Community Empowerment: The Contribution of Network Urbanism on Urban Poverty Reduction
This research analyzes the application of a model of settlements management based on networks of territorial integration that advocates planning as a cyclical and participatory process that engages early on with civic society, the private sector and the state. Through qualitative methods such as participant observation, interviews with snowball technique and an active research on territories, concrete results of community empowerment are obtained from the promotion of productive enterprises and community spaces of encounter and exchange. Studying the cultural and organizational dimensions of empowerment allows building indicators such as increase of capacities or community cohesion that can lead to support local governments in achieving sustainable urban development for a reduction of urban poverty.
Identification of Possible Fall Regimes in the Demolition of Guyed Masts Using Sensitivity and Cluster Analysis
Guyed masts which are at the final stage of their life cycle and no longer required for any purpose need to be safely and economically demolished. The simplest way of guyed mast demolition is by cutting off the supporting guy-cables using an explosive in such a way that the mast can fall into one direction. In the past, the main problem observed in the demolition of guyed masts is the occurrence of local buckling at one third of the height due to the concentration of high bending moment during collapse. This local buckling developed at the initial stage of the demolition processes can cause uncertainty in the direction fall. Here unsafe situations may arise if the collapse regime is different from the expected one, which will lead to severe damage to the neighboring buildings and infrastructure. In order to avoid the risk of uncontrolled collapse, it is necessary to develop a numerical simulation with different explosive detonation time setups. In this paper, a sensitivity analysis is presented using a case study to determine the influence of the explosive detonation time on the collapse direction and regime of the guyed mast. Then to systematically categorize the different regions of the sensitivity result based on collapses regime a cluster analysis is implemented using Modal Assurance Criterion (MAC) to compare buckling mode shapes of different samples used for the sensitivity analysis. Finally using the results of the cluster analysis, it is then possible to clearly identify a safe and economical explosive detonation time setup for a guyed mast demolition based on the surrounding environmental conditions.
Tensile Test of Corroded Strand and Maintenance of Corroded Prestressed Concrete Girders
National bridge inventory in Korea shows the number of old prestressed concrete (PSC) bridgeover 30 years of service life is rapidly increasing. Recently tendon corrosion is one of the most critical issue in the maintenance of prestressed concrete bridges. In this paper, mechanical properties of corroded strands, which were removed from old bridges, were evaluated using tensile test. In the result, the equations to express the mechanical behavior of corroded strand were derived and compared to existing equation. For the decision of tendon replacement, it is necessary to evaluate the effect of corrosion level on strength and ductility of the structure. Considerations on analysis of prestressed concrete girders were introduced, and decision making on tendon replacement was also proposed.
Urban Design as a Tool to Address Safety in a Crime Ridden Area: A Case Study of Malviya Nagar, New Delhi
As a city is growing in population, sprawl, and complexity, use of public spaces increases variably and thus ensuring safety for the people becomes an utmost priority. While active monitoring measures may be necessary in some places, urban design can play a major role in devising self-policing and encourage active public life. This paper aims to explore the various spatial and psychological reasons for the occurrence of crime and the role of ‘urban design’ to address this issue. In this research, the principles of urban design are examined, as well as projected on actual site by addressing the issue with urban design principles. In this review the sociological, psychological, typological and morphological factors are addressed which affect the safety of a space and the possible framing guidelines, controls and urban design strategies are explored to address a safe neighborhood. On the basis of statistical survey, the residential and street network of Malviya Nagar in Delhi is chosen as the area of demonstration. The programs inhibit a safe neighborhood and a movement network that are addressed based on the four principles of natural surveillance, territoriality, community building, and connectivity. The paper concludes with a discussion of the urban design as an effective tool by creating an intense active zone with mixed use feature to ensure throughout activity and also ensuring safe pedestrian zone by introducing sense of community feeling and territoriality thus achieving active, useful and public friendly space.
An Approach towards Intelligent Urbanism in New Communities
Technology is a quoted keyword nowadays in all fields; it has been recently thought of and integrated into urban development. This research explains the role of technology in establishing intelligent urbanism to create a convivial and sustainable environment for people to live in. Cities are downgrading socially, economically and environmentally. A framework is to be developed where these three pillars are involved in the planning, design, and spreading of technology to create convivial environments. The aim of this research is achieved by highlighting the importance and approaches of intelligent urbanism, it’s characteristics and principles, then analyzing some relevant examples to achieve a set of guidelines.
Analyzing the Role of Visual Preferences for Designing of Urban Leftover Spaces
A city’s space is comprehended as a phenomenon that emerges from the ongoing negotiation between the constructed environment, urban processes, and bodily experience. Many spaces do not represent a static notion but are continually challenged and reconstituted. The ability to recognize those leftover spaces in the urban context is an integral part of an urban redevelopment process, where structured and layered approaches become useful in understanding to transform these spaces into places. Contemporary urban leftover spaces exist as a result of several factors and are present in every major city that often disrupts the flow of districts by creating visually unappealing places. These spaces can be designed, transformed and integrated so as to achieve environmental gains and social preferences. The paper explores how those small changes in visual quality of an urban leftover spaces in Wellington city influence a person’s experience significantly and its potential usage. These spaces can be seen as a catalyst for a change through an ecological sustainability’s framework. A creative and flexible design would lead to psychologically healthy places by improving the image of a city from within. The qualitative research is undertaken through the visual preference studies which will inform the planning initiatives by knowing what people feel about those visual changes in these leftover spaces. Those visual preferences can guide behavior and the emotional responses of different users for the redesign of those spaces with the meaningful attributes. The research is driven by the hypothesis that if the attributes are made visible, the likelihood of stimulating the interest of users should increase.
