Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 46035

Biological Evaluation and Molecular Modeling Study of Thiosemicarbazide Derivatives as Bacterial Type IIA Topoisomerases Inhibitors
In this contribution, we will describe the inhibitory potency of nine thiosemicarbazide derivatives against bacterial type IIA topoisomerases, their antibacterial profile, and molecular modeling evaluation. We have found that one of the tested compounds, 4-benzoyl-1-(2-methyl-furan-3-ylcarbonyl) thiosemicarbazide, remarkably inhibits the activity of S. aureus DNA gyrase with the IC50 below 5 μM. Besides, this compound displays antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus spp. and E. faecalis at non-cytotoxic concentrations in mammalian cells, with minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) values at 25 μg/mL. Based on the enzymatic and molecular modeling studies we propose two factors, i.e. geometry of molecule and hydrophobic/hydrophilic balance as important molecular properties for developing thiosemicarbