Using Open Source Data and GIS Techniques to Overcome Data Deficiency and Accuracy Issues in the Construction and Validation of Transportation Network: Case of Kinshasa City
An accurate representation of the transportation system serving the region is one of the important aspects of transportation modeling. Such representation often requires developing an abstract model of the system elements, which also requires important amount of data, surveys and time. However, in some cases such as in developing countries, data deficiencies, time and budget constraints do not always allow such accurate representation, leaving opportunities to assumptions that may negatively affect the quality of the analysis. With the emergence of Internet open source data especially in the mapping technologies as well as the advances in Geography Information System, opportunities to tackle these issues have raised. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to demonstrate such application through a practical case of the development of the transportation network for the city of Kinshasa. The GIS geo-referencing was used to construct the digitized map of Transportation Analysis Zones using available scanned images. Centroids were then dynamically placed at the center of activities using an activities density map. Next, the road network with its characteristics was built using OpenStreet data and other official road inventory data by intersecting their layers and cleaning up unnecessary links such as residential streets. The accuracy of the final network was then checked, comparing it with satellite images from Google and Bing. For the validation, the final network was exported into Emme3 to check for potential network coding issues. Results show a high accuracy between the built network and satellite images, which can mostly be attributed to the use of open source data.
The Planning Strategies of Public Sports Facilities Based on the Field Investigation: Case Study of Songyuan, China
With the National Fitness Program being established as a national strategy by the Chinese government, Chinese old planning strategies of sports facilities which are based on the purpose for hosting high-level sports events have been failed to meet the rapid growth of Chinese residents’ healthy needs. As the most important carrier for promoting the health of citizens in China, public sports facilities may have further conflicts when they are planned without considering the characteristics of the city itself and the fitness needs of the urban residents. With the planning practice in Songyuan in northeastern China, this paper explores the key planning strategies of public sports facilities through the field investigation to obtain the current situation of public sports facilities in Songyuan and the questionnaire to get the date of Songyuan residents’ fitness characteristics and needs. Findings from this investigation suggest that the planning of public sports facilities in Songyuan should first increase the quantities of public sports facilities at the community level, which could match the fitness population and meet the fitness needs in Songyuan. Secondly, the planning should combine with other available resources, such as urban parks, squares and other places where Songyuan residents often choose to do physical activities to enhance the vitality of public sports facilities. Finally, the planning should also link the urban transportation system in Songyuan to improve the accessibility and efficiency of public sports facilities. All these planning strategies could provide essential information for updating the urban and regional design of Songyuan.
A Study on Bicycle Riding Behavior on Bike-Only Road
Recently, riding a bicycle is recommended as an eco-friendly means of transportation. In Seoul, the mayor has secured budget for extending bicycle infrastructure. As bicycle rental centers are adopted in places, more citizens are using bike rental service on bike-only roads for leisure. However, most of the citizens are not experienced in riding bicycles. They usually do not wear helmets, keep the balance of bicycle riding, and pay attention to nearby occasions. Therefore, in this study, bicycles on Han-river bike-only road were tracked, and their behaviors were analyzed in order to show how dangerously beginner riders are riding. The number of conflicts is calculated to evaluate riding safety on the most crowded bike-only road. As a result, conflicts between beginner riders and fast-driving skilled drivers are frequently observed especially at night, and on weekends. In conclusion, it is suggested that the government should acknowledge citizens the fact that bikes are vehicles and adopt a test for bike driving.
A Statistical Study on Young UAE Driver's Behavior towards Road Safety
Road safety and associated behaviors have received significant attention in recent years, reflecting general public concern. This paper portrays a statistical scenario of the young drivers at UAE with emphasis on various concern points of young driver’s behavior and license issuance. Although there are many factors contributing to road accidents, statistically it is evident that age plays a major role in road accidents. Despite ensuring strict road safety laws enforced by the UAE government, there is a staggering correlation among road accidents and young drivers at UAE. However, private organizations like BMW and RoadSafetyUAE have extended its support on conducting surveys on driver’s behavior with an aim to ensure road safety. Various strategies as road safety law enforcement, license issuance, adapting new technologies like safety cameras and raising awareness can be implemented to improve the road safety concerns among young drivers.
Study on Influence Factors of Walkability of Rail Transit Station Area
Based on the comparative analysis of the relevant evaluation methods of walking environment, this paper selects the combined evaluation method of macro urban morphology analysis and micro urban design quality survey, then investigates and analyzes the walking environment of three rail transit station area in Nanjing to explore the influence factor and internal relation of walkability of rail transit station area. Analysis shows that micro urban design factors have greater impact on the walkability of rail transit station area compared with macro urban morphology factors, the convenience is the key factor in the four aspects of convenience, security, identity and comfortability of the urban design factors, the convenience is not only affected by the block network form, but also related to the quality of the street space. The overall evaluation of walkability comes from the overlapping and regrouping of the walking environment at different levels, but some environmental factors play a leading role. The social attributes of pedestrians also partly influence their walking perception and evaluation.
