Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 46035

Sport and Exercise Sciences

487
80449
Exploring The Physical Activity Behavior And Needs Of Adolescent Girls: A Mixed-Methods Study
Abstract:
Despite the well-established health benefits of physical activity (PA), most adolescents do not meet guidelines recommending 60 minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) each day. Adolescent girls engage in less PA than boys, a difference that increases with age. By the 9th grade, only 20% of girls report meeting recommendations for PA with lower percentages for black and Hispanic girls compared to white girls. The purpose of the study was to explore the physical activity (PA) behavior and needs of adolescent girls. Study aims included assessment of adolescent girls’ PA behavior; facilitators of and barriers to PA, PA needs, and acceptability of the Fitbit-Flex 2 activity tracker. This exploratory study used a qualitative and quantitative approach. The qualitative approach involved a focus group using a semi-structured interview technique. PA was measured using the Fitbit-Flex 2 activity tracker. Steps, distance, and active minutes were recorded for one week. A Fitbit survey was also administered to assess acceptability. SPSS Version 22.0 and ATLAS.ti Version 8 were used to analyze data. Girls in the ninth grade were recruited from a high school in the Midwest (n=11). Girls were excluded if they were involved in sports or other organized PA ≥ 3 days per week, had a health condition that prevented or limited PA, or could not read and write English. Participants received a Fitbit-Flex 2 activity tracker to wear for one week. At the end of the week, girls returned the Fitbit and participated in a focus group. Girls responded to open-ended questions regarding their PA behavior and shared their ideas for future intervention efforts aimed at increasing PA among adolescents. Girls completed a survey assessing their perceptions of the Fitbit. Mean age of the girls was 15.3 years (SD=0.44). On average girls took 6,520 steps and walked 2.73 miles each day. Girls stated their favorite types of PA were walking, riding bike, and running. Most girls stated they did PA for 30 minutes or more at a time once a day or every other day. The top 3 facilitators of PA reported by girls were friends, family, and transportation. The top 3 barriers included health issues, lack of motivation, and weather. Top intervention ideas were community service projects, camps, and using a Fitbit activity tracker. Girls felt the best timing of a PA program would be in the summer. Fitbit survey results showed 100% of girls would use a Fitbit on most days if they had one. Ten (91%) girls wore the Fitbit on all days. Seven (64%) girls used the Fitbit app and all reported they liked it. Findings indicate that PA participation for this sample is consistent with previous studies. Adolescent girls are not meeting recommended daily guidelines for PA. Fitbit activity trackers were positively received by all participants and could be used in future interventions aimed at increasing PA for adolescent girls. PA interventions that take place in the summer with friends and include community service projects may increase PA and be well received by this population.
486
80288
Predictors and Prevention of Sports’ Injuries among Male Professional Footballers in Nigeria
Abstract:
The study assessed the influence of playing field, climatic conditions, rate of exposure to matches, skill level and competition level on the occurrence and severity of football injuries. The prospective outline of the study was as follows: after a baseline examination and measurements were performed ascertaining possible predictors of injury, all players were followed up weekly for one year to register subsequent injuries and complaints. Four hundred and thirty-five out of 455 subjects completed the weekly follow-ups over one year. Multiple regression analysis was employed to analyse the data collected. Results showed that playing field, climatic conditions, rate of exposure to matches skill level and competition level were predictors of injuries among the professional footballer. Playing on natural grass, acclimatization, reduction of physical overload, among others, were strategies postulated for preventing injuries.
485
79361
Effects of Static Stretching Exercises on Flexibility and Sprint Performance in Inactive Healthy Girls
Authors:
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to examine the acute effects of static stretching exercises on the flexibility and sprint performance in 10-12 years old inactive healthy girls. A total of 27 girls were randomly divided into control group (n=15) and stretching group (n=12) who performed static stretching. Sit and reach flexibility and 30-meter sprint pre-tests were performed for both groups. Static stretching exercises were performed three times, 30 sec. practice and 15 sec. rest for each leg only on five muscle by stretching group. The post-tests were performed in five minutes after static stretching exercise. Paired t-test was used to analyze differentiations among the group parameters. According to research results, there is a significant difference between pre-test and post-test flexibility (p < 0.05) and sprint test results (p < 0.01). As a conclusion of the study, static stretching exercises improve flexibility but decrease sprint performance in 10-12 years old inactive healthy girls.
484
79358
Examination of 12-14 Years Old Volleyball Players’ Body Image Levels
Abstract:
The aim of this study is to examine the body image levels of 12-14 years old girls who are playing volleyball. The research group consists of 113 girls who are playing volleyball in Sakarya during the fall season of 2015-2016. Data was collected by means of the 'Body Image Questionnaire' which was originally developed by Secord and Jourard. The consequence of repeated analysis of the reliability of the scale was determined to as '.96'. This study employed statistical calculations as mean, standard deviation and t-test. According to results of this study, it was determined that the mean point of the volleyball players is 158.5 ± 25.1 (minimum=40; maximum=200) and it can be said that the volleyball players’ body image levels are high. There is a significant difference between the underweight (167.4 ± 20.7) and normal weight (151.4 ± 26.2) groups according to their Body Mass Index. Body image levels of underweight group were determined higher than normal weight group.
483
79212
Factors Affecting Leisure Time Physical Activity and Its Relationship with Chronic Diseases
Abstract:
High incidence of inactive lifestyle can lead to development of chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to find out the level of leisure time physical activity in two generations of Estonians and its associations with chronic diseases. Also, aspects that affect physical activity, associations between subjective self estimation and real physical activity level; and differences between work time physical activity and leisure time physical activity were determined. The questionnaire was carried out between October 2012 and November 2013 in four colleges and two universities of Estonia. The students and their parents were involved. Current and school time physical activity was classified into three groups according to the WHO recommendations, respectively: inactive – physical activity 7x60 minutes a week. The average group was defined as the group with optimal or moderate physical activity. Altogether 318 students and 138 parents were enrolled in the study. Half (52.2%) and one third (30.9%) of the responders belonged to the current and school time optimal physical activity groups, respectively. Physical activity in later life was influenced by the level of schooltime activity; however, it seemed to tend toward extremes with ageing. Compared with physical activity in schooltime the responders had two times higher chance to belong either to the inactive group (OR = 1.83; 95% CI 1.39-2.41) or to the very active group (OR = 2.05; 95% CI 1.28-3.31). The greatest motivation for physical activity in more active groups was interest in activity itself, in the inactive group the motivation was accompanied by body weight. The level of optimal work time physical activity favours leisure time activity, but if work demands more physical activity then inactivity in leisure time was observed. Of all the responders 38% had 201 chronic diseases: almost one third of the students and half of their parents. Tere were significantly less chronic diseases in the very active group compared with the inactive group (p< 0.001) and the optimally active group (p = 0.003). The study shows that the level of physical activity in later life is largely influenced by physical activity during school years. Chronic diseases are more frequent in thf e inactive group in compared with the optimally active and very active groups.