The Risks Of 'Techtopia': Reviewing the Negative Lessons of Smart City Development
‘Smart cities’ are not always as ‘smart’ as the term suggests, which is not often covered in the associated academic and public policy literatures. In what has become known as the smart city approach to urban planning, governments around the world are seeking to harness the power of information and communications technology with increasingly advanced data analytics to address major social, economic, and environmental issues reshaping the ways people live. The definitional and theoretical boundaries of the smart city framework are broad and at times ambiguous, as is empirical treatment of the topic. However, and for all the disparity, in investigating any number of institutional and policy prescriptions to the challenges faced by current and emerging metropoles, scholarly thought has hinged overwhelmingly on value-positive conceptions of informatics-centered design. From enhanced quality of services, to increased efficiency of resources, to improved communication between societal stakeholders, the smart city design is championed as a technological wellspring capable of providing answers to the systemic issues stymying a utopian image of the city. However, it is argued that this ‘techtopia’, has resulted in myopia within the discipline as to value-negative implications of such planning, such as weaknesses in practicality, scalability, social equity and affordability of solutions. In order to more carefully examine this observation - that ‘stupid’ represents an omitted variable bias in the study of ‘smart’ - this paper reviews critical cases of unsuccessful smart city developments. It is argued that also understanding the negative factors affiliated with the development processes is imperative for the advancement of theoretical foundations, policies, and strategies to further the smart city as an equitable, holistic urban innovation. What emerges from the process-tracing carried out in this study are distinctly negative lessons of smart city projects, the significance of which are vital for understanding how best to conceive smart urban planning in the 21st century.
A Security Study for Smart Metering Systems
In modern societies, the smart cities concept raised simultaneously with the projection towards adopting smart devices. A smart grid is an essential part of any smart city as both consumers and power utility companies benefit from the features provided by the power grid. In addition to advanced features presented by smart grids, there may also be a risk when the grids are exposed to malicious acts such as security attacks performed by terrorists. Considering advanced security measures in the design of smart meters could reduce these risks. This paper presents a security study for smart metering systems with a prototype implementation of the user interfaces for future works.
Spatial Accessibility to Airports in Turkey: Evaluating the Changes over Time
There certainly is a relation between accessibility and transportation infrastructure, so it is critical to investigate the changes in accessibility caused by the changes in transport infrastructure (especially airports, highways, metro lines and high-speed railways) over time. How the policy changes in air transport and new airport investments effect accessibility, and consequently travel behavior is the main drive for this study. The nature of air transportation in Turkey changed after 2001 with two important amendments. Firstly, the airlines were entitled to determine the ticket prices for domestic flights in 2001. Secondly, all obstacles for private airline companies were removed in 2003, and the domestic flight market has been completely liberalized. As a result of this, the number of air passengers and the rate of air transport passengers in interurban travel passengers dramatically increased. In addition, the number of active airports went up from 25 to 52 within twelve years. These developments brought the airport transportation into prominence, so accessibility to airports.
The aim of this study is to investigate the changes in accessibility to airports between the years of 2000, 2007 and 2014 for each district in Turkey. Within this scope, firstly we will determine the boundaries and estimate the population of catchment areas of each airport according to maximum covered travel distance and travel time using ArcGIS Network Analyst program. Secondly we will reveal districts accessible from at least an airport within 30, 60 and 120 minutes travel time. So, we will trace the effects of newly activated or built airports on the catchment areas of the other airports and accessibility to these airports. The main finding of the study is that the distance to main hubs and the total catchment population of airports have combined effects on the number of air passengers and accessibility degrees of districts in Turkey.
A Study of the Adaptive Reuse for School Land Use Strategy: An Application of the Analytic Network Process and Big Data
In today's popularity and progress of information technology, the big data set and its analysis are no longer a major conundrum. Now, we could not only use the relevant big data to analyze and emulate the possible status of urban development in the near future but also provide more comprehensive and reasonable policy implementation basis for government units or decision-makers via the analysis and emulation results as mentioned above. In this research, we set Taipei City as the research scope, and use the relevant big data variables (e.g., population, facility utilization and related social policy ratings) and Analytic Network Process (ANP) approach to implement of in-depth research and discussion for the possible reduction of land use in primary and secondary schools of Taipei City. In addition, to increase the urban public land area to meet the increasingly prosperous urban activities, the final results of this research could improve the efficiency of urban land use. Furthermore, the assessment model and research framework established in this research also provide a good reference for schools or other public facilities land use and adaptive reuse strategies in the future.
Quality Function Deployment Application in Sewer Pipeline Assessment
Infrastructure assets are essential in urban cities; their purpose is to facilitate the public needs. As a result, their conditions and states shall always be monitored to avoid any sudden malfunction. Sewer systems, one of the assets, are an essential part of the underground infrastructure as they transfer sewer medium to designated areas. However, their conditions are subject to deterioration due to aging. Therefore, it is of great significance to assess the conditions of pipelines to avoid sudden collapses. Current practices of sewer pipeline assessment rely on industrial protocols that consider distinct defects and grades to conclude the limited average or peak score of the assessed assets. This research aims to enhance the evaluation by integrating the Quality Function Deployment (QFD) and the Decision-Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) methods in assessing the condition of sewer pipelines. The methodology shall study the cause and effect relationship of the systems’ defects to deduce the relative influence weights of each defect. Subsequently, the overall grade is calculated by aggregating the WHAT’s and HOW’s of the House of Quality (HOQ) using the computed relative weights. Thus, this study shall enhance the evaluation of the assets to conclude informative rehabilitation and maintenance plans for decision makers.