Spatial Accessibility Analysis of Kabul City Public Transport
Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan. It is the focal point of educational, industrial, etc. of Afghanistan. Additionally, the population of Kabul has grown recently and will increase because of return of refugees and shifting of people from other province to Kabul city. However, this increase in population, the issues of urban congestion and other related problems of urban transportation in Kabul city arises. One of the problems is public transport (large buses) service and needs to be modified and enhanced especially large bus routes that are operating in each zone of the 22 zone of Kabul City. To achieve the above mentioned goal of improving public transport, Spatial Accessibility Analysis is one of the important attributes to assess the effectiveness of transportation system and urban transport policy of a city, because accessibility indicator as an alternative tool to support public policy that aims the reinforcement of sustainable urban space. The case study of this research compares the present model (present bus route) and the modified model of public transport. Furthermore, present model, the bus routes in most of the zones are active, however, with having low frequency and unpublished schedule, and accessibility result is analyzed in four cases, based on the variables of accessibility. Whereas in modified model all zones in Kabul is taken into consideration with having specified origin and high frequency. Indeed the number of frequencies is kept high; however, this number is based on the number of buses Millie Bus Enterprise Authority (MBEA) owns. The same approach of cases is applied in modified model to figure out the best accessibility for the modified model. Indeed, the modified model is having a positive impact in congestion level in Kabul city. Besides, analyses of person trip and trip distribution have been also analyzed because how people move in the study area by each mode of transportation. So, the general aims of this research are to assess the present movement of people, identify zones in need of public transport and assess equity level of accessibility in Kabul city. The framework of methodology used in this research is based on gravity analysis model of accessibility; besides, generalized cost (time) of travel and travel mode is calculated. The main data come from person trip survey, socio-economic characteristics, demographic data by Japan International Cooperation Agency, 2008, study of Kabul city and also from the previous researches on travel pattern and the remaining data regarding present bus line and routes have been from MBEA. In conclusion, this research explores zones where public transport accessibility level is high and where it is low. It was found that both models the downtown area or central zones of Kabul city is having high level accessibility. Besides, the present model is the most unfavorable compared with the modified model based on the accessibility analysis.
Modeling Activity Pattern Using XGBoost for Mining Smart Card Data
Smart-card data are expected to provide information on activity pattern as an alternative to conventional person trip surveys. The focus of this study is to propose a method for training the person trip surveys to supplement the smart-card data that does not contain the purpose of each trip. We selected only available features from smart card data such as spatiotemporal information on the trip and geographic information system (GIS) data near the stations to train the survey data. XGboost, which is state-of-the-art tree-based ensemble classifier, was used to train data from multiple sources. This classifier uses a more regularized model formalization to control the over-fitting and show very fast execution time with well-performance. The validation results showed that proposed method efficiently estimated the trip purpose. GIS data of station and duration of stay at the destination were significant features in modeling trip purpose.
Missing Link Data Estimation with Recurrent Neural Network: An Application Using Speed Data of Daegu Metropolitan Area
In terms of ITS, information on link characteristic is an essential factor for plan or operation. But in practical cases, not every link has installed sensors on it. The link that doesn’t have data on it called 'Missing Link.' The purpose of this study is to impute data of this missing links. To get these data, this study applies the machine learning method. With machine learning, especially for deep learning process can estimate missing link data from present link data. For deep learning process, this study used 'Recurrent Neural Network' to take time-series data of road. As input data, dedicated short-range communications(DSRC) data of Dalgubul-daero of Daegu Metropolitan Area had been fed into the learning process. Neural network structure has 17 links of present data as input, 15 hidden layers, for 1 missing link data. As a result, data of target link was taken about 85% of accuracy compared with actual data.
Selling Electric Vehicles: Experiences from Car Salesmen in Sweden
Sweden has the second highest electric vehicle (plug-in hybrid and battery electric vehicle) sales per capita in Europe but in relation to sales of internal combustion engine electric vehicles sales are still minuscular (< 4%). Much research effort has been placed on various technical and user focused barriers and enablers for adoption of electric vehicles. Less effort has been placed on investigating the retail (dealership-customer) sales process of vehicles in general and electric vehicles in particular. Arguably, no one ought to be better informed about needs and desires of potential electric vehicle buyers than car salesmen, originating from their daily encounters with customers at the dealership. The aim of this paper is to explore the conditions of selling electric vehicle from a car salesmen’s perspective. This includes identifying barriers and enablers for electric vehicle sales originating from internal (dealership and brand) and external (customer, government) sources. In this interview study five car brands (manufacturers) that sell both electric and internal combustion engine vehicles have been investigated. A total of 15 semi-structured interviews have been conducted (three per brand, in rural and urban settings and at different dealerships). Initial analysis reveals several barriers and enablers, experienced by car salesmen, which influence electric vehicle sales. Examples of as reported by car salesmen identified barriers are: -Electric vehicles earn car salesmen less commission on average compared to internal combustion engine vehicles. -It takes more time to sell and deliver an electric vehicle than an internal combustion engine vehicle. -Current leasing contracts entails relatively low second-hand value estimations for electric vehicles and thus a high leasing fee, which negatively affects the attractiveness of electric vehicles for private consumers in particular. -High purchasing price discourages many consumers from considering electric vehicles. -The education and knowledge level of electric vehicles differs between car salesmen, which could affect their self-confidence in meeting well prepared and question prone electric vehicle buyers. Examples of identified enablers are: -Company car tax regulation promotes sales of electric vehicles; in particular, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles are sold extensively to companies (up to 95 % of sales). -Low operating cost of electric vehicles such as fuel and service is an advantage when understood by consumers. -The drive performance of electric vehicles (quick, silent and fun to drive) is attractive to consumers. -Environmental aspects are considered important for certain consumer groups. -Fast technological improvements, such as increased range are opening up a wider market for electric vehicles. -For one of the brands; attractive private lease campaigns have proved effective to promote sales. This paper gives insights of an important but often overlooked aspect for the diffusion of electric vehicles (and durable products in general); the interaction between car salesmen and customers at the critical acquiring moment. Extracted through interviews with multiple car salesmen. The results illuminate untapped potential for sellers (salesmen, dealerships and brands) to mitigating sales barriers and strengthening sales enablers and thus becoming a more important actor in the electric vehicle diffusion process.