482
79027
Eight-Week Exercise for Women: Impact on Anomalies in Width Depth and Environmental Dimension
Abstract:
This study aimed to determine the undesirable hypertrophic anomalies in the body of females and to investigate how they can be affected by the exercise program according to the applied 8 week individual conditions. The research was carried out on 35 women who did not have any regular previous sports practice and had an approximate age of 30 ± 5.0 at the gymnasium because of their asymmetric structure and weight gain of the body. Measurements of width, depth, and periphery were taken from the participants' body, and the exercise protocol was applied for 8 weeks according to the individual measurements in accordance with the obtained measurements. After 8 weeks, the same measurements were applied again. Measurements were made by using ruler and paper tape. The findings were evaluated and differences were analyzed by paired sample t test. According to the findings obtained, ulnae distal proiecturas width averages were 44.77 ± 3.65 and 43.52 ± 3.47 pre- and post-exercise respectively. Bithorachanteric width averages were 29.3 ± 3.12 before exercise and 26.67 ± 3.27 after exercise. Average abdominal widths were observed as 18.64 ± 4.14 (before exercise) and 18.01 ± 6.27 (after exercise). The distances between the malleolus were measured as 16.98 ± 1.62 (before exercise) and 16.70 ± 1.64 (after exercise). The results were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The mean of pre-exercise Externus abdominis circumference was 93.97 ± 8.91, and the mean of post-exercise mean was 90.82 ± 8.24. The results are statistically significant (p < 0.05). In conclusion, findings of the study show that inactivity, daily uncontrolled activities or erroneous postural postures, malnutrition cause some anomalies in the human body. However, with consciously standardized and regular exercises, these abnormalities are reduced by an eight-week exercise protocol in parallel with the expulsion of excess kilos and can be removed when working much longer and fitter, it is proposed to be healthier and more beautiful in appearance.
481
77579
Effect of Pole Weight on Nordic Walking Training
Abstract:
The purpose of study was to investigate the effect of varying pole weights on energy expenditure, upper limb and lower limb muscle activity as electromyogram during Nordic walking (NW). Four healthy men [age=22.5( ± 1.0) years, body mass=61.4 ( ± 3.6) kg, height=170.3 ( ± 4.3) cm] and three healthy women [age=22.7 ( ± 2.9) years, body mass=53.0 ( ± 1.7) kg, height=156.7 ( ± 4.5) cm] participated in the experiments after informed consent. Participants were on treadmill walked without pole (W), with pole (NW) and with weight pole (1kgNW) each 5 minutes with resting recovery periods. Walking speed was 6 km per hours in all trials. Surface EMG data was recorded follows eight muscles; biceps brachii, triceps brachii, trapezius, deltoideus, tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius, rectus femoris and biceps femoris muscles. And heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were measured. Statistical proceeding used t-tests, and the level of significance set at p < 0.05. The result of this experiment, it was increased step lengths with hip joint extension NW rather than W. Also, EMG revealed higher activation of upper limb for almost all NW and 1kgNW tests plus added masses compared to W (p < 0.05). It is therefore likely that NW and 1kgNW as a safe, feasible, and readily available form of physical exercise training, which exerts benefıcial effects in a wide range of people with the healthy.
480
77365
Effects of a Student-Centered Approach to Assessment on Students' Attitudes towards 'Applied Statistics' Course
Authors:
Abstract:
The purpose of this cross sectional study was to investigate the effectiveness of teaching and learning Statistics from a student centered perspective in higher education institutions. Statistics education has emphasized the application of tangible and interesting examples in order to motivate students learning about statistical concepts. Participants in this study were 112 bachelor students enrolled in the ‘Applied Statistics’ course in Sports University of Tirana. Experimental group students received a student-centered teaching approach; Control group students received an instructor-centered teaching approach. This study found student-centered approach student group had statistically significantly higher assessments scores (52.1 ± 18.9) at the end of the evaluation compared to instructor-centered approach student group (61.8 ± 16.4), (t (108) = 2.848, p = 0.005). Results concluded that student-centered perspective can improve student positive attitude to statistical methods and to motivate project work. Therefore, findings of this study may be very useful to the higher education institutions to establish their learning strategies especially for courses related to Statistics.
479
77297
Haematological Responses on Amateur Cycling Stages Race
Abstract:
multiple stage bicycle races require high physiological loads from professional cyclists. Such demands can lead to immunosuppression and health problems. However, in this type of competition, little is known about its physiological effects on amateur athletes, who generally receive less medical support. Thus, this study analyzes the hematological effects of a multiple stage bicycle race on amateur cyclists. Seven Brazilian national amateur cyclists (34 ± 4.21 years) underwent a laboratory test to evaluate VO2Max (69.89 ± 7.43 ml⋅kg-1⋅min-1). Six days later, these volunteers raced in the Tour of Goiás, participating in five races in four days (435 km) of competition. Arterial blood samples were collected one day before and one day after the competition. The Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests were used to evaluate the data distribution and Wilcoxon to compare the two moments (p < 0.05) of data collection. The results show: Red cells ↓ 7.8% (5.1 ± 0.28 vs 4.7 ± 0.37 106 / mm 3, p = 0.01); Hemoglobin ↓ 7.9% (15.1 ± 0.31 vs 13.9 ± 0.27 g / dL, p = 0.01); Leukocytes ↑ 9.5% (4946 ± 553 versus 5416 ± 1075 / mm 3, p = 0.17); Platelets ↓ 7.0% (200.2 ± 51.5 vs 186.1 ± 39.5 / mm 3, p = 0.01); LDH ↑ 11% (164.4 ± 28.5 vs 182.5 ± 20.5 U / L, p = 0.17); CK ↑ 13.5% (290.7 ± 206.1 vs 330.1 ± 90.5 U / L, p = 0.39); CK-MB ↑ 2% (15.7 ± 3.9 vs. 20.1 ± 2.9 U / L, p = 0.06); Cortizol ↓ 13.5% (12.1 ± 2.4 vs 9.9 ± 1.9 μg / dL, p = 0.01); Total testosterone ↓ 7% (453.6 ± 120.1 vs 421.7 ± 74.3 ng / dL, p = 0.12); IGF-1 ↓ 15.1% (213.8 ± 18.8 vs 181.5 ± 34.7 ng / mL, p = 0.04). This means that there was significant reductions in O2 allocation / transport capacities, vascular injury disruption, and a fortuitous reduction of muscle skeletal anabolism along with maintenance and / or slight elevation of immune function, glucose and lipid energy and myocardial damage. Therefore, the results suggest that no abnormal health effect was identified among the athletes after participating in the Tour de Goiás.