Third Places for Social Sustainability: A Planning Framework Based on Local and International Comparisons
Social sustainability, as an independent dimension of sustainable development, has gained some acknowledgement, becoming an important aspect in sustainable urban planning internationally. However, limited research aiming at promoting social sustainability within urban environments exists within South Africa. This is mainly due to the different dimensions of sustainable development (e.g., Environmental, Economic and Social) not being equally prioritised by policy makers and supported by implementation strategies, guidelines, and frameworks. Third places, introduced as any place other than our homes (first place) and work (second place) have become an integrated part of sustainable urban planning. As third places take on a large role in our lives, consisting of every place 'in between', the importance of planning for such places can only be measured through identifying and highlighting the social sustainability benefits thereof. The aim of this research paper is to introduce third place planning within urban environments to ultimately enhance social sustainability. Selected background planning approaches influencing the planning of third places will briefly be touched on, as the focus will be placed on the social sustainability benefits provided through third place planning within an urban setting. The study will commence by defining and introducing the concept of third places within urban environments as well as an in depth discussion on social sustainability, acting as one of the three dimensions of sustainable development. This will gain the researcher an improved understanding of social sustainability for the study to flow into an integrated discussion of the benefits third places provide towards social sustainability and the impact it has on improved quality of life within urban environments. Finally, a case study comparison of local and international examples of third places identified will visually be illustrated. These international case studies will contribute towards the conclusion of this study where a local gap analysis will be formulated, based on local third place evidence and international best practices in order to formulate a framework on improving social sustainability through third place planning within the local South African context.
Post-Soviet LULC Analysis of Tbilisi, Batumi and Kutaisi Using of Remote Sensing and Geo Information System
Human is a part of the urban landscape and responsible for it. Urbanization of cities includes the longest phase; thus none of the environment ever undergoes such anthropogenic impact as the area of large cities. The post-Soviet period is very interesting in terms of scientific research. The changes that have occurred in the cities since the collapse of the Soviet Union have not yet been analyzed best to our knowledge. In this context, the aim of this paper is to analyze the changes in the land use of the three large cities of Georgia (Tbilisi, Kutaisi, Batumi). Tbilisi as a capital city, Batumi as a port city, and Kutaisi as a former industrial center. Data used during the research process are conventionally divided into satellite and supporting materials. For this purpose, the largest topographic maps (1:10 000) of all three cities were analyzed, Tbilisi General Plans (1896, 1924), Tbilisi and Kutaisi historical maps. The main emphasis was placed on the classification of Landsat images. In this case, we have classified the images LULC (LandUse / LandCover) of all three cities taken in 1987 and 2016 using the supervised and unsupervised methods. All the procedures were performed in the programs: Arc GIS 10.3.1 and ENVI 5.0. In each classification we have singled out the following classes: built-up area, water bodies, agricultural lands, green cover and bare soil, and calculated the areas occupied by them. In order to check the validity of the obtained results, additionally we used the higher resolution images of CORONA and Sentinel. Ultimately we identified the changes that took place in the land use in the post-Soviet period in the above cities. According to the results, a large wave of changes touched Tbilisi and Batumi, though in different periods. It turned out that in the case of Tbilisi, the area of developed territory has increased by 13.9% compared to the 1987 data, which is certainly happening at the expense of agricultural land and green cover, in particular, the area of agricultural lands has decreased by 4.97%; and the green cover by 5.67%. It should be noted that Batumi has obviously overtaken the country's capital in terms of development. With the unaided eye it is clear that in comparison with other regions of Georgia, everything is different in Batumi. In fact, Batumi is an unofficial summer capital of Georgia. Undoubtedly, Batumi’s development is very important both in economic and social terms. However, there is a danger that in the uneven conditions of urban development, we will eventually get a developed center - Batumi, and multiple underdeveloped peripheries around it. Analysis of the changes in the land use is of utmost importance not only for quantitative evaluation of the changes already implemented, but for future modeling and prognosis of urban development. Raster data containing the classes of land use is an integral part of the city's prognostic models.
A Method for Allocation of Smart Intersections Using Traffic Information
This study aims is to suggest the basic factors by considering the priority of intersection in the diffusion project of Smart intersection. Busan Metropolitan City is conducting a smart intersection project for efficient traffic management. The smart intersection project aims to make breakthrough improvement of the intersection congestion by optimizing the signal system using CCTV (closed-circuit television camera) image analysis technology. This study investigated trends of existing researches and analyzed by setting three things of traffic volume, characteristics of intersection road, and whether or not to conduct the main arterial road as factors for selecting new intersection when spreading smart intersection. Using this, we presented the priority of the newly installed intersection through the present situation and analysis for the Busan Metropolitan City which is the main destination of the spreading project of the smart intersection. The results of this study can be used as a consideration in the implementation of smart intersection business.