The Role of Car Dealerships in Promoting Electric Vehicles: Covert Participatory Observations of Car Dealerships in Sweden
While electric vehicles (both battery electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids) have been on the market for around 6 years, they are still far from mainstream and the knowledge of them is still low among the public. This is likely one of the reasons that Sweden, having one of the highest penetrations of electric vehicles in Europe, still has a long way to go in reaching a fossil free vehicle fleet. Car dealerships are an important medium that connects consumers to vehicles, but somehow, their role in introducing electric vehicles has not yet been thoroughly studied. Research from other domains shows that salespeople can affect customer decisions in their choice of products. The aim of this study is to explore the role of car dealerships when it comes to promoting electric vehicles. The long-term goal is to understand how they could be a key in the effort of achieving a mass introduction of electric vehicles in Sweden. By emulating the customer’s experience, this study investigates the interaction between car salespeople and customers, particularly examining whether they present electric vehicles as viable options. Covert participatory observations were conducted for data collection from four different brands at in total twelve car dealers. The observers worked in pairs and played the role of a customer with needs that could be matched by an electric vehicle. The data was summarized in observation protocols and analyzed using thematic coding. The result shows that only one of twelve salespeople offered an electric vehicle as the first option. When environmental factors were brought up by the observers, the salespeople followed up with lower fuel consumption internal combustion engine vehicles rather than suggesting an electric vehicle. All salespeople possessed at least basic knowledge about electric vehicles but their interest of selling them were low in most cases. One of the reasons could be that the price of electric vehicles is usually higher. This could be inferred from the finding that salespeople tend to have a strong focus on price and economy in their dialogues with customers, regardless which type of car they were selling. In conclusion, the study suggests that car salespeople have the potential to help the market to achieve mass introduction of electric vehicles; however, their potential needs to be exploited further. To encourage salespeople to prioritize electric vehicles in the sales process, right incentives need to be in place.
Analysis of Train Passenger Chair Using Ergonomic Function Deployment Method
Indonesian people use trains for their transportation, especially they use economy class trains transportation because it is cheaper and has more precise schedule than any other ground transportation. Nevertheless, this economy class passenger seat raises some inconvenience issues for passengers. This is due to the design of the chair on the economic class of train class that did not adjusted to the shape of anthropometry of Indonesian people. So the research needs to be conducted on the design of chair on economic class of train.The purpose of this research is to make the design of chair economy class passenger seat ergonomically. This research method uses questionnaires, and anthropometry measurement. The data obtained is processed using House of Quality of Ergonomic Function Development. From the results of analysis and data processing obtained important changes from the original design. Ergonomic chair design according to the analysis is stainless steel frame, seat height 390 mm, seat width for each passenger 400 mm with a depth of 400 mm. Design of backrest is 840 mm height, 430 mm width and 300 mm length that can move at the angle of 105-1150. The width of the footrest is 42 mm and 400 mm length. The thickness of cushion in a chair is 100 mm.
Effect of Compressibility of Brake Friction Materials on Vibration Occurrence
Brakes are one of the most important safety and performance components in automobiles and airplanes. Development of brakes has mainly focused on increasing braking power and stability. Nowadays, brake noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) together with brake dust emission and pad life are very important to vehicle drivers. The main objective of this research is to define the relationship between compressibility of friction materials and their tendency to generate vibration. An experimental study of the friction-induced vibration obtained by the disc brake system of a passenger car is conducted. Three commercial brake pad materials from different manufacturers are tested and evaluated under various brake conditions against cast iron disc brake. First of all, compressibility test for the brake friction material is measured for each pad. Then, brake dynamometer is used to simulate and reproduce actual vehicle braking conditions. Finally, a comparison between the three pad specimens is conducted. The results showed that compressibility has a very significant effect on reduction of the vibration occurrence.