478
77112
Educational Sport and Quality of Life for Children and Teenagers from Brazilian Northeast
Abstract:
The use of sport as an integration mean is a very important tool regarding the social involvement of children and teenagers in a vulnerability situation. This study aims to report the experiences of a multidisciplinary program that intends to improve the quality of life of children and teenagers in Fortaleza, in the Northeast of Brazil. More than 400 children and teenagers aging 11 and 16 years participated in this study. Poor communities experience many particular difficulties in the urban centers such as violence, poor housing conditions, unemployment, lack in health care and deficient physical education in school. Physical education, physiotherapy, odontology, medicine and pharmacy students are responsible for the activities in the project supervised by a general coordinator and a counselor teacher of each academic unit. There are classes about team sports like basketball and soccer. Lectures about sexual behavior and sexually transmitted diseases are ministered beside the ones about oral health education, basic life support education, first aids, use and care with pharmaceuticals and orientations about healthy nutrition. In order to get the children’s family closer, monthly informative lectures are ministered. There is also the concern about reflecting the actions and producing academic paperwork such as graduation final projects and books. The number of participants has oscillated lately, and one of the causes is the lack of practicing physical activities and sports regularly. However, 250 teenagers have participated regularly for at least two years. These teenagers have shown a healthier lifestyle and a better physical fitness profile. The resources for maintaining the project come from the Pro-Reitoria of Extension, Federal University of Ceara, as well as from the PROEXT/MEC, Federal Government. Actions of this nature need to be done thinking for long periods so the effects results can become effective. Public and private investments are needed due to low socioeconomic families who are most vulnerable and have fewer opportunities to enhance to health prevention services.
477
77098
Viscoelastic Behavior of Human Bone Tissue under Nanoindentation Tests
Abstract:
Cancellous bone is a porous composite of a hierarchical structure and anisotropic properties. The biological tissue is considered to be a viscoelastic material, but many studies based on a nanoindentation method have focused on their elasticity and microhardness. However, the response of many organic materials depends not only on the load magnitude, but also on its duration and time course. Depth Sensing Indentation (DSI) technique has been used for examination of creep in polymers, metals and composites. In the indentation tests on biological samples, the mechanical properties are most frequently determined for animal tissues (of an ox, a monkey, a pig, a rat, a mouse, a bovine). However, there are rare reports of studies of the bone viscoelastic properties on microstructural level. Various rheological models were used to describe the viscoelastic behaviours of bone, identified in the indentation process (e. g Burgers model, linear model, two-dashpot Kelvin model, Maxwell-Voigt model). The goal of the study was to determine the influence of creep effect on the mechanical properties of human cancellous bone in indentation tests. The aim of this research was also the assessment of the material properties of bone structures, having in mind the energy aspects of the curve (penetrator loading-depth) obtained in the loading/unloading cycle. There was considered how the different holding times affected the results within trabecular bone.As a result, indentation creep (CIT), hardness (HM, HIT, HV) and elasticity are obtained. Human trabecular bone samples (n=21; mean age 63±15yrs) from the femoral heads replaced during hip alloplasty were removed and drained from alcohol of 1h before the experiment. The indentation process was conducted using CSM Microhardness Tester equipped with Vickers indenter. Each sample was indented 35 times (7 times for 5 different hold times: t1=0.1s, t2=1s, t3=10s, t4=100s and t5=1000s). The indenter was advanced at a rate of 10mN/s to 500mN. There was used Oliver-Pharr method in calculation process. The increase of hold time is associated with the decrease of hardness parameters (HIT(t1)=418±34 MPa, HIT(t2)=390±50 MPa, HIT(t3)= 313±54 MPa, HIT(t4)=305±54 MPa, HIT(t5)=276±90 MPa) and elasticity (EIT(t1)=7.7±1.2 GPa, EIT(t2)=8.0±1.5 GPa, EIT(t3)=7.0±0.9 GPa, EIT(t4)=7.2±0.9 GPa, EIT(t5)=6.2±1.8 GPa) as well as with the increase of the elastic (Welastic(t1)=4.11∙10-7±4.2∙10-8Nm, Welastic(t2)= 4.12∙10-7±6.4∙10-8 Nm, Welastic(t3)=4.71∙10-7±6.0∙10-9 Nm, Welastic(t4)= 4.33∙10-7±5.5∙10-9Nm, Welastic(t5)=5.11∙10-7±7.4∙10-8Nm) and inelastic (Winelastic(t1)=1.05∙10-6±1.2∙10-7 Nm, Winelastic(t2) =1.07∙10-6±7.6∙10-8 Nm, Winelastic(t3)=1.26∙10-6±1.9∙10-7Nm, Winelastic(t4)=1.56∙10-6± 1.9∙10-7 Nm, Winelastic(t5)=1.67∙10-6±2.6∙10-7)) reaction of materials. The indentation creep increased logarithmically (R2=0.901) with increasing hold time: CIT(t1) = 0.08±0.01%, CIT(t2) = 0.7±0.1%, CIT(t3) = 3.7±0.3%, CIT(t4) = 12.2±1.5%, CIT(t5) = 13.5±3.8%. The pronounced impact of creep effect on the mechanical properties of human cancellous bone was observed in experimental studies. While the description elastic-inelastic, and thus the Oliver-Pharr method for data analysis, may apply in few limited cases, most biological tissues do not exhibit elastic-inelastic indentation responses. Viscoelastic properties of tissues may play a significant role in remodelling. The aspect is still under an analysis and numerical simulations. Acknowledgements: The presented results are part of the research project founded by National Science Centre (NCN), Poland, no.2014/15/B/ST7/03244.