3D Visualization for the Relationship of the Urban Rule and Building Form by Using CityEngine
The purpose of this study is to visualize how the rule related to urban design influences the building form by 3D modeling software CityEngine. In order to make the goal of urban design clearly connect to urban form, urban planner or designer should understand how the rule affects the form, especially the building form. In Taiwan, the rule pertained to urban design includes traditional zoning, urban design review and building codes. However, zoning cannot precisely expect the outcome of building form and lack of thinking about public realm and 3D form. In addition to that, urban design review is based on case by case, don’t have a comprehensive regulation plan and the building code is just for general regulation. Therefore, rule cannot make the urban form reach the vision or goal of the urban design. Consequently, another kind of zoning called Form-based code (FBC) has arisen. This study uses the component of FBC which pertained to urban fabric such as street width, block and plot size, etc., to be the variants of building form and find out the relationship between the rule and building form. There are three stages of this research, it will start from a field survey of Taichung City in Taiwan to induce the rule-building form relationship. Second, visualize the relationship through the parameterized and codified process in CityEngine which is the procedural modeling, and can analyze, monitor and visualize the 3D world. Last, compare the CityEngine result with real world to examine how extent do this model represent the real world appearance.
Properties of Triadic Concrete Containing Rice Husk Ash and Wood Waste Ash as Partial Cement Replacement
Concrete is one of the most popular materials used in construction industry. However, one of the setbacks is that concrete can degrade with time upon exposure to an aggressive environment that leads to decrease in strength. Thus, research works and innovative ways are needed to enhance the strength and durability of concrete. This work tries to look into the potential use of rice husk ash (RHA) and wood waste ash (WWA) as cement replacement material. These are waste materials that may not only enhance the properties of concrete but also can serves as a viable method of disposal of waste for sustainability. In addition, a substantial replacement of Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) with these pozzolans will mean reduction in CO₂ emissions and high energy requirement associated with the production of OPC. This study is aimed at assessing the properties of triadic concrete produced using RHA and WWA as a partial replacement of cement. The effects of partial replacement of OPC with 10% RHA and 5% WWA on compressive and tensile strength of concrete among other properties were investigated. Concrete was produced with nominal mix of 1:2:4 and 0.55 water-cement ratio, prepared, cured and subjected to compressive and tensile strength test at 3, 7, 14, 28 and 90days. The experimental data demonstrate that concrete containing RHA and WWA produced lighter weight in comparison with OPC sample. Results also show that combination of RHA and WWA help to prolong the initial and final setting time by about 10-30% compared to the control sample. Furthermore, compressive strength was increased by 15-30% with 10% RHA and 5% WWA replacement, respectively above the control, RHA and WWA samples. Tensile strength test at the ages of 3, 7, 14, 28 and 90 days reveals that a replacement of 15% RHA and 5% WWA produced samples with the highest tensile capacity compared to the control samples. Thus, it can be concluded that RHA and WWA can be used as partial cement replacement materials in concrete.
Revisiting the Legal Framework of Urban Planning in the Global South: An Explanatory Example of Nigeria
This paper discussed the profession of urban planning within the context of the Nigerian legal system. In Nigeria, there is an array of legislation relevant to urban planning profession which is aimed at securing sustainable cities through various planning activities. The paper established the relationship between law and urban planning activities and put it that the latter is an offshoot of the former. It further discussed the legal framework of urban planning in Nigeria, with due consideration to the problems inherent in it and the effects of such problems on urban development in the country. The paper also suggested a need for paradigm shift by providing for strategies rooted in law towards viable urban and regional development and economic growth in Nigeria. The paper concluded that strengthening the legal framework of urban planning will provide opportunities for equitable and spatial allocation of resources that takes cognisance of the social, economic, institutional and environmental dimensions of an urban centre.
Seismic Assessment of Non-structural Component using Floor Design Spectrum
Experiences in the past earthquakes have clearly demonstrated the necessity of seismic design and assessment of Non-Structural Components (NSCs) particularly in post-disaster structures such as hospitals, power plants, etc. as they have to be permanently functional and operational. Meeting this objective is contingent upon having proper seismic performance of both structural and non-structural components. Proper seismic design, analysis, and assessment of NSCs can be attained through generation of Floor Design Spectrum (FDS) in a similar fashion as target spectrum for structural components. This paper presents the developed methodology to generate FDS directly from corresponding Uniform Hazard Spectrum (UHS) (i.e. design spectra for structural components). The methodology is based on the experimental and numerical analysis of a database of 27 real Reinforced Concrete (RC) buildings which are located in Montreal, Canada. The buildings were tested by Ambient Vibration Measurements (AVM) and their dynamic properties have been extracted and used as part of the approach. Database comprises 12 low-rises, 10 medium-rises, and 5 high-rises and they are mostly designated as post-disaster\emergency shelters by the city of Montreal. The buildings are subjected to 20 compatible seismic records to UHS of Montreal and Floor Response Spectra (FRS) are developed for every floors in two horizontal direction considering four different damping ratios of NSCs (i.e. 2, 5, 10, and 20 % viscous damping). Generated FRS (approximately 132’000 curves) are statistically studied and the methodology is proposed to generate the FDS directly from corresponding UHS. The approach is capable of generating the FDS for any selection of floor level and damping ratio of NSCs. It captures the effect of: dynamic interaction between primary (structural) and secondary (NSCs) systems, higher and torsional modes of primary structure. These are important improvements of this approach compared to conventional methods and code recommendations. Application of the proposed approach are represented here through two real case-study buildings: one low-rise building and one medium-rise. The proposed approach can be used as practical and robust tool for seismic assessment and design of NSCs especially in existing post-disaster structures.