Effectiveness of Variable Speed Limit Signs in Reducing Crash Rates on Roadway Construction Work Zones in Alaska
As a driver's speed increases, so do the probability of an incident and likelihood of injury. The presence of equipment, personnel, and a changing landscape in construction zones create greater potential for incident. This is especially concerning in Alaska, where summer construction activity, coinciding with the peak annual traffic volumes, cannot be avoided. In order to reduce vehicular speeding in work zones, and therefore the probability of crash and incident occurrence, variable speed limit (VSL) systems can be implemented in the form of radar speed display trailers since the radar speed display trailers were shown to be effective at reducing vehicular speed in construction zones. Allocation of VSL not only help reduce the 85th percentile speed but also it will predominantly reduce mean speed as well. Total of 2147 incidents along with 385 crashes occurred only in one month around the construction zone in the Alaska which seriously requires proper attention. This research provided a thorough crash analysis to better understand the cause and provide proper countermeasures. Crashes were predominantly recoded as vehicle- object collision and sideswipe type and thus significant amount of crashes fall in the group of no injury to minor injury type in the severity class. But still, 35 major crashes with 7 fatal ones in a one month period require immediate action like the implementation of the VSL system as it proved to be a speed reducer in the construction zone on Alaskan roadways.
Implementation of Model Reference Adaptive Control in Tuning of Controller Gains for Following-Vehicle System with Fixed Time Headway
To avoid collision between following vehicles and vehicles in front, it is vital to keep appropriate, safe spacing between both vehicles over all speeds. Therefore, the following vehicle needs to have exact information regarding the speed and spacing between vehicles. This project is conducted to simulate the tuning of controller gain for a vehicle-following system through the selected control strategy, spacing control policy and fixed-time headway policy. In addition, the paper simulates and designs an adaptive gain controller for a road-vehicle-following system which uses information on the spacing, velocity and also acceleration of a preceding vehicle in the proposed one-vehicle look-ahead strategy. The mathematical model is implemented using Kirchhoff and Newton’s Laws, and stability simulated. The trial-error method was used to obtain a suitable value of controller gain. However, the adaptive-based controller system was able to optimize the gain value automatically. Model Reference Adaptive Control (MRAC) is designed and utilized and based on firstly the Gradient and secondly the Lyapunov approach. The Lyapunov approach considers stability. The Gradient approach was found to improve the best value of gain in the controller system with fixed-time headway.
Technical and Economic Potential of Partial Electrification of Railway Lines
Electrification of railway lines allows to increase speed, power, capacity and energetic efficiency of rolling stocks. However, this process of electrification is complex and costly. An electrification project is not just about design of catenary. It also includes installation of structures around electrification, as substation installation, electrical isolation, signalling, telecommunication and civil engineering structures. France has more than 30,000 km of railways, whose only 53% are electrified. The others 47% of railways use diesel locomotive and represent only 10% of the circulation (tons.km). For this reason, a new type of electrification, less expensive than the usual, is requested to enable the modernization of these railways. One solution could be the use of hybrids trains. This technology opens up new opportunities for less expensive infrastructure development such as the partial electrification of railway lines. In a partially electrified railway, the power supply of theses hybrid trains could be made either by the catenary or by the on-board energy storage system (ESS). Thus, the on-board ESS would feed the energetic needs of the train along the non-electrified zones while in electrified zones, the catenary would feed the train and recharge the on-board ESS. This paper’s objective deals with the technical and economic potential identification of partial electrification of railway lines. This study provides different scenarios of electrification by replacing the most expensive places to electrify using on-board ESS. The target is to reduce the cost of new electrification projects, i.e. reduce the cost of electrification infrastructures while not increasing the cost of rolling stocks. In this study, scenarios are constructed in function of the electrification’s cost of each structure. The electrification’s cost varies considerably because of the installation of catenary support in tunnels, bridges and viaducts is much more expensive than in others zones of the railway. These scenarios will be used to describe the power supply system and to choose between the catenary and the on-board energy storage depending on the position of the train on the railway. To identify the influence of each partial electrification scenario in the sizing of the on-board ESS, a model of the railway line and of the rolling stock is developed for a real case. This real case concerns a railway line located in the south of France. The energy consumption and the power demanded at each point of the line for each power supply (catenary or on-board ESS) are provided at the end of the simulation. Finally, the cost of a partial electrification is obtained by adding the civil engineering costs of the zones to be electrified plus the cost of the on-board ESS. The study of the technical and economic potential ends with the identification of the most economically interesting scenario of electrification.
Implementation of Congestion Management Strategies on Arterial Roads: Case Study of Geelong
Natural disasters are inevitable to the biodiversity. Disasters such as flood, tsunami and tornadoes could be brutal, harsh and devastating. In Australia, flooding is a major issue experienced by different parts of the country. In such crisis, delays in evacuation could decide the life and death of the people living in those regions. Congestion management could become a mammoth task if there are no steps taken before such situations. In the past to manage congestion in such circumstances, many strategies were utilised such as converting the road shoulders to extra lanes or changing the road geometry by adding more lanes. However, expansion of road to resolving congestion problems is not considered a viable option nowadays. The authorities avoid this option due to many reasons, such as lack of financial support and land space. They tend to focus their attention on optimising the current resources they possess and use traffic signals to overcome congestion problems. Traffic Signal Management strategy was considered a viable option, to alleviate congestion problems in the City of Geelong, Victoria. Arterial road with signalised intersections considered in this paper and the traffic data required for modelling collected from VicRoads. Traffic signalling software SIDRA used to model the roads, and the information gathered from VicRoads. In this paper, various signal parameters utilised to assess and improve the corridor performance to achieve the best possible Level of Services (LOS) for the arterial road.