476
76983
A Mixed-Integer Nonlinear Program to Optimally Pace and Fuel Ultramarathons
Abstract:
The purpose of this research is to determine the pacing and nutrition strategies which minimize completion time and carbohydrate intake for athletes competing in ultramarathon races. The model formulation consists of a two-phase optimization. The first-phase mixed-integer nonlinear program (MINLP) determines the minimum completion time subject to the altitude, terrain, and distance of the race, as well as the mass and cardiovascular fitness of the athlete. The second-phase MINLP determines the minimum total carbohydrate intake required for the athlete to achieve the completion time prescribed by the first phase, subject to the flow of carbohydrates through the stomach, liver, and muscles. Consequently, the second phase model provides the optimal pacing and nutrition strategies for a particular athlete for each kilometer of a particular race. Validation of the model results over a wide range of athlete parameters against completion times for real competitive events suggests strong agreement. Additionally, the kilometer-by-kilometer pacing and nutrition strategies, the model prescribes for a particular athlete suggest unconventional approaches could result in lower completion times. Thus, the MINLP provides prescriptive guidance that athletes can leverage when developing pacing and nutrition strategies prior to competing in ultramarathon races. Given the highly-variable topographical characteristics common to many ultramarathon courses and the potential inexperience of many athletes with such courses, the model provides valuable insight to competitors who might otherwise fail to complete the event due to exhaustion or carbohydrate depletion.
475
76964
A Twelve-Week Intervention Programme to Improve the Gross Motor Skills of Selected Children Diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disorder
Abstract:
Neuro-typical children develop the motor skills necessary to play, do schoolwork and interact with others. However, this is not observed in children who have learning or behavioural problems. Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) are often referred to as clumsy because their body parts do not work well together in a sequence. Physical Activity (PA) has shown to be beneficial to the general population, therefore, providing children with ASD opportunities to take part in PA programmes, could prove to be beneficial in many ways and should be investigated. The purpose of this study was to design a specialised group intervention programme, to attempt to improve gross motor skills of selected children diagnosed with ASD between the ages of eight and 13 years. A government school for ASD learners was recruited to take part in this study, and a sample of convenience (N=7) was selected. Children in the experimental group (n=4) participated in a 12-week group intervention programme twice per week, while the control group continued with their normal daily routine. The Movement Assessment Battery for Children-Second Edition (MABC-2), was administered pre- and post-test to determine the children’s gross motor proficiency and to determine if the group intervention programme had an effect on the gross motor skills of the experimental group. Statistically significant improvements were observed in total motor skill proficiency (p < 0.05), of the experimental group. These results demonstrate the importance of gross motor skills interventions for children diagnosed with ASD. Future research should include more participants to ensure that the results can be generalised.
474
76962
Influence of Facilities, Equipment and Nutrition on Athletes Performance at the West African Universities Games Competitions
Abstract:
The research was undertaken to examine the influence of sports facilities, equipment, and nutrition on athletes' performance in West-Africa Universities Games (WAUG) with the objectives of finding the areas of success and failure. Relevant literatures were reviewed. The survey research design was adopted for the study. Availability of facilities, equipment and nutrition questionnaire (AFENQ) was administered on hundred (n-100) participants - athletes from five Nigerian Universities from South-West, Nigeria which included Federal University of Technology, Akure, Adekunle Ajasin University, Akungba-Akoko, Lagos State University, Oyo, Olabisi Onabanjo University Ago-Awoye and Ekiti State University, Ado Ekiti. Nigeria. The tests re-test reliability value obtained from the instrument using Pearson Product Moment Correlation co-efficient of 0.86 was used to analyze the result. While the questionnaire collected was subjected to influential descriptive statistics of multiple regression to analyse the data. The results of the data showed that facilities, equipment, and nutrition variables when taken together effectively predict the performance of the athletes during WAUG competitions. The implication is that sports organizers should provide sports resources for the improved performance of the athletes, and that, university managers should employ nutritionist to plan and prepare food for the university athletes before and after major competitions.
473
76950
Training Volume and Myoelectric Responses of Lower Body Muscles with Differing Foam Rolling Periods
Abstract:
Foam rolling is a practice that has increased in popularity before and after strength training. The purpose of this study was to compare the acute effects of different foam rolling periods for the lower body muscles on subsequent performance (total repetitions and training volume), myoelectric activity and rating of perceived exertion in trained men. Fourteen trained men (26.2 ± 3.2 years, 178 ± 0.04 cm height, 82.2 ± 10 kg weight and body mass index 25.9 ± 3.3kg/m2) volunteered for this study. Four repetition maximum (4-RM) loads were determined for hexagonal bar deadlift and 45º angled leg press during test and retest sessions over two nonconsecutive days. Five experimental protocols were applied in a randomized design, which included: a traditional protocol (control)—a resistance training session without prior foam rolling; or resistance training sessions performed following one (P1), two (P2), three (P3), or four (P4) sets of 30 sec. foam rolling for the lower extremity musculature. Subjects were asked to roll over the medial and lateral aspects of each muscle group with as much pressure as possible. All foam rolling was completed at a cadence of 50 bpm. These procedures were performed on both sides unilaterally as described below. Quadriceps: between the apex of the patella and the ASIS; Hamstring: between the gluteal fold and popliteal fossa; Triceps surae: between popliteal fossa and calcaneus tendon. The resistance training consisted of five sets with 4-RM loads and two-minute rest intervals between sets, and a four-minute rest interval between the hexagonal bar deadlift and the 45º angled leg press. The number of repetitions completed, the myoelectric activity of vastus lateralis (VL), vastus medialis oblique (VMO), semitendinosus (SM) and medial gastrocnemius (GM) were recorded, as well as the rating of perceived exertion for each protocol. There were no differences between the protocols in the total repetitions for the hexagonal bar deadlift (Control - 16.2 ± 5.9; P1 - 16.9 ± 5.5; P2 - 19.2 ± 5.7; P3 - 19.4 ± 5.2; P4 - 17.2 ± 8.2) (p > 0.05) and 45º angled leg press (Control - 23.3 ± 9.7; P1 - 25.9 ± 9.5; P2 - 29.1 ± 13.8; P3 - 28.0 ± 11.7; P4 - 30.2 ± 11.2) exercises. Similar results between protocols were also noted for myoelectric activity (p > 0.05) and rating of perceived exertion (p > 0.05). Therefore, the results of the present study indicated no deleterious effects on performance, myoelectric activity and rating of perceived exertion responses during lower body resistance training.
472
76697
Percentage Contribution of Lower Limb Moments to Vertical Ground Reaction Force in Normal Walking
Abstract:
Patients suffering from gait disturbances are referred by having muscle group dysfunctions. There is a need for more studies investigating the contribution of muscle moments of the lower limb to the vertical ground reaction force using 3D gait analysis system. The purpose of this study was to investigate how the hip, knee and ankle moments in the sagittal plane contribute to the vertical ground reaction force in healthy subjects during normal speed of walking. Forty healthy male individuals volunteered to participate in this study. They were filmed using six high speed (120 Hz) Pro-Reflex Infrared cameras (Qualisys) while walking on an AMTI force platform. The data collected were the percentage contribution of the moments of the hip, knee and ankle joints in the sagittal plane at the instant of occurrence of the first peak, second peak, and the trough of the vertical ground reaction force. The results revealed that at the first peak of the ground reaction force (loading response), the highest contribution was generated from the knee extension moment, followed by the hip extension moment. Knee flexion and ankle plantar flexion moments produced high contribution to the trough of the ground reaction force (midstance) with approximately equal values. The second peak of the ground reaction force was mainly produced by the ankle plantar flexion moment. Conclusion: Hip and knee flexion and extension moments and ankle plantar flexion moment play important roles in the supporting phase of normal walking.
