare, sloping walkways, wider stairways, walkways and corridors with ample distance for signing were identified as positive characteristics of the learning environment investigated.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
872
76294
Educational Challenges: Cultural Behaviours, Psychopathology and Psychological Intervention
Abstract:
In the present society, we are facing behaviours mainly in young individuals that might be considered trends of culture or psychopathology. Both contexts are challenges for Education, Psychology and Health. This paper examines nine case studies specifically in Educational Psychology with the main goal to identify and define phenomena contexts in school culture, the psychopathology involved and to present a psychological intervention for each case. The research was conducted by university students in the period of March 2017-June 2017, in Portugal, and the childhood was focused. The case studies explored the cyberbullying; the bullying - victims and bullies’ perspectives; the obsessive compulsive disorder; perception and inclusion of children from homoparental families; inclusion of foreign students in the higher education system; blindness and the inclusion in physical curricular activities; influence of doc-reality and media in attitudes and self-esteem; and the morningness and eveningness types learning in the same school timetables. The university students were supervised during their research analysis and two methods were available for the intervention research study: the meta-analysis and the empirical study. In the second phase, the pedagogical intervention was designed for the different educational contexts in analysis, especially concerning the school environments. The evidence of literature and the empirical studies showed new trends of school’ behaviours and educational disturbances that require further research and effective (and adequate to age, gender, nationality and culture) pedagogical instruments. Respecting the instruments, on the one hand, to identify behaviors, habits or pathologies and highlight the role and training of teachers, psychologists and health professionals, on the other hand, to promote the early intervention and to enhance healthy child development and orientation of the families. To respond to both milestones, this paper present nine pedagogical techniques and measures that will be discussed on their impact concerning advances for the psychological and educational intervention, centered in the individual and in the new generations of family’ cultures.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
871
76013
Evaluation of the Curricular Content Domain Related to Topics of Human Sexuality in Teachers of Public Elementary Schools
Abstract:
The transformation of education in Mexico incorporates human sexuality subjects in its study plans for elementary education level, leaving aside the training of teachers to educate on such topics. The objective of this study was to evaluate the curricular content domain related to human sexuality subjects of public elementary school teachers in Mexico. For this, a transversal descriptive-prospective study with a quantitative focus has been conducted. The population for this study consisted of 109 fifth and sixth-grade teachers from a school zone of the State Education System. It was found in the results that fifth-grade teachers got a low achievement level, sixth-grade teachers got a medium achievement level, while teachers who give classes on both grades obtained a high achievement level on domain of curricular subjects related to sexuality. Likewise, a relation of different variables with the participant’s achievement level is exposed.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
870
75832
The Influence of Workplace Aggression on Employee Turnover Intention
Abstract:
Workplace aggression not only is a proven safety and health issue but it also is a problem witnessed at workplace which has far-reaching consequences. It hinders the overall productivity of the organizations and individual employees. The current study examined employee turnover intentions as a result of workplace aggression. The study was conducted on employees from the private sector. Self-report questionnaires that measured the workplace aggression and turnover intentions of employees were used to target a sample size of 200 employees. In the hypothesis, it was assumed that high levels of workplace aggression at any organization will result in subsequent high levels of employee turnover intentions. It was therefore identified that there has been a relationship between workplace aggression and employee turnover intentions. The results determined a positive relationship between the workplace bullying behaviors towards the individuals and the turnover intention.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
869
75706
Relation between Sensory Processing Patterns and Working Memory in Autistic Children
Authors:
Abstract:
Background: In recent years, autism has been under consideration in public and research area. Autistic children have dysfunction in communication, socialization, repetitive and stereotyped behaviors. In addition, they clinically suffer from difficulty in attention, challenge with familiar behaviors and sensory processing problems. Several variables are linked to sensory processing problems in autism, one of these variables is working memory. Working memory is part of the executive function which provides the necessary ability to completing multiple stages tasks. Method: This study has categorized in correlational research methods. After determining of entry criteria, according to purposive sampling method, 50 children were selected. Dunn’s sensory profile school companion was used for assessment of sensory processing patterns; behavioral rating inventory of executive functions was used (BRIEF) for assessment of working memory. Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression were used for data analyzing. Results: The results showed the significant relationship between sensory processing patterns (low registration, sensory seeking, sensory sensitivity and sensory avoiding) with working memory in autistic children. Conclusion: According to the findings, there is the significant relationship between the patterns of sensory processing and working memory. So, in order to improve the working memory could be used some interventions based on the sensory processing.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
868
75698
The Psychosis Prodrome: Biomarkers of the Glutamatergic System and Their Potential Role in Prediction and Treatment
Abstract:
The concept of the psychosis prodrome has allowed for the identification of adolescent and young adult patients who have a significantly elevated risk of developing schizophrenia spectrum disorders. A number of different interventions have been tested in order to prevent or delay progression of symptoms. To date, there has been no consistent meta-analytical evidence to support efficacy of antipsychotic treatment for patients in the prodromal state, and their use remains therefore inconclusive. Although antipsychotics may manage symptoms transiently, they have not been found to prevent or delay onset of psychotic disorders. Furthermore, pharmacological intervention in high-risk individuals remains controversial, because of the antipsychotic side effect profile in a population in which only about 20 to 35 percent will eventually convert to psychosis over a two-year period, with even after two years conversion rates not exceeding 30 to 40 percent. This general estimate is additionally problematic, in that it ignores the fact that there is significant variation in individual risk among clinical high-risk cases. The current lack of reliable tests for at-risk patients makes it difficult to justify individual treatment decisions. Preventive treatment should ideally be dictated by an individual’s risk while minimizing potentially harmful medication exposure. This requires more accurate predictive assessments by using valid and accessible prognostic markers. The following will compare prediction and risk modification potential of behavioral biomarkers such as disturbances of basic sense of self and emotion awareness, neurocognitive biomarkers such as attention, working and declarative memory, and neurophysiological biomarkers such as glutamatergic abnormalities and NMDA receptor dysfunction. Identification of robust biomarkers could therefore not only provide more reliable means of psychosis prediction, but also help test and develop new clinical interventions targeted at the prodromal state.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
867
75642
Educating Children Who Are Deaf and Hearing Impaired in Southern Africa: Challenges and Triumphs
Abstract:
There is a global move to integrate children who are Deaf and Hearing Impaired into regular classrooms with their hearing peers with an inclusive education framework. This paper examines the current education situation for children who are Deaf and Hearing Impaired in South Africa, Madagascar, Malawi, Zimbabwe, and Namibia. Qualitative data for this paper was obtained from the author’s experiences working as the Southern African Education Advisor for an international organization funding disability projects. It examines some of the challenges facing these children and their teachers relating to education. Challenges include cultural stigma relating to disability and deafness, a lack of hearing screening and early identification of deafness, schools in rural areas, special schools, specialist teacher training, equipment, understanding of how to implement policy, support, appropriate teaching methodologies, and sign language training and proficiency. On the other hand, in spite of the challenges some teachers are able to provide quality education to children who are Deaf and Hearing Impaired. This paper examines both the challenges as well as what teachers are doing to overcome these.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
866
75429
Meta-Analysis of the Impact of Positive Psychological Capital on Employees Outcomes: The Moderating Role of Tenure
Abstract:
This research examines the effects of positive psychological capital (or PsyCap) on employee&rsquo;s outcomes (satisfaction, commitment, organizational citizenship behavior, innovation behavior and individual creativity). This study conducted a meta-analysis of articles published in the Republic of Korea. As a result, positive psychological capital has a positive effect on the behavior of employees. Heterogeneity was identified among the studies included in the analysis and the context factors were analyzed; the study proposes contextual factors such as team tenure. The moderating effect of team tenure was not statistically significant. The implications were discussed based on the analysis results.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
865
75314
Effects of an Envious Experience on Schadenfreude and Economic Decisions Making
Abstract:
Social emotions are physiological, cognitive and behavioral phenomenon that intervene in the mechanisms of adaptation of individuals and their context. These are mediated by interpersonal relationship and language. Such emotions are subdivided into moral and comparison. The present research emphasizes two comparative emotions: Envy and Schadenfreude. Envy arises when a person lack of quality, possessions or achievements and these are superior in someone else. The Schadenfreude (SC) expresses the pleasure that someone experienced by the misfortune of the other. The relationship between both emotions has been questioned before. Hence there are reports showing that envy increases and modulates SC response. Other documents suggest that envy causes SC response. However, the methodological approach of the topic has been made through self-reports, as well as the hypothetical scenarios. Given this problematic, the neuroscience social framework provides an alternative and demonstrates that social emotions have neurophysiological correlates that can be measured. This is relevant when studying social emotions that are reprehensible like envy or SC are. When tested, the individuals tend to report low ratings due to social desirability. In this study, it was drawn up a proposal in research's protocol and the progress on its own piloting. The aim is to evaluate the effect of feeling envy and Schadenfreude has on the decision-making process, as well as the cooperative behavior in an economic game. To such a degree, it was proposed an experimental model that will provoke to feel envious by performing games against an unknown opponent. The game consists of asking general knowledge questions. The difficulty level in questions and the strangers' facial response have been manipulated in order to generate an ecological comparison framework and be able to arise both envy and SC emotions. During the game, an electromyography registry will be made for two facial muscles that have been associated with the expressiveness of envy and SC emotions. One of the innovations of the current proposal is the measurement of the effect that emotions have on a specific behavior. To that extent, it was evaluated the effect of each condition on the dictators' economic game. The main intention is to evaluate if a social emotion can modulate actions that have been associated with social norms, in the literacy. The result of the evaluation of a pilot model (without electromyography record and self-report) have shown an association between envy and SC, in a way that as the individuals report a greater sense of envy, the greater the chance to experience SC. The results of the economic game show a slight tendency towards profit maximization decisions. It is expected that at the time of using real cash this behavior will be strengthened and also to correlate with the responses of electromyography.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
864
74919
The Effect of Object Presentation on Action Memory in School-Aged Children
Abstract:
Enacted tasks are typically remembered better than when the same task materials are only verbally encoded, a robust finding referred to as the enactment effect. It has been assumed that enactment effect is independent of object presence but the size of enactment effect can be increased by providing objects at study phase in adults. To clarify the issues in children, free recall and cued recall performance of action phrases with or without using real objects were compared in 410 school-aged children from four age groups (8, 10, 12 and 14 years old). In this study, subjects were instructed to learn a series of action phrases under three encoding conditions, participants listened to verbal action phrases (VTs), performed the phrases (SPTs: subject-performed tasks), and observed the experimenter perform the phrases (EPTs: experimenter-performed tasks). Then, free recall and cued recall memory tests were administrated. The results revealed that the real object compared with imaginary objects improved recall performance in SPTs and EPTs, but more so in VTs. It was also found that the object presence was not necessary for the occurrence of the enactment effect but it was changed the size of enactment effect in all age groups. The size of enactment effect was more pronounced for imaginary objects than the real object in both free recall and cued recall memory tests in children. It was discussed that SPTs and EPTs deferentially facilitate item-specific and relation information processing and providing the objects can moderate the processing underlying the encoding conditions.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
863
74831
Perspectives and Outcomes of a Long and Shorter Community Mental Health Program
Abstract:
The development of the 7-week Alberta Happiness Basics program in 2010 was in response to the need for community mental health programming. This provincial wide program aims to increase overall happiness and reduce negative thoughts and feelings through a positive psychology intervention. While the 7-week program has proven effective, a shortened 4-week program has additionally been developed to address client needs. In this study, participants were interviewed to determine if the 4- and 7-week programs had similar success of producing lasting behavior change at 3, 6, and 9 months post-program. A health quality of life (HQOL) measure was also used to compare the two programs and examine patient outcomes. Quantitative and qualitative analysis showed significant improvements in HQOL and sustainable behavior change for both programs. Findings indicate that the shorter, patient-centered program was as effective in increasing happiness and reducing negative thoughts and feelings.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
862
74590
The Efficacy of Motivation Management Training for Students’ Academic Achievement and Self-Concept
Abstract:
This study examined the efficacy of motivation management training for students&rsquo; academic achievement and self-concept. The pretest&ndash;posttest quasi-experimental study used a cluster random sampling method to select subjects for the experimental (20 subjects) and control (20 subjects) groups. posttest was conducted with both groups to determine the effect of the training. An academic achievement and academic self-concept questionnaire (grade point average requirement) was used for the pretest and posttest. The results showed that the motivation management training increased academic self-concept and academic achievement.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
861
74575
Methadone Maintenance Treatment Patients' and Medical Students' Common Trait: Low Mindfulness Trait Associated with High Perceived Stress
Abstract:
Individuals with opioid addiction are characterized as suffering from stress responses disturbance, including the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and autonomic nervous system function. HPA axis is known to be stabilized during methadone maintenance treatment (MMT). Mindfulness (present-oriented, nonjudgmental awareness of cognitions, emotions, perceptions, and habitual behavioral reactions in daily life) counteracts stress. To our knowledge, the relation between perceived stress and mindfulness trait among MMT patients has never been studied. To measure indices of mindfulness and their relation to perceived stress among MMT patients, a cross-sectional random sample of current MMT patients was performed using questionnaires for perceived stress (PSS) and mindfulness trait (FFMQ- yields a total score and individual scores for five internally consistent mindfulness factors: Observing, Describing, Acting with awareness and consciousness, Non-judging the inner experience, Non-reactivity to the inner experience). Two additional groups were studied to serve as reference groups; Medical students that are known to suffer from stress, and Axis II psychiatric diagnosis patients that are known to characterized with poor mindfulness trait. Results: Groups included 41 MMT patients, 27 Axis II patients and 36 medical students. High perceived stressed (PSS≥18) defined among 61% of the MMT patients and 50% of the medical students. Highest mindfulness score observed among non-stressed MMT patients (153.5±17.2) followed by the groups of stressed MMT and non-stressed student (128.9±17.0 and 130.5±13.3 respectively), with the lowest score among stressed students (116.3±17.9) (multivariate analyses, corrected model p (F=14.3) < 0.0005, p (group) < 0.0005, p (stress) < 0.0005, p (interaction) =0.2). Linear inverse correlations were found between perceived stress score and mindfulness score among MMT patients (R=-0.65, p < 0.0005) and students (R=-0.51, p=0.002). Axis II patients had the lowest mindfulness score (103.4±25.3). Conclusion: High prevalence of high perceived stressed which characterized with poor mindfulness trait observed in both MMT patients and medical students, two different population groups. The effectiveness of mindfulness treatment in reducing stress and improve mindfulness trait should be evaluated to improve rehabilitation of MMT patients, and students success.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
860
74451
The Fight against Terrorist Radicalization: A French Perspective
Abstract:
After France became the target of an increasing number of terrorist attacks committed by people who have been declared ‘radicalized’, the issue of radicalization has become the main component of the national Action Plan for the Prevention of terrorism, thus stressing the need to address the roots causes of this peril. Therefore, the aim of this research paper is to provide a preliminary review of Frances’s strategy in the fight against terrorist radicalization in order to point out the challenges posed by this phenomenon while also highlighting its contemporary version and the understanding the results. In this regard, it should not be forgotten that the process of radicalization does not always lead to a terrorist act. To this end, the French legal framework that applies to radicalization coupled with the judicial response provided by the National Court will be analyzed in the light of the need for a balance between the concern for security and the protection of fundamental freedoms.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
859
74157
Prevalence and Effect of Substance Use and Psychological Co-Morbidities in Medical and Dental Students of a Medical University of Nepal
Abstract:
Background: Medical and Dental students are vulnerable to higher levels of Psychological distress than other age matched peers. Many studies reveals that there is high prevalence of psychoactive substance use and Psychiatric co-morbidities among them. Objectives: -To study the prevalence of substance use among medical and dental students of a Medical University. -To study the prevalence of depression and anxiety in medical and dental students of a Medical University. Materials and Method: A cross-sectional descriptive study in which simple random sampling was done. Semi-structured questionnaire, AUDIT for alcohol use, Fagerstrom test for Nicotine dependence, Cannabis screening test (CAST), Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck’s Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were used for the assessment. Results: Total sample size was 588 in which the mean age of participants was 22±2years. Among them the prevalence of alcohol users was 47.75%(281) in which 32%(90) were harmful users. Among 19.55%(115) nicotine users 56.5%(65), 37.4%(43), 6.1%(7) had low, low to moderate and moderate dependence respectively. The prevalence of cannabis users was 9%(53) with 45.3%(24), 18.9%(10) having low and high addiction respectively. Depressive symptoms were recorded in 25.3%(149) out of which 12.6%(74), 6.5%(38), 5.3%(31), 0.5%(3), 0.5%(3) had mild, borderline, moderate, severe and extreme depressive symptoms respectively. Similarly anxiety was recorded among 7.8%(46) students with 42 having moderate and 4 having severe anxiety symptoms. Among them 6.3%(37) had suicidal thoughts and 4(0.7%) of them had suicide attempt in last one year. Statistically significant association was noted with harmful alcohol users, Depression and suicidal attempts. Similar association was noted between Depression and suicide with moderate use of nicotine. Conclusion: There is high prevalence of Psychoactive substance use and psychiatric co-morbidities noted in the studies sample. Statistically significant association was noted with Psychiatric co-morbidities and substance use.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