A Multi-Objective Gate Assignment Model Based on Airport Terminal Configuration
Assigning aircrafts’ activities to appropriate gates is one the most challenging issues in airport authorities’ multiple criteria decision making. The potential financial loss due to imbalances of demand and supply in congested airports, higher occupation rates of gates, and the existing restrictions to expand facilities provide further evidence for the need for an optimal supply allocation. Passengers walking distance, towing movements, extra fuel consumption (as a result of awaiting longer to taxi when taxi conflicts happen at the apron area), etc. are the major traditional components involved in GAP models. In particular, the total cost associated with gate assignment problem highly depends on the airport terminal layout. The study herein presents a well-elaborated literature review on the topic focusing on major concerns, applicable variables and objectives, as well as proposing a three-objective mathematical model for the gate assignment problem. The model has been tested under different concourse layouts in order to check its performance in different scenarios. Results revealed that terminal layout pattern is a significant parameter in airport and that the proposed model is capable of dealing with key constraints and objectives, which supports its practical usability for future decision making tools. Potential solution techniques were also suggested in this study for future works.
Territorial Analysis of the Public Transport Supply: Case Study of Recife City
This paper is part of an ongoing PhD thesis. It seeks to develop a model to identify the spatial failures of the public transportation supply. In the construction of the model, it also seeks to detect the social needs arising from the disadvantage in transport. The case study is carried out for the Brazilian city of Recife. Currently, Recife has a population density of 7,039.64 inhabitants per km². Unfortunately, only 46.9% of urban households on public roads have adequate urbanization. Allied to this reality, the trend of the occupation of the poorest population is that of the peripheries, a fact that has been consolidated in Brazil and Latin America, thus burdening the families' income, since the greater the distances covered for the basic activities and consequently also the transport costs. In this way, there have been great impacts caused by the supply of public transportation to locations with low demand or lack of urban infrastructure. The model under construction uses methods such as Currie’s Gap Assessment associated with the London’s Public Transport Access Level, and the Public Transport Accessibility Index developed by Saghapour. It is intended to present the stage of the thesis with the spatial/need gaps of the neighborhoods of Recife already detected. The benefits of the geographic information system are used in this paper. It should be noted that gaps are determined from the transport supply indices. In this case, considering the presence of walking catchment areas. Still in relation to the detection of gaps, the relevant demand index is also determined. This, in turn, is calculated through indicators that reflect social needs. With the use of the smaller Brazilian geographical unit, the census sector, the model with the inclusion of population density in the study areas should present more consolidated results. Based on the results achieved, an analysis of transportation disadvantage will be carried out as a factor of social exclusion in the study area. It is anticipated that the results obtained up to the present moment, already indicate a strong trend of public transportation in areas of higher income classes, leading to the understanding that the most disadvantaged population migrates to those neighborhoods in search of employment.
Rail Degradation Modelling Using ARMAX: A Case Study Applied to Melbourne Tram System
There is a necessity among rail transportation authorities for a superior understanding of the rail track degradation overtime and the factors influencing rail degradation. They need an accurate technique to identify the time when rail tracks fail or need maintenance. In turn, this will help to increase the level of safety and comfort of the passengers and the vehicles as well as improve the cost effectiveness of maintenance activities. An accurate model can play a key role in prediction of the long-term behaviour of railroad tracks. An accurate model can decrease the cost of maintenance. In this research, the rail track degradation is predicted using an autoregressive moving average with exogenous input (ARMAX). An ARMAX has been implemented on Melbourne tram data to estimate the values for the tram track degradation. Gauge values and rail usage in Million Gross Tone (MGT) are the main parameters used in the model. The developed model can accurately predict the future status of the tram tracks.
Nonlinear Estimation Model for Rail Track Deterioration
Rail transport authorities around the world have been facing a significant challenge when predicting rail infrastructure maintenance work for a long period of time. Generally, maintenance monitoring and prediction is conducted manually. With the restrictions in economy, the rail transport authorities are in pursuit of improved modern methods, which can provide precise prediction of rail maintenance time and location. The expectation from such a method is to develop models to minimize the human error that is strongly related to manual prediction. Such models will help them in understanding how the track degradation occurs overtime under the change in different conditions (e.g. rail load, rail type, rail profile). They need a well-structured technique to identify the precise time that rail tracks fail in order to minimize the maintenance cost/time and secure the vehicles. The rail track characteristics that have been collected over the years will be used in developing rail track degradation prediction models. Since these data have been collected in large volumes and the data collection is done both electronically and manually, it is possible to have some errors. Sometimes these errors make it impossible to use them in prediction model development. This is one of the major drawbacks in rail track degradation prediction. An accurate model can play a key role in the estimation of the long-term behavior of rail tracks. Accurate models increase the track safety and decrease the cost of maintenance in long term. In this research, a short review of rail track degradation prediction models has been discussed before estimating rail track degradation for the curve sections of Melbourne tram track system using Adaptive Network-based Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS) model.
Imputation of Urban Movement Patterns Using Big Data
Big data typically refers to consumer datasets revealing some detailed heterogeneity in human behavior, which if harnessed appropriately, could potentially revolutionize our understanding of the collective phenomena of the physical world. Inadvertent missing values skew these datasets and compromise the validity of the thesis. Here we discuss a conceptually consistent strategy for identifying other relevant datasets to combine with available big data, to plug the gaps and to create a rich requisite comprehensive dataset for subsequent analysis. Specifically, emphasis is on how these methodologies can for the first time enable the construction of more detailed pictures of passenger demand and drivers of mobility on the railways. These methodologies can predict the influence of changes within the network (like a change in time-table or impact of a new station), explain local phenomena outside the network (like rail-heading) and the other impacts of urban morphology. Our analysis also reveals that our new imputation data model provides for more equitable revenue sharing amongst network operators who manage different parts of the integrated UK railways.
A Statistical Approach for a Station-Level Subway Ridership Estimation: Focus on the Impact of Bus Demand and Commercial Business Characteristics
The primary purpose of this study is to develop a methodological framework to predict daily subway ridership at a station-level and to examine the association between subway ridership and bus demand incorporating commercial business facility in the vicinity of each subway station. Previous studies have mainly discussed the socio-economic characteristics, land-use, and built environment as factors which have an impact on subway ridership. However, it has rarely been considered not only the endogenous relationship between bus and subway demand but also the characteristics of commercial business within a subway station’s sphere of influence. Regarding a statistical approach to estimate subway ridership at a station level, many studies rely on Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression, but there was a lack of study for considering endogeneity and heteroscedastic issues which might have in the subway ridership prediction model. Therefore, this study focused on both discovering the impacts of bus demand and commercial business characteristics on subway ridership and developing more precise subway ridership estimation accounting for its statistical bias. The spatial scope of the study covers entire Seoul city in South Korea and includes 243 stations with the temporal scope set at twenty-four hours with one-hour interval time panels each. The subway and bus ridership was collected Seoul Smart Card data from 2015 and 2016. Three-Stage Least Square(3SLS) approach was applied to develop daily subway ridership model as capturing the endogeneity and heteroscedasticity between bus and subway demand. Independent variables incorporating in the modeling process were commercial business characteristics, social-economic characteristics, safety index, transit facility attributes, and dummies for seasons and time zone. As a result, it was found that bus ridership and subway ridership were endogenous each other and they had a significantly positive sign of coefficients which means one transit mode could increase another transportation mode’s ridership. In other words, two transit modes of subway and bus have a mutual relationship instead of the competitive relationship. The commercial business characteristics are the most critical dimension among the independent variables. The variables of commercial business facility rate in the paper containing six types: medical, educational, recreational, financial, food service, and shopping. From the model result, a higher rate in medical, financial buildings, shopping, and food service facility lead to increment of subway ridership at a station, while recreational and educational facility shows lower subway ridership. The results of model accuracy tests by out of samples provided that 3SLS model has less mean square error rather than OLS, and showed the methodological approach for the 3SLS model was plausible to estimate more accurate subway ridership.
Integrated Services Hub for Exploration and Production Industry: An Indian Narrative
India is at the cusp of major reforms in the hydrocarbon sector. Oil and gas sector is highly liberalised to attract private investment and to increase domestic production. Major hydrocarbon Exploration & Production (E&P) activity here have been undertaken by Government owned companies but with easing up and reworking of hydro carbon exploration licensing policies private players have also joined the fray towards achieving energy security for India. Government of India has come up with policy and administrative reforms including Hydrocarbon Exploration and Licensing Policy (HELP), Sagarmala (port-led development with coastal connectivity), and Development of Small Discovered Fields, etc. with the intention to make industry friendly conditions for investment, ease of doing business and reduce gestation period. To harness the potential resources of Deep water and Ultra deep water, High Pressure – High Temperature (HP-HT) regions, Coal Bed Methane (CBM), Shale Hydrocarbons besides Gas Hydrates, participation shall be required from both domestic and international players. Companies engaged in E&P activities in India have traditionally been managing through their captive supply base, but with crude prices under hammer, the need is being felt to outsource non-core activities. This necessitates establishment of a robust support services to cater to E&P Industry, which is currently non-existent to meet the bourgeon challenges. This paper outlines an agenda for creating an Integrated Services Hub (ISH) under Special Economic Zone (SEZ) to facilitate complete gamut of non-core support activities of E&P industry. This responsive and proficient multi-usage facility becomes viable with better resource utilization, economies of scale to offer cost effective services. The concept envisages companies to bring-in their core technical expertise leaving complete hardware peripherals outsourced to this ISH. The Integrated Services Hub, complying with the best in class global standards, shall typically provide following Services under Single Window Solution, but not limited to: a) Logistics including supply base operations, transport of manpower and material, helicopters, offshore supply vessels, warehousing, inventory management, sourcing and procurement activities, international freight forwarding, domestic trucking, customs clearance service etc. b) Trained/Experienced pool of competent Manpower (Technical, Security etc.) will be available for engagement by companies on either short or long term basis depending upon the requirements with provisions of meeting any training requirements. c) Specialized Services through tie-up with global best companies for Crisis Management, Mud/Cement, Fishing, Floating Dry-dock besides provision of Workshop, Repair and Testing facilities, etc. d) Tools and Tackles including drill strings, etc. A pre-established Integrated Services Hub shall facilitate an early start-up of activities with substantial savings in time lines. This model can be replicated at other parts of the world to expedite E&P activities.