471
76590
Reliability of Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 Age Band 3 Using Multiple Testers
Abstract:
Introduction: Reliability within and between testers is vital to ensure the accuracy of any motor assessment instrument. However, reliability checks of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children-2 (MABC-2) age band 3 using multiple testers assigned to different MABC-2 tasks for the same group of participants are uncommon. Multiple testers were not stated as a choice in the MABC-2 manual. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the inter- and intra-tester reliability for using multiple testers to administer the test protocols of MABC-2 age band 3. Methods: Thirty volunteered adolescents (n = 30; 15 males, 15 females; age range: 13 – 16 years) performed the eight tasks in a randomised sequence at three different test stations for the MABC-2 task components (Manual Dexterity, Aiming and Catching, Balance). Ethics approval and parental consent were obtained. The participants were videotaped while performing the test protocols of MABC-2 age band 3. Five testers were involved in the data collection process. They were Sports Science graduating students doing their final year project and were supervised by experienced motor assessor. Inter- and intra-tester reliability checks using intra-class coefficient (ICC) were carried out using the videotaped data. Results: The inter-tester reliability between the five testers for the eight tasks ranged from rᵢcc = 0.705 to rᵢcc = 0.995. This suggests that the average agreement between them was considered good to excellent. With the exception of one tester who had rᵢcc = 0.687 for one of the eight tasks (i.e. zip-zap hopping), the intra-tester reliability within each tester ranged from rᵢcc = 0.728 to rᵢcc = 1.000, and this also suggested good to excellent consistency within testers. Discussion: The use of multiple testers with good intra-tester reliability for different test stations is feasible. This method allows several participants to be assessed concurrently at different test stations and saves overall data collection time. Therefore, it is recommended that the administering of MABC-2 with multiple testers should be extended to other age bands ensuring the feasibility of such method for other age bands.
470
76543
A Qualitative Exploration of How Brazilian Immigrant Mothers Living in the United States Obtain Information about Physical Activity and Screen-Time for Their Young Children
Abstract:
Background: Racial/ethnic minority children of low-income immigrant families remain at increased risk of obesity. Consistent with high rates of childhood obesity among racial/ethnic minority children are high rates of physical inactivity and increased levels of sedentary behaviors (e.g., TV and other screen viewing). Brazilians comprise a fast-growing immigrant population group in the US, yet little research has focused on the health issues affecting Brazilian immigrant children. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore how Brazilian-born immigrant mothers living in the United States obtain information about physical activity and screen-time for their young children. Methods: Qualitative research including focus groups with Brazilian immigrant mothers of preschool-age children living in the U.S. Results: Results revealed that Brazilian immigrant mothers obtain information on young children’s physical activity and screen-time from a variety of sources including interpersonal communication, television and magazines, government health care programs (WIC program) and professionals (e.g., nurses and pediatricians). A noteworthy finding is the significant role of foreign information sources (Brazilian TV shows and magazines) on mothers’ access to information about these early behaviors. Future research is needed to quantify and better understanding Brazilian parents’ access to accurate and sound information related to young children’s physical activity and screen-viewing behaviors. Conclusions: To our knowledge, no existing research has examined how Brazilian immigrant mothers living in the United States obtain information about these behaviors. This information is crucial for the design of culturally appropriate early childhood obesity prevention interventions tailored to the specific needs of this ethnic group.
469
76525
The Effect of Compound Exercises Emphasizing Local and Global Stability on the Dynamic Balance in Elite Taekwondo Athletes
Abstract:
Few studies have been conducted about the effects of compound exercises emphasizing local stability and global stabilization subsystems on the performance of athletes. The present research aimed to study the effect of 6 weeks of compound exercises emphasizing local and global stability on the dynamic balance of elite male Taekwondo athletes. Twenty-seven elite male Taekwondo athletes (with a mean age, mass, and height of 24.4 ± 4.9 years, 75.7 ± 15.1kg, and 181.4 ± 7.8 cm, respectively) were assigned to two groups of control (n=12) and exercise (n=15). 6 weeks of compound exercises in 2 local and global phases. The first phase included activation exercises which were done separately and locally for 3 weeks. Then, integrative exercises specific to the global stabilization subsystems (longitudinal-depth, posterior oblique and anterior, and lateral) was carried out for next 3 weeks. The dynamic balance of subjects was measured in the pre-test and post-test using the Y Balance Test (YBT). After 6 weeks of compound exercises, scores of the YBT in the exercise group showed a significant improvement in all three anterior (p=0.035), posterolateral (p=0.017) and medial (p=0.001) directions in the post-test compared to the control group (p ≤ 0.05 for all comparisons). The findings of the present study suggested that compound exercises focusing on muscle as separate units and then as interdependent chains (muscular subsystems) can significantly increase YBT on elite male Taekwondo athletes in all three directions.
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76070
Improving Emotional and Social Resilience in Young People: Examining the Effectiveness of a Football Based Mental Health Intervention
Abstract:
Mental health in the young is growing area of concern. Depression, low self-esteem and anxiety are common mental health issues among adolescents. The costs of poor mental health are immense. Suicide is the largest reason for death among males under 25 years. Sport interventions are argued to have the potential to address social issues faced by young people. Mental health and well-being has become a more overt agenda within UK sporting policy recently. This is particularly evidenced through the publication of the 2016-2021 Sport England Strategy: Towards an Active Nation, where specific reference is made to developing a better understanding of the role sport can play in promoting mental well-being. This focus is referred to in the documentation as ‘welcomed’ and ‘ambitious’ and as such, relevant insight is essential to ensure that this outcome is met. The research project collected data for a new sport based mental health intervention called ‘Upfront’ which is being led by a mental health organization and a charity branch of a Premier League football club. The Upfront project used football as a vehicle to promote mental wellbeing and provided a toolkit to help young people (aged 7-13) develop emotional and social resilience and coping mechanisms. The research aimed to assess the impact of the Upfront scheme and offer recommendations about how it could be improved for year 2 delivery.Each block of delivery of the Upfront project was 10 weeks. Validated well-being scales were used to measure thoughts and feelings of the participants in weeks 1, 5 and 10. In addition, qualitative research methods were drawn upon in order to develop an in-depth understanding of the impact of the project, particularly in terms of the relevance of the football brand in engaging young people in a well-being program and the impact the mental health ‘toolkit’ has had on attitudes and behavior both in a school and home environment. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with young people, program leaders, teachers and parents in order to examine impact from different perspectives. The results from the well-being scales showed a strong trend of positive well-being, this was consistent between weeks 5 and 10 showing that the impact was made by half way into and sustained.A directed coding approach was used to analyze the interviews. The 5 ways to wellbeing model was drawn upon as a coding framework to establish whether the project had a positive impact and whether young people felt better equipped for future challenges that they might face. Responses were coded into the following themes to reflect the desired outcomes of the project. The themes were as follows: connect; be active; take notice; keep learning and give. ‘Connect’ and ‘take notice’ were particularly strong themes and frequently linked to issues such as forming positive relationships, awareness of their own thoughts and actions, challenging bullying and promoting safe online connections. The results indicated that the scheme had impacted positively on the young people and their social and emotional resilience. The data from year 1 provided feedback on areas for development for year 2.