Combined Effect of Heat Stimulation and Delay Addition of Superplasticizer with Slag on Fresh and Hardened Property of Mortar
To obtain the high quality and essential workability of mortar, the deferent type of superplasticizers is used. The superplasticizers are the chemical admixture used in the mix to improve the fluidity of mortar. Many factors influenced on the superplasticizer to disperse the cement particle in the mortar. Nature and amount of replaced cement by slag, mixing procedure, delay addition time, and heat stimulation technique of superplasticizer, cause the varied effect on the fluidity of the cementitious material. In this experiment, the superplasticizers heated for one hour under 60˚C in a thermostatic chamber. Furthermore, the effect of delay addition time of heat stimulated superplasticizers (SP) were also analyzed. This method was applied to two types of polycarboxylic acid based ether superplasticizer (precast type superplasticizer (SP2) and ready-mix type superplasticizer(SP1)) in combination with a partially replacement of normal Portland cement with blast furnace slag (BFS) with 30% w/c ratio. On the other hands, the fluidity, air content, fresh density, and compressive strength for 7 and 28 days were studied. The results indicate that the addition time and heat stimulation technique improved the flow and air content and decrease the density and slightly decrease the compressive strength of mortar. Moreover, the slag improved the flow of mortar by increasing the amount of slag the effect of external temperature of superplasticizer on the flow of mortar also decreased. In comparison, the flow of mortar was improved on 5-minute delay for both kinds of SP, but SP1 has improved the flow than SP2 in all condition. Most importantly, the transition points in both types of SP appear to be the same, at about 5 ± 1 min. In addition, the optimum addition time of SP to mortar should be in this period.
Assessment of Urban Infrastructure and Health Using Principal Component Analysis and Geographic Information System: A Case of Ahmedabad, India
Across the globe, there is a steady increase in people residing in urban areas. Due to this increase in urban population, urban health is affecting. The major issues identified like overcrowding, air pollution, unhealthy diet, inadequate infrastructure, poor solid waste management systems and insufficient access to health facilities, these issues are gradually clearly observed in health statistics of diseases and deaths rapidly increase in urban areas. Therefore, the present study aims to assess the health statistics and infrastructure services at urban areas to know the cause and effect between Infrastructure, its management and diseases (water borne). Most of the Indian cities have the municipal boundaries, which authorized by their respective municipal corporations and development authorities. Generally, cities have various zones under which municipal wards exist. The paper focuses on the city Ahmedabad, at Gujarat state. Ahmedabad Municipal Corporation (AMC) is divided into six zones namely Central zone, West zone, New-West zone, East zone, North zone, and South zone. Each zone includes various wards within it. Incidence of diseases in Ahmadabad which are linked to infrastructure was identified such as water-borne diseases. Later on, the occurrence of water-borne diseases at urban area was examined at each zone level. The study methodology follows four steps i.e. 1) Pre-Field literature study: Study on Sewerage system in urban areas and its best practices and public health status globally and Indian scenario; 2) Field study: Data collection and interviews of stakeholders regarding heal status and issues at each zone and ward level; 3) Post field: Data analysis with qualitative description of each ward of zones, followed by correlation coefficient analysis between sewerage coverage, diseases and density of each ward using geographic information system mapping (GIS); 4) Identification of reasons: Affected health on each of zone and wards followed by correlation analysis on each reason. The results reveal that the health conditions in Ahmedabad municipal zones or boundaries are effected due to the slums created by the migrated people from various rural and urban areas. It is also observed that due to increase in population water supply and sewerage management is affecting. The overall effect on infrastructure is creating the health diseases which detailed in the paper using geographical information system in Indian city.
Restoring Urban South Africa through a Sustainable Green Infrastructure Approach
Referring to the entire green network within urban environments, at all spatial scales, green infrastructure is considered as an important constituent of sustainable development within urban areas through planning for a healthy environment and simultaneously improving quality of life for the people. Green infrastructure has made its appearance internationally in terms of the infrastructural urban environment focussing on ecological systems and sustaining society while building with nature. Within South Africa, the terminology of green infrastructure has, however, not continuously been entertained, mainly due to more pressing realities and challenges faced within urban areas of South Africa that include but are not limited to basic service provision, financial constraints and a lack of guiding policies and frameworks. But the notion of green infrastructure planning has changes, creating a newfound movement within urban areas of South Africa encouraging green infrastructure for urban resilience. Although green infrastructure is not an entirely new concept within the local context of South Africa, the benefits thereof constantly needs to be identified in order to measure the value of green infrastructure. Consequently challenges faces within urban areas of South Africa, in terms of human and nature, could be restored through focussing on a sustainable green infrastructure approach. This study does not focus on the pressing challenges and realities faced within urban areas of South Africa but rather aims solely on improving a green infrastructure approach within urban areas of South Africa. At the outset, the study will commence by introducing the concept of a green infrastructure approach by means of a local and international comparison. This will ensure an improved conceptual understanding of green infrastructure within a local South African context. The green infrastructure concept will be elaborated on through the inclusion of South African case study evaluations. The selected case studies will illustrate existing green infrastructure implementation within South Africa along with the benefits provided through the implementation thereof in terms of human (the people) and nature (the natural environment). As green infrastructure within South Africa continues to remain a fairly new concept with moderate levels of implementation thereof, room for improving on the approach in terms of implementation and maintenance exist. For this reason, the study will conclude with alternative green infrastructure suggestions and approaches to possibly be enforced within South Africa, led by international best practices.