Study on Optimization Design of Pressure Hull for Underwater Vehicle
In order to improve the efficiency and accuracy of the pressure hull structure, optimization of underwater vehicle based on response surface methodology, a method for optimizing the design of pressure hull structure was studied. To determine the pressure shell of 5 dimensions as a design variable, the application of thin shell theory and the CCS (Chinese Classification Society) specification was carried on the preliminary design. In order to optimize variables of the feasible region, different methods were studied and implemented such as Opt LHD method (to determine the design test sample points in the feasible domain space), parametric ABAQUS solution for each sample point response, and the two order polynomial response for the surface model of the limit load of structures. Based on the ultimate load of the structure and the quality of the shell, the two-generation genetic algorithm was used to solve the response surface, and the Pareto optimal solution set was obtained. The final optimization result was 41.68% higher than that of the initial design, and the shell quality was reduced by about 27.26%. The parametric method can ensure the accuracy of the test and improve the efficiency of optimization.
Influence of Peripheral Vision Restrictions on the Walking Trajectory When Texting While Walking
One major problem related to the use of smartphones is texting while simultaneously engaging in other things, resulting in serious road accidents. Apart from texting while driving being one of the most dangerous behaviors, texting while walking is also dangerous because it narrows the walker's field of vision. Despite the narrowing of a person’s central vision caused by texting while walking, many smartphone users habitually text while walking. Smartphone users often overlook the potential harm associated with this behavior even while crossing roads. They fail to understand that they can become victims of traffic accidents because they have successfully texted while walking many times in their lives. This study aims to clarify the influence of peripheral vision on the stability of the walking trajectory when the person texts while walking. In total, nine healthy male university students participated in the experiment. Their mean age was 21.4 years, and STD was 0.7 years. They attempted to walk 10 m in three situations. In the first situation, participants walked without texting. This was considered as the control (CTR) situation. The second situation involved texting while walking (TWG) without any restrictions. In the third situation, participants texted while walking; however, their peripheral visions were restricted by experimental peripheral goggles (PRS). The horizontal distances (HDS) and directions (right or left) of the footprints from the virtual straight line drawn from the starting point to the goal point were measured as the scale of horizontal stability. The longitudinal distances (LDS) between the footprints were measured as the scale of the walking rhythm. The results showed that the HDS of the footprints from the straight line increased as the participants walked in the TWG and PRS situations. In the PR situation, this tendency was particularly remarkable. In addition, the LDS between the footprints decreased in the order of the CTR, TWG, and PRS situations. The ANOVA results showed significant differences in the three situations with respect to HDS [F(2,23) = 38.27, p < 0.05]] and LDS [F(2,23) =10.92, p < 0.05]]. The differences among these situations showed that the narrowing of the walker's vision because of smartphone use influences the walking trajectory and rhythm. In contrast, the difference between the TWG and PRS situations revealed that the walkers seem to use their peripheral vision marginally when they text while walking. Therefore, we concluded that texting while walking narrows the vision; however, texting in situations with restricted peripheral vision, such as night roads, will considerably increase the dangers associated with texting while walking.
Feasibility Studies through Quantitative Methods: The Revamping of a Tourist Railway Line in Italy
Recently, the Italian government has approved a new law for public contracts and has been laying the groundwork for restarting a planning phase. The government has adopted the indications given by the European Commission regarding the estimation of the external costs within the Cost-Benefit Analysis, and has been approved the ‘Guidelines for assessment of Investment Projects’. In compliance with the new Italian law, the aim of this research was to perform a feasibility study applying quantitative methods regarding the revamping of an Italian tourist railway line. A Cost-Benefit Analysis was performed starting from the quantification of the passengers’ demand potentially interested in using the revamped rail services. The benefits due to the external costs reduction were also estimated (quantified) in terms of variations (with respect to the not project scenario): climate change, air pollution, noises, congestion, and accidents. Estimations results have been proposed in terms of the Measure of Effectiveness underlying a positive Net Present Value equal to about 27 million of Euros, an Internal Rate of Return much greater the discount rate, a benefit/cost ratio equal to 2 and a PayBack Period of 15 years.
The Influence of Travel Experience within Perceived Public Transport Quality
The perceived public transport quality is an important driver that influences both customer satisfaction and mobility choices. The competition among transport operators needs to improve the quality of the services and identify which attributes are perceived as relevant by passengers. Among the “traditional” public transport quality attributes there are, for example: travel and waiting time, regularity of the services, and ticket price. By contrast, there are some “non-conventional” attributes that could significantly influence customer satisfaction jointly with the “traditional” ones. Among these, the beauty/aesthetics of the transport terminals (e.g. rail station and bus terminal) is probably one of the most impacting on user perception. Starting from these considerations, the point stressed in this paper was if (and how munch) the travel experience of the overall travel (e.g. how long is the travel, how many transport modes must be used) influences the perception of the public transport quality. The aim of this paper was to investigate the weight of the terminal quality (e.g. aesthetic, comfort and service offered) within the overall travel experience. The case study was the extra-urban Italian bus network. The passengers of the major Italian terminal bus were interviewed and the analysis of the results shows that about the 75% of the travelers, are available to pay up to 30% more for the ticket price for having a high quality terminal. A travel experience effect was observed: the average perceived transport quality varies with the characteristic of the overall trip. The passengers that have a “long trip” (travel time greater than 2 hours) perceived as “low” the overall quality of the trip even if they pass through a high quality terminal. The opposite occurs for the “short trip” passengers. This means that if a traveler passes through a high quality station, the overall perception of that terminal could be significantly reduced if he is tired from a long trip. This result is important and if confirmed through other case studies, will allow to conclude that the “travel experience impact" must be considered as an explicit design variable for public transport services and planning.