858
74088
Neuroprotective Effects of Rosmarinic Acid in the MPTP Mouse Model of Parkinson's Disease
Abstract:
Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a natural acid that is found in a variety of herbs, such as rosemary and has multiple biological activities such as antioxidative, anti-inflammatory and antiviral activities. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of RA on dopaminergic system in 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) induced mouse model of Parkinson’s disease (PD). The mice received oral administration of RA before MPTP injection. Results showed that the tyrosine hydroxylase expression in SN reduced and the levels of dopamine and its metabolites in the striatum decreased in MPTP intoxicated PD mice. Pretreatment with RA significantly inhibited these changes. Further studies demonstrated that MPTP treatment increased the iron content, which was counteracted by pre-treatment with RA. In addition, RA could restore the decrease of superoxide dismutase (SOD) induced by MPTP. This study provides evidence that RA could suppress MPTP-induced degeneration of the nigrostriatal dopaminergic system by regulating iron content and the expression of SOD. Thus, RA might be clinically evaluated for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
857
73995
Autonomy and Other Variables Related to the Expression of Love among Saudi Couples
Abstract:
The primary aim of this study was to examine the hypothesis presented by Self Determination theory which suggests that autonomy impacts positively the expression of love. Other hypotheses were also examined which suggest that other variables explain the expression of love, including: dyadic adjustment (dyadic consensus, dyadic satisfaction and dyadic cohesion), couple satisfaction, age, gender, the length of marriage, number of children and attachment styles. The participants were Saudi couples, which provided the opportunity to consider the influence of Saudi culture on the expression of love. A questionnaire was employed to obtain measures of all the relevant variables, including a measure of expression of love that was built from 27 items, constituting verbal, physical and caring features, and a measure of autonomy based on three features: authorship, interest-taking and susceptibility. Data were collected from both members of 34 Saudi couples. Descriptive analysis of both expression of love and autonomy was conducted. Correlation and regression were used to assess the relationships between expression of love and autonomy and other variables. Results indicated that Saudi couples who most often express their love tend to be more than somewhat autonomous. Not much difference was found between husbands and wives in expressing love, although wives were slightly more autonomous than husbands. Expression of love was enhanced by the autonomy of the participants to a greater extent when dyadic satisfaction was controlled, since the latter was negatively correlated with autonomy and had no effect on the expression of love. Basic psychological needs, dyadic consensus and dismissive-avoidant attachment improve the expression of love, while it is decreased by the number of children.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
856
73857
Study on the Role of Positive Emotions in Developmental Psychology
Abstract:
This paper examines the role of positive emotions in human psychology. By understanding Fredrickson and Lyubomirsky et al.’s on positive emotions, one can better understand people’s intuitive understanding, mental health and well-being. Fredrickson asserts that positive emotions create positive affects and personal resources, and Lyubomirsky et al. relate such positive resources to the creation of happiness and personal development. This paper finds that positive emotions play a significant role in the learning process, and they are instrumental in creating a long-lasting repertoire of personal resources and play an essential role in the development of the intuitive understanding of life variables, resilience in coping with life challenges, and ability to build more successful lives.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
855
73648
Distributed Listening in Intensive Care: Nurses’ Collective Alarm Responses Unravelled through Auditory Spatiotemporal Trajectories
Abstract:
Auditory alarms play an integral role in intensive care nurses’ daily work. Most medical devices in the intensive care unit (ICU) are designed to produce alarm sounds in order to make nurses aware of immediate or prospective safety risks. The utilisation of sound as a carrier of crucial patient information is highly dependent on nurses’ presence - both physically and mentally. For ICU nurses, especially the ones who work with stationary alarm devices at the patient bed space, it is a challenge to display ‘appropriate’ alarm responses at all times as they have to navigate with great flexibility in a complex work environment. While being primarily responsible for a small number of allocated patients they are often required to engage with other nurses’ patients, relatives, and colleagues at different locations inside and outside the unit. This work explores the social strategies used by a team of nurses to comprehend and react to the information conveyed by the alarms in the ICU. Two main research questions guide the study: To what extent do alarms from a patient bed space reach the relevant responsible nurse by direct auditory exposure? By which means do responsible nurses get informed about their patients’ alarms when not directly exposed to the alarms? A comprehensive video-ethnographic field study was carried out to capture and evaluate alarm-related events in an ICU. The study involved close collaboration with four nurses who wore eye-level cameras and ear-level binaural audio recorders during several work shifts. At all time the entire unit was monitored by multiple video and audio recorders. From a data set of hundreds of hours of recorded material information about the nurses’ location, social interaction, and alarm exposure at any point in time was coded in a multi-channel replay-interface. The data shows that responsible nurses’ direct exposure and awareness of the alarms of their allocated patients vary significantly depending on work load, social relationships, and the location of the patient’s bed space. Distributed listening is deliberately employed by the nursing team as a social strategy to respond adequately to alarms, but the patterns of information flow prompted by alarm-related events are not uniform. Auditory Spatiotemporal Trajectory (AST) is proposed as a methodological label to designate the integration of temporal, spatial and auditory load information. As a mixed-method metrics it provides tangible evidence of how nurses’ individual alarm-related experiences differ from one another and from stationary points in the ICU. Furthermore, it is used to demonstrate how alarm-related information reaches the individual nurse through principles of social and distributed cognition, and how that information relates to the actual alarm event. Thereby it bridges a long-standing gap in the literature on medical alarm utilisation between, on the one hand, initiatives to measure objective data of the medical sound environment without consideration for any human experience, and, on the other hand, initiatives to study subjective experiences of the medical sound environment without detailed evidence of the objective characteristics of the environment.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
854
73535
Psychosocial Predictors of Brand Loyalty in Pakistani Consumers
Abstract:
The current research focused on determining the factors that determine the brand loyalty in consumers. It was hypothesized that there are certain demographical features that lead the consumers to adhere more towards certain brands. Cross-sectional research design was used. The sample for the current research comprised of participants (N=500) from age group 16 to 55 years. The data was collected through self-constructed demographic questionnaire as well as from a self-constructed Brand Loyalty Questionnaire. Brand Loyalty Questionnaire was adapted after taking permission from researchers. A pilot study was conducted to chalk out all the ambiguities of the questionnaire. The final version was administered on 250 participants. The descriptive and inferential analyses were carried on through SPSS version 24.00 to explore the factors that determine Brand Loyalty. The findings revealed that there is a relationship between brand loyalty and brand loyalty demographics and certain factors emerged as significant predictors of brand loyalty in young and middle aged consumers. The research findings carry strong implications for organizational and consumer psychologists in particular and for professionals in marketing and policy making in general.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):
853
73511
Fitness Apparel and Body Cathexis of Women Consumers When and after Using Virtual Fitting Room
Abstract:
The growth of clothing and technology as a marketing tool has a great influence on online business owners to know how much the characteristics and psychology of consumers in influencing purchasing decisions made by Indonesian women consumers. One of the most important issues faced by Indonesian women consumers is the suitability of clothing. The suitability of clothing can affect the body cathexis, identity, and confidence. So the thematic analysis of clothing fitness and body cathexis of women consumers when and after using virtual fitting room technology to purchase decision is important to do. This research using group method of pre-post treatment and considers how the recruitment technique of snowball sampling, which uses interpersonal relations and connections between people, both includes and excludes individuals into 39 participants' social networks to access specific populations. The results obtained from the study that the results of body scans and photos of virtual fitting room results can be made an intervention in women consumers in assessing their body cathexis objectively in the process of making purchasing decisions. The study also obtained a regression equation Y = 0.830 + 0.290X1 + 0.292X2, showing a positive relationship between suitability of clothing and body cathexis which influenced purchasing decisions on women consumers and after (personal and psychological factors) using virtual fitting room, meaning that all independent variables influence Positive towards the purchasing decision of the women consumers.
Digital Article Identifier (DAI):