Permeable Asphalt Pavement as a Measure of Urban Green Infrastructure in the Extreme Events Mitigation
Population growth in cities has led to an increase in the infrastructures construction, including buildings and roadways. This aspect leads directly to the soils waterproofing. In turn, changes in precipitation patterns are developing into higher and more frequent intensities. Thus, these two conjugated aspects decrease the rainwater infiltration into soils and increase the volume of surface runoff. The practice of green and sustainable urban solutions has encouraged research in these areas. The porous asphalt pavement, as a green infrastructure, is part of practical solutions set to address urban challenges related to land use and adaptation to climate change. In this field, permeable pavements with porous asphalt mixtures (PA) have several advantages in terms of reducing the runoff generated by the floods. The porous structure of these pavements, compared to a conventional asphalt pavement, allows the rainwater infiltration in the subsoil and, consequently, the water quality improvement. This green infrastructure solution can be applied in cities, particularly in streets or parking lots to mitigate the floods effects. Over the years, the pores of these pavements can be filled by sediment, reducing their function in the rainwater infiltration. Thus, double layer porous asphalt (DLPA) was developed to mitigate the clogging effect and facilitate the water infiltration into the lower layers. This study intends to deepen the knowledge of the performance of DLPA when subjected to clogging. The experimental methodology consisted on four evaluation phases of the DLPA infiltration capacity submitted to three precipitation events (100, 200 and 300 mm/h) in each phase. The evaluation first phase determined the behavior after DLPA construction. In phases two and three, two 500 g/m2 clogging cycles were performed, totaling a 1000 g/m2 final simulation. Sand with gradation accented in fine particles was used as clogging material. In the last phase, the DLPA was subjected to simple sweeping and vacuuming maintenance. A precipitation simulator, type sprinkler, capable of simulating the real precipitation was developed for this purpose. The main conclusions show that the DLPA has the capacity to drain the water, even after two clogging cycles. The infiltration results of flows lead to an efficient performance of the DPLA in the surface runoff attenuation, since this was not observed in any of the evaluation phases, even at intensities of 200 and 300 mm/h, simulating intense precipitation events. The infiltration capacity under clogging conditions decreased about 7% on average in the three intensities relative to the initial performance that is after construction. However, this was restored when subjected to simple maintenance, recovering the DLPA hydraulic functionality. In summary, the study proved the efficacy of using a DLPA when it retains thicker surface sediments and limits the fine sediments entry to the remaining layers. At the same time, it is guaranteed the rainwater infiltration and the surface runoff reduction and is, therefore, a viable solution to put into practice in permeable pavements.
Geo-Spatial Methods to Better Understand Urban Food Deserts
Food deserts are a reality in some cities. These deserts can be described as a shortage of healthy food options within close proximity of consumers. The shortage in this case is typically facilitated by a lack of stores in an urban area that provide adequate fruit and vegetable choices. This study explores new avenues to better understand food deserts by examining modes of transportation that are available to shoppers or consumers, e.g. walking, automobile, or public transit. Further, this study is unique in that it not only explores the location of large grocery stores, but small grocery and convenience stores too. In this study, the relationship between some socio-economic indicators, such as personal income, are also explored to determine any possible association with food deserts. In addition, to help facilitate our understanding of food deserts, complex network spatial models that are built on adequate algorithms are used to investigate the possibility of food deserts in the city of Hamilton, Canada. It is found that Hamilton, Canada is adequate serviced by retailers who provide healthy food choices and that the food desert phenomena is almost absent.
The Relationship between Land Use Factors and Feeling of Happiness at the Neighbourhood Level
Happiness can be related to everything that can provide a feeling of satisfaction or pleasure. Although previous studies have identified different indicators such as social, economic, and environmental factors to increase the feeling of happiness in human life, there have been limited studies that examine the relationship between land use factors and feeling of happiness at the neighbourhood level. Therefore, this study focuses on this relationship by introducing some land use variables, such as beautiful and attractive neighbourhood design, availability and quality of shopping centres, sufficient recreational spaces and facilities, and sufficient daily service centres (banks, educational centres, etc.) in addition to the socio-economic factors (gender, race, marital status, employment status, education, and income) as independent variables and the happiness score as the dependent variable. This study uses the Oxford happiness questionnaire to estimate happiness score of more than 300 people living in six neighbourhoods. The neighbourhoods are selected randomly from Skudai neighbourhoods in Johor, Malaysia. The land use data were obtained by adding related questions to the Oxford happiness questionnaire. The strength of the relationship in this study is found using generalised linear modelling (GLM). The findings of this research indicate that increase in happiness feeling is correlated with an increasing income, more beautiful and attractive neighbourhood design, sufficient shopping centres, recreational spaces, and daily service centres. The results show that all land use factors in this study have significant relationship with happiness but only income, among socio-economic factors, can affect happiness significantly. Therefore, land use factors can affect happiness in Skudai more than socio-economic factors.
Generation of Roof Design Spectra Directly from Uniform Hazard Spectra
Proper seismic evaluation of Non-Structural Components (NSCs) mandates an accurate estimation of floor seismic demands (i.e. acceleration and displacement demands). Most of the current international codes incorporate empirical equations to calculate equivalent static seismic force for which NSCs and their anchorage system must be designed. These equations, in general, are functions of component mass and peak seismic acceleration to which NSCs are subjected to during the earthquake. However, recent studies have shown that these recommendations are suffered from several shortcomings such as neglecting the higher mode effect, tuning effect, NSCs damping effect, etc. which cause underestimation of the component seismic acceleration demand. This work is aimed to circumvent the aforementioned shortcomings of code provisions as well as improving them by proposing a simplified, practical, and yet accurate approach to generate acceleration Floor Design Spectra (FDS) directly from corresponding Uniform Hazard Spectra (UHS) (i.e. design spectra for structural components). A database of 27 Reinforced Concrete (RC) buildings in which Ambient Vibration Measurements (AVM) have been conducted. The database comprises 12 low-rise, 10 medium-rise, and 5 high-rise buildings all located in Montréal, Canada and designated as post-disaster buildings or emergency shelters. The buildings are subjected to a set of 20 compatible seismic records and Floor Response Spectra (FRS) in terms of pseudo acceleration are derived using the proposed approach for every floor of the building in both horizontal directions considering 4 different damping ratios of NSCs (i.e. 2, 5, 10, and 20% viscous damping). Several effective parameters on NSCs response are evaluated statistically. These parameters comprise NSCs damping ratios, tuning of NSCs natural period with one of the natural periods of supporting structure, higher modes of supporting structures, and location of NSCs. The entire spectral region is divided into three distinct segments namely short-period, fundamental period, and long period region. The derived roof floor response spectra for NSCs with 5% damping are compared with the 5% damping UHS and procedure are proposed to generate roof FDS for NSCs with 5% damping directly from 5% damped UHS in each spectral region. The generated FDS is a powerful, practical, and accurate tool for seismic design and assessment of acceleration-sensitive NSCs particularly in existing post-critical buildings which have to remain functional even after the earthquake and cannot tolerate any damage to NSCs.
Modeling of Foundation-Soil Interaction Problem by Using Reduced Soil Shear Modulus
In order to simulate the infinite soil medium for soil-foundation interaction problem, the essential geotechnical parameter on which the foundation stiffness depends, is the value of soil shear modulus. This parameter directly affects the site and structural response of the considered model under earthquake ground motions. Strain-dependent shear modulus under cycling loads makes difficult to estimate the accurate value in computation of foundation stiffness for the successful dynamic soil-structure interaction analysis. The aim of this study is to discuss in detail how to use the appropriate value of soil shear modulus in the computational analyses and to evaluate the effect of the variation in shear modulus with strain on the impedance functions used in the sub-structure method for idealizing the soil-foundation interaction problem. Herein, the impedance functions compose of springs and dashpots to represent the frequency-dependent stiffness and damping characteristics at the soil-foundation interface. Earthquake-induced vibration energy is dissipated into soil by both radiation and hysteretic damping. Therefore, flexible-base system damping, as well as the variability in shear strengths, should be considered in the calculation of impedance functions for achievement a more realistic dynamic soil-foundation interaction model. In this study, it has been written a Matlab code for addressing these purposes. The case-study example chosen for the analysis is considered as a 4-story reinforced concrete building structure located in Istanbul consisting of shear walls and moment resisting frames with a total height of 12m from the basement level. The foundation system composes of two different sized strip footings on clayey soil with different plasticity (Herein, PI=13 and 16). In the first stage of this study, the shear modulus reduction factor was not considered in the MATLAB algorithm. The static stiffness, dynamic stiffness modifiers and embedment correction factors of two rigid rectangular foundations measuring 2m wide by 17m long below the moment frames and 7m wide by 17m long below the shear walls are obtained for translation and rocking vibrational modes. Afterwards, the dynamic impedance functions of those have been calculated for reduced shear modulus through the developed Matlab code. The embedment effect of the foundation is also considered in these analyses. It can easy to see from the analysis results that the strain induced in soil will depend on the extent of the earthquake demand. It is clearly observed that when the strain range increases, the dynamic stiffness of the foundation medium decreases dramatically. The overall response of the structure can be affected considerably because of the degradation in soil stiffness even for a moderate earthquake. Therefore, it is very important to arrive at the corrected dynamic shear modulus for earthquake analysis including soil-structure interaction.