A Study on the Planning of Urban Road Traffic Signs Based on the Leisure Involvement of Self-Driving Tourists
With the upgrade development of the tourism industry from the simple sightseeing tour to the leisure and vacation, people's travel idea has undergone a fundamental change. More and more people begin to pursue liberal and personal tourism, so self-driving tourism has become the main form of current tourism activities. With the self-driving tourism representing the general trend, the importance of convenient tourism transportation and perfect road traffic signs have become more and more prominent. A clear urban road traffic signs can help visitors quickly identify the direction and distance to the tourism destination. The purpose of this article is analyzing the planning of urban road traffic signs which can bring positive impact on the participation in the recreation involved of self-driving tourists. The content of this article is divided into three parts. Based on the literature review and theoretical analysis, the first part constructs a structural variance model. The model is from three dimensions: the attention of the self-driving tourists to the urban traffic signs along the road, the perception of the self-driving tourists to the road traffic signs itself, the perceptions of the self-driving tourists to the tourism destination information on the traffic signs. Through this model, the paper aims to explore the influence of the urban road traffic signs to the leisure psychological involvement and leisure behavior involvement of the self-driving tourists. The second part aims to verify through the hypothesis model the questionnaire survey and come to preliminary conclusions. The preliminary conclusions are as follows: firstly, the color, shape, size, setting mode and occurrence frequency of urban road traffic sign have significant influence on the leisure psychological involvement and leisure behavior involvement of the self-driving tourists. Secondly, the influence on the leisure behavior involvement is obviously higher than the influence on the leisure psychological involvement. Thirdly, the information about the tourism destination marked on the urban road traffic signs has not obviously influence on the leisure psychological involvement, but it has distinct influence on the leisure behavior involvement of self-driving tourists. The third part puts forward that the planning of urban road traffic signs should focus on the angle of the impact of road traffic signs on people's psychology and behavior. On the basis of the above conclusions, the paper researches the color, shape, size, setting mode and information labeling of urban road traffic signs so that they can preferably satisfy the demand of the leisure involvement of self-driving tourists.
Functional to the Urban: Global Drivers and Impacts of Rural Transformation
In recent years, rural areas have transformed at a very high pace, becoming completely functional to a variety of urban needs and desires. Such modifications have had far-reaching implications on the structure of the countryside and the preservation of its resources. While the shifts occurring within rural settlements are inherent to their evolution, the recent rural transformation is not the outcome of a natural process. Following massive urbanization and technological advancement in recent decades, countryside has progressively become one of the most frequent leisure destinations for urban residents, while maintaining its fundamental function to support urban areas with food and natural resources. Yet, despite the undeniable impacts of urbanization on rural transformation, the majority of disciplinary studies have ignored the link between prosperity of cities and dramatic alteration of rural communities; only few architecture and urban design studies specifically address rural shifts and their consequences. Based on critical analysis of relevant literature, case studies and investigation of the main aspects of rural spaces—involving population, economy, morphology, culture, and environment—the research presented in this paper sheds light on the tangible and intangible consequences of recent rural changes globally. The study investigates unprecedented recent shifts in rural spaces and discusses how these shifts trigger the functionality of rural to the urban. Finally, the paper challenges the mainstream definitions of rural areas and raises the question of whether current rural settlements can still be named as such.
Approach to Establish Logistics as a Central Scientific Discipline of Tomorrow's Industry
Most of the today’s companies face increasing need to operate efficiently. Driven by global trends like shorter product cycles, mass customization and the rising speed of delivery, manufacturing value chains are becoming more and more distributed. Manufacturing processes are becoming highly integrated, e.g. 3D printing. All these changes are affecting companies´ organization. They are leading towards individual, small scale, and ad-hoc logistics processes and structures, and finally, towards a significant increase in the importance of logistics itself since traditional value chains transform into agile value networks. In the past logistics has been following manufacturing but in the future industry, this role allocation might change. With this increase in the logistics practice of companies and businesses, the relevance of logistics research as the methodological foundation of logistics networks and processes is gaining importance. Logistics research is evolving into a central and highly interdisciplinary science for the future industry. Using the example of Germany, this paper discusses ways to establish logistics as a central scientific discipline of the future industry. About three million people work in the logistics sector in Germany. Only automotive and retail industry have more employees. Even though there is a bunch of logistics degree programs at more than 100 institutions of higher education, a common understanding of logistics as a research discipline is missing. In this paper an innovative approach will be presented, including; identified perspectives on logistics, such as process orientation, IT orientation or employees orientation, relevant scientific disciplines for logistics science, a concept for interdisciplinary research approaches to unify the perspectives of the different scientific disciplines on logistics and the methodological base of logistics science.