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75963
The Effects of Mountain Biking as Psychomotor Instrument in Physical Education: Balance's Evaluation
Abstract:
The school physical education is going through several changes over the years, and diversification of its content from specific interests is one of the reasons for these changes, soon, the formality in education do not have to stay out, but needs to open up the possibilities offered by the world, so the mountain bike, an adventure sport, offers several opportunities for intervention. Its application in the school allows diverse interventions in front of the psychomotor development, besides opening possibilities for other contents, respecting the previous experiences of the students in their common environment. The choice of theme was due to affinity with the practice and experience of the mountain bike at different levels. Both competitive as recreational, professional standard and amateur, focus as principle the bases of the cycling, coupled with the inclusion in the Centre for Studies in Management of Sport and Leisure and of the Southwest Bahia State University and the preview of the modality's potential to help the children’s psychomotor development. The goal of this research was to demonstrate like a pilot project the effects of the mountain bike as psychomotor instrument in physical education at one of the psychomotor valences, balance, evaluating immobility, static balance and dynamic balance. The methodology used Fonseca’s Psychomotor Battery in 10 students (n=10) of a Brazilian public primary’s school, with ages between 9 and 11 years old to use the Mountain Biking contents. The balance’s skills dichotomized in Regular and Good. Regarding the variable Immobility, in the initial test, regardless of gender, 70% (n = 7) were considered Regular. After four months of activity, the Good profile, which had only 30% (n = 3) of the sample, evolved to 60% (n = 6). As in static and dynamic balance there was an increase of 30% (n = 3) and 50% (n = 5) respectively for Good. Between genders, female evolution was better for Good in Immobility and in Static Equilibrium. Already the male evolution was better observed in the Dynamic Equilibrium, with 66.7% (n = 4) for Good. Respecting the particularities of the motor development, an indication of the positive effects of the MTB for the evolution in the balance perceived, necessitating studies with greater sampling.
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75795
Prevalence of the Risk Factors for Cardio-Metabolic Disease among Fire-Fighters in the Western Cape Province of South Africa
Abstract:
Cardio-metabolic disease risks factor have reached an epidemic, with many people at risk of premature disability and death. There are insufficient data regarding the prevalence of the risk factors for cardio-metabolic diseases among fire fighters in the Western Cape province of South Africa. The purpose of this study was to examine the prevalence of cardio-metabolic risks factors among South African fire fighters in the Western Cape Province; determine relationships between the BMI and risks factor for cardio-metabolic diseases as well as determining which of the cardio-metabolic disease risk factors is with the highest prediction power among the fire fighters in the Western Cape Province. Height, weight, and circumference of waist and hip were assessed in line with the practice of the International Society for the Advancement of Kinanthropmetry (ISAK) (2006). Physiological measurements of blood pressure, fasting blood glucose, and cholesterol were also assessed. Of the total number of the fire-fighters, 42.5% were obese, 17.4% were overweight, 39.7% had normal BMI, while only 0.5% were underweight. The larger percentage (45.7%) of the participants were systolically pre-hypertensive while 14.2% were hypertensive. Furthermore, almost forty percent (39.3%) were pre-diabetic, 18.3 % were diabetic, while only 1.4% were having blood sugar which was below normal level. In terms of the cholesterol levels, 45.7% were normal, 38.8% were already at the borderline high while 15.5% were high. The majority (51.1%) of the participant reported non-participation in physical activity while only 49.9% participates in physical activity. there was a statistically significant relationship between the BMI and WHR (r= 0.296; p > 0.01), SBP (r= 0.346; p > 0.01), and DBP (r= 0.330; p > 0.01) of the participants. Also, BMI significantly positively correlated with glucose (r= 0.247; p > 0.01), and cholesterol (r= 0.156; p < 0.05). The BMI was also found to be significantly positively correlated with the circumference of the waist and hip (r= 0.699; p > 0.01) and SBP (r= 0.711; p > 0.01) respectively. In the backward regression model analysis, the model with bodyweight, WHR, and SBP (model 4) was the best of all possible models since it had the highest value of adjusted R square which represents the amount of variance (35%) in the BMI predicted by the model. Bodyweight, WHR, and SBP were significant predictors of cardio-metabolic disease risks factor among fire fighters in the Western Cape Province, South Africa.
465
75411
Sports and Beauty: Translating the History of Aesthetics into Today’s World of Sports
Abstract:
An inductive aesthetic approach to sports yields critical and meaningful insight into sports philosophy, sports governance, and sports history. Critical reflection will always remain key to the analysis of the past, present and future of sporting institutions, but a philosophically imaginative method of induction allows certain salient connections to be articulated and potentially implemented between various sporting entities who exist as individuals, particularly between practitioner, owner/manager and observer (‘fan’ or interested party.) By honing in on the concept of beauty in sports, the primary reason for viewership, consumption or engagement with sports comes into focus as an aesthetic concept. While always a subjective or shadowy articulation, an aesthetic state often remains unnecessarily unrevealed due to claims about unconscious states, entire rhetorics (or counter-rhetorics) about beauty, and Misalliance among sporting development systems. Since aesthetics require an inductive state of subjectivity in determining various levels of beauty (which the so-called world of sports often thinks of as morality), the audience for aesthetics in sports also needs an inductive explanation of the concept in which one comes to see a process of viewership at work within themselves that is revealed by a simple need parried outward by a complex process of engagement. The potentially redemptive moment of revelation regarding the beauty of sports and the athlete within these systems creates in the viewer a new space of consciousness where the world of sports discovers some of its longed-for transparency, openness, parity and equity upon which its immediate future depends.