The Desirable Construction of Urbanity in Spaces for Public Use
In recent years, there has been a great discussion about urbanism, the right to the city, the search for the public space and the occupation and appropriation of people in the spaces of the city. This movement happens all over the world and also in the great Brazilian metropolises. The more human-friendly city - the desirable construction of urbanity - as well as the encouragement of walking or bicycling to the detriment of cars is one of the major issues addressed by urban planners and challenges in the process of reviewing regulatory frameworks. The fact is that even if there are public spaces or space for public use in private areas - it is essential that there be, besides a project focused on the people and the use of space, a good management not to generate excess of control and consequently the segregation between different ethnicities, classes or creed. With the insertion of the Strategic Master Plan of Sao Paulo (2014), there is great incentive for them to implement - in the private spaces - of mixed uses and active facades (Services and commerce in the basement of buildings), these incentives will generate a city for people in the medium and long term. This research seeks to discuss the extent to which these spaces are democratic, what their perceptions are in relation to the space of public use in private areas and why this perception may be the one that was originally idealized. For this study, we carried out bibliographic reviews where applied research were carried out in three case studies listed in Sao Paulo. Questionnaires were also applied to the actors who gave answers regarding their perceptions and how they were approached in the places analyzed. After analyzing the material, it was verified that in the three case studies analyzed, sitting on the floor is prohibited. In the two places in Paulista Avenue (Cetenco Plaza and Square of Mall Cidade Sao Paulo) there was no problem whatsoever in relation to the clothes or attitudes of the actors in the streets of Paulista Avenue in Sao Paulo city. Different from what happened in the Itaim neighborhood (Brascan Century Plaza), with more conservative characteristics, where the actors were heavily watched by security and observed by others due to their clothes and attitudes in that area. The city of Sao Paulo is slowly changing, people are increasingly looking for places of quality in public use in their daily lives. The Strategic Master Plan of Sao Paulo (2014) and the Legislation approved in 2016 envision a city more humane and people-oriented in the future. It is up to the private sector, the public, and society to work together so that this glimpse becomes an abundant reality in every city, generating quality of life and urbanity for all.
Emerging Identities: A Transformative ‘Green Zone’
There exists an on-going geographical scar creating a division through the Island of Cyprus and its capital, Nicosia. The currently amputated city center is accessed legally by the United Nations convoys, infiltrated only by Turkish and Greek Cypriot army scouts and illegal traders and scavengers. On Christmas day 1963 in Nicosia, Captain M. Hobden of the British Army took a green chinagraph pencil and on a large scale Joint Army-RAF map ‘marked’ the division. From then on this ‘buffer zone’ was called the ‘green line.' This once dividing form, separating the main communities of Greek and Turkish Cypriots from one another, has now been fully reclaimed by an autonomous intruder. It's currently most captivating inhabitant is nature. She keeps taking over, for the past fifty years indigenous and introduced fauna and flora thrive; trees emerge from rooftops and plants, bushes and flowers grow randomly through the once bustling market streets, allowing this ‘no man’s land’ to teem with wildlife. And where are its limits? The idea of fluidity is ever present; it encroaches into the urban and built environment that surrounds it, and notions of ownership and permanence are questioned. Its qualities have contributed significantly in the search for new ‘identities,' expressed in the emergence of new living conditions, be they real or surreal. Without being physically reachable, it can be glimpsed at through punctured peepholes, military bunker windows that act as enticing portals into an emotional and conceptual level of inhabitation. The zone is mystical and simultaneously suspended in time, it triggers people’s imagination, not just that of the two prevailing communities but also of immigrants, refugees, and visitors; it mesmerizes all who come within its proximity. The paper opens a discussion on the issues and the binary questions raised. What is natural and artificial; what is private and public; what is ephemeral and permanent? The ‘green line’ exists in a central fringe condition and can serve in mixing generations and groups of people; mingling functions of living with work and social interaction; merging nature and the human being in a new-found synergy of human hope and survival, allowing thus for new notions of place to be introduced. Questions seek to be answered, such as, “Is the impossibility of dwelling made possible, by interweaving these ‘in-between conditions’ into eloquently traced spaces?” The methodologies pursued are developed through academic research, professional practice projects, and students’ research/design work. Realized projects, case studies and other examples cited both nationally and internationally hold global and local applications. Both paths of the research deal with the explorative understanding of the impossibility of dwelling, testing the limits of its autonomy. The expected outcome of the experience evokes in the user a sense of a new urban landscape, created from human topographies that echo the voice of an emerging identity.
Planning Sustainable Urban Communities through Nature-Based Solutions: Perspectives from the Global South
In recent decades there has been an increasing strive towards broader sustainable planning practices. A wide range of literature suggests that nature-based solutions (including Green Infrastructure planning) may lead towards socio-economically and environmentally sustainable urban communities. Such research is however mainly based on practices from the Global North with very little reference to the Global South. This study argues that there is a need for Global North knowledge to be translated to Global South context, and interpreted within this unique environment, acknowledging historical and cultural differences between Global North and Global South, and ultimately providing unique solutions for the unique urban reality. This research primarily focuses on nature-based solutions for sustainable urban communities and considers a broad literature review on Global North knowledge regarding such, substantiated by an analysis of purposefully selected case studies. The investigation identifies best practices which could be translated and place such in the context of current Global South perspectives.
A Proposal to Integrate Spatially Explicit Ecosystem Services with Urban Metabolic Modelling
The integration of urban metabolism (UM) with spatially explicit ecosystem service (ES) stocks has the potential to advance sustainable urban development. It will correct the lack of spatially specificity of current urban metabolism models. Furthermore, it will include into UM not only the physical properties of material and energy stocks and flows, but also the implications to the natural capital that provides and maintains human well-being. This paper presents the first stages of a modelling framework by which urban planners can assess spatially the trade-offs of ES flows resulting from urban interventions of different character and scale. This framework allows for a multi-region assessment which takes into account sustainability burdens consequent to an urban planning event occurring elsewhere in the environment. The urban boundary is defined as the Functional Urban Audit (FUA) method to account for trans-administrative ES flows. ES are mapped using CORINE land use within the FUA. These stocks and flows are incorporated into a UM assessment method to demonstrate the transfer and flux of ES arising from different urban planning implementations.