464
75222
The Effect of Eight-Week Medium Intensity Interval Training and Curcumin Intake on ICMA-1 and VCAM-1 Levels in Menopausal Fat Rats
Abstract:
Background and Purpose: Obesity is an increasing factor in cardiovascular disease and serum levels of cellular adhesion molecule. It plays an important role in predicting risk for coronary artery disease. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of eight weeks moderate intensity interval training and curcumin intake on ICAM-1 & VCAM-1 levels of menopausal fat rats. Materials and methods: in this study, 28 Wistar Menopausal fat rats aged 6-8 weeks with an average weight of 250-300 (gr) were randomly divided into four groups: control, curcumin supplement, moderate intensity interval training and moderate intensity interval training + curcumin supplement. (7 rats each group). The training program was planned as 8 weeks and 3 sessions per week. Each session consisted of 10 one-min sets with 50 percent intensity and the 2-minutes interval between sets in the first week. Subjects started with 14 meters per minute, and 2 (m/min) was added to increase their speed weekly until the speed of 28 (m/min) in the 8th week. Blood samples were taken 48 hours after the last training session, and ICAM-1 A and VCAM-1 levels were measured. SPSS software, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson correlation coefficient were used to assess the results. Results: The results showed that eight weeks of training and taking curcumin had significant effects on ICAM-1 levels of the rats (p ≤ 0.05). However, it had no significant effect on VCAM-1 levels in menopausal obese rates (p ≥ 0.05). There was no significant correlation between the levels of ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 in eight weeks training and taking curcumin. Conclusion: Implementation of moderate intensity interval training and the use of curcumin decreased ICAM-1 significantly.
463
75181
The Effects of Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation on Brain Oxygenation and Pleasure during Exercise
Abstract:
The prefrontal cortex is involved in the reward system and the insular cortex integrates the afferent inputs arriving from the body’ systems and turns into feelings. Therefore, modulating neuronal activity in these regions may change individuals’ perception in a given situation such as exercise. We tested whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) change cerebral oxygenation and pleasure during exercise. Fourteen volunteer healthy adult men were assessed into five different sessions. First, subjects underwent to a maximum incremental test on a cycle ergometer. Then, subjects were randomly assigned to a transcranial direct current stimulation (2mA for 15 min) intervention in a cross over design in four different conditions: anode and cathode electrodes on T3 and Fp2 targeting the insular cortex, and Fpz and F4 targeting prefrontal cortex, respectively; and their respective sham. These sessions were followed by 30 min of moderate intensity exercise. Brain oxygenation was measured in prefrontal cortex with a near infrared spectroscopy. Perceived exertion and pleasure were also measured during exercise. The asymmetry in prefrontal cortex oxygenation before the stimulation decreased only when it was applied over this region which did not occur after insular cortex or sham stimulation. Furthermore, pleasure was maintained during exercise only after prefrontal cortex stimulation (P > 0.7), while there was a decrease throughout exercise (P < 0.03) during the other conditions. We conclude that tDCS over the prefrontal cortex changes brain oxygenation in ventromedial prefrontal cortex and maintains perceived pleasure during exercise. Therefore, this technique might be used to enhance effective responses related to exercise.
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75064
Microstructural Mechanical Properties of Human Trabecular Bone Based on Nanoindentation Test
Abstract:
Depth-sensing indentation (DSI) or nanoindentation is becoming a more and more popular method of measuring mechanical properties of various materials and tissues at a micro-scale. This technique allows measurements without complicated sample preparation procedures which makes this method very useful. As a result of measurement force and displacement of the intender are obtained. It is also possible to determine three measures of hardness i.e. Martens hardness (HM), nanohardness (HIT), Vickers hardness (HV) and Young modulus EIT. In this work trabecular bone mechanical properties were investigated. The bone samples were harvested from human femoral heads during hip replacement surgery. Patients were of different age, sexes and stages of tissue degeneration caused by osteoarthritis. The specimens were divided into three groups. Each group contained samples harvested from patients of different range of age. All samples were investigated with the same measurement conditions. The maximum load was Pmax=500 mN and the loading rate was 500 mN/min. The tests were held without hold at the peak force. The tests were conducted with indenter Vickers tip and spherical tip of the diameter 0.2 mm. Each trabecular bone sample was tested 7 times in a close area of the same trabecula. The measured loading P as a function of indentation depth allowed to obtain hysteresis loop and HM, HIT, HV, EIT. Results for arbitrarily chosen sample are HM=289.95 ± 42.31 MPa, HIT=430.75 ± 45.37 MPa, HV=40.66 ± 4.28 Vickers, EIT=7.37 ± 1.84 GPa for Vickers tip and HM=115.19 ± 15.03 MPa, HIT=165.80 ± 19.30 MPa, HV=16.90 ± 1.97 Vickers, EIT=5.30 ± 1.31 GPa for spherical tip. Results of nanoindentation tests show that this method is very useful and is perfect for obtaining mechanical properties of trabecular bone. Estimated values of elastic modulus are similar. The differences between hardness are significant but it is a result of using two different types of tips. However, it has to be emphasised that the differences in the values of elastic modulus and hardness result from different testing protocols, anisotropy and asymmetry of the micro-samples and the hydration of bone.
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75061
The Impact of Protein Content on Athletes' Body Composition
Abstract:
Several factors contribute to success in sport and diet is a key component. Athletes’ dietary requirements depend on several aspects, including sport, goals and environment. The importance of individualized dietary advice has been increasingly recognized, including day-to-day dietary advice and specific advice before, during, and after training and/or competition. Evidence-based sport nutrition guidelines underline the importance of macro- and micro-nutrients balance and timing. Moreover, they deeply explore the connection between nutrition, exercise and well-being forming a crucial part of any athlete’s competitive and training program. Normally, a high content of proteins is commonly found in athletes’ diet and carbohydrate intake is not enough or not well planned. This occurs above all in resistance training athletes. In this regarding, the aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of different protein and carbohydrate diet content on body composition and sport performance adaptation. Participants, male aged between 18 and 50, physically active (resistance training), were selected depending on their interest and their informed consent to be involved in resistance training fitness program with also weighed food plan and no utilization of food supplements. The sample size of the study was 30. Subjects were divided as study group (n=16) and control group (n=14). For a period of 4 months, both group were subjected to resistance training fitness program and study group follow a specific diet. Macronutrients were chosen and fixed based on Mediterranean diet and ISSN guidelines for sports nutrition. In this regard, the protein requirement has been fixed between 1.6-1.7 g/kg/d taking also into account the biological value. Body composition were evaluated trough anthropometric measurement (weight, height, body circumferences and skinfolds) and Bioimpedence Analysis. Physical strength and training status of individuals were evaluated through the One Repetition Maximum test (RM1). Protein intake in studied group was of 1.78 ± 0.12 g/kg/day and 2.24 ± 0.28 g/kg/day in control group. Comparing the two groups, there was a statistically significant increase of body weight, free fat mass and body mass cell of studied group respect to the control group. Fat mass remains almost constant in both groups. Statistically significant changes were observed in quadriceps and biceps circumferences, with an increase in studied group. The MR1 test showed improvement in study group’s strength but no changes in control group. Usually people use to consume hyper-proteic diet to achieve muscle mass development with a carbohydrate intake that is not enough or not well planned. Through this study, it was possible to show that protein intake fixed at 1,7g/kg/d can meet the individual's needs. In parallel, the increased intake of carbohydrates, focusing on quality and timing of assumption, has enabled the obtainment of desired results with a training protocol supporting a hypertrophic strategy. Therefore, the key point seems related to the planning of a structured program both from a nutritional and training point of view. This could preserve, but also improve, individual’s health, taking full advantage from the interaction between nutrition and exercise.
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75000
The Effects of Self-Efficacy on Challenge and Threat States
Abstract:
The Theory of Challenge and Threat States in Athletes (TCTSA) states that self-efficacy is an antecedent of challenge and threat. These states result from conscious and unconscious evaluations of situational demands and personal resources and are represented by both cognitive and physiological markers. Challenge is considered a more adaptive stress response as it is associated with a more efficient cardiovascular profile, as well as better performance and attention effects compared with threat. Self-efficacy is proposed to influence challenge/threat because an individual’s belief that they have the skills necessary to execute the courses of action required to succeed contributes to a perception that they can cope with the demands of the situation. This study experimentally examined the effects of self-efficacy on cardiovascular responses (challenge and threat), demand and resource evaluations, performance and attention under pressurised conditions. Forty-five university students were randomly assigned to either a control (n=15), low self-efficacy (n=15) or high self-efficacy (n=15) group and completed baseline and pressurised golf putting tasks. Self-efficacy was manipulated using false feedback adapted from previous studies. Measures of self-efficacy, cardiovascular reactivity, demand and resource evaluations, task performance and attention were recorded. The high self-efficacy group displayed more favourable cardiovascular reactivity, indicative of a challenge state, compared with the low self-efficacy group. The former group also reported high resource evaluations, but no task performance or attention effects were detected. These findings demonstrate that levels of self-efficacy influence cardiovascular reactivity and perceptions of resources under pressurised conditions.
459
74950
Stress-strain Relation for Human Trabecular Bone Based on Nanoindentation Measurements
Abstract:
Nanoindentation or depth-sensing indentation (DSI) technique has proven to be very useful to measure mechanical properties of various tissues at a micro-scale. Bone tissue, both trabecular and cortical one, is one of the most commonly tested tissues by means of DSI. Most often such tests on bone samples are carried out to compare the mechanical properties of lamellar and interlamellar bone, osteonal bone as well as compact and cancellous bone. In the paper, a relation between stress and strain for human trabecular bone is presented. The relation is based on the results of nanoindentation tests. The formulation of a constitutive model for human trabecular bone is based on nanoindentation tests. In the study, the approach proposed by Olivier-Pharr is adapted. The tests were carried out on samples of trabecular tissue extracted from human femoral heads. The heads were harvested during surgeries of artificial hip joint implantation. Before samples preparation, the heads were kept in 95% alcohol in temperature 4 Celsius degrees. The cubic samples cut out of the heads were stored in the same conditions. The dimensions of the specimens were 25 mm x 25 mm x 20 mm. The number of 20 samples have been tested. The age range of donors was between 56 and 83 years old. The tests were conducted with the indenter spherical tip of the diameter 0.200 mm. The maximum load was P = 500 mN and the loading rate 500 mN/min. The data obtained from the DSI tests allows one only to determine bone behoviour in terms of nanoindentation force vs. nanoindentation depth. However, it is more interesting and useful to know the characteristics of trabecular bone in the stress-strain domain. This allows one to simulate trabecular bone behaviour in a more realistic way. The stress-strain curves obtained in the study show relation between the age and the mechanical behaviour of trabecular bone. It was also observed that the bone matrix of trabecular tissue indicates an ability of energy absorption.
458
74937
The Importance of Self-Efficacy and Collective Competence Beliefs in Managerial Competence of Sports Managers'
Abstract:
Managerial competence defines as the skills that managers in managerial positions have in relation to managerial responsibilities and managerial duties. Today's organizations, which are in a competitive environment, have the desire to work with effective managers in order to be more advantageous position than the other organizations they are competing with. In today's organizations, self-efficacy and collective competence belief that determine managerial competencies of managers to assume managerial responsibility are of special importance. In this framework, the aim of this study is to examine the effects of sports managers' perceptions of self-efficacy and collective competence in managerial competence perceptions. In the study, it has also been analyzed if there is a significant difference between self-efficacy, collective competence and managerial competence levels of sports managers in terms of their gender, age, duty status, year of service and level of education. 248 sports managers, who work at the department of sports service’s central and field organization at least as a chief in the manager position, have been chosen with random sampling method and they have voluntarily participated in the study. In the study, the self-efficacy scale which was developed by Schwarzer, R. & Jerusalem, M. (1995), collective competence scale developed by Goddard, Hoy and Woolfolk-Hoy (2000) and managerial competence scale developed by Cetinkaya (2009) have been used as a data collection tool. The questionnaire form used as a data collection tool in the study includes a personal information form consisting of 5 questions; questioning gender, age, duty status, years of service and level of education. In the study, Pearson Correlation Analysis has been used for defining the correlation among self-efficacy, collective competence belief, and managerial competence levels in sports managers and regression analysis have been used to define the affect of self-efficacy and collective competence belief on the perception of managerial competence. T-test for binary grouping and ANOVA analysis have been used for more than binary groups in order to determine if there is any significant difference in the level of self-efficacy, collective and managerial competence in terms of the participants’ duty status, year of service and level of education. According to the research results, it has been found that there is a positive correlation between sports managers' self-efficacy, collective competence beliefs, and managerial competence levels. According to the results of the regression analysis, it is understood that the managers’ perception of self-efficacy and collective competence belief significantly defines the perception of managerial competence. Also, the results show that there is no significant difference in self-efficacy, collective competence, and level of managerial competence of sports managers in terms of duty status, year of service and level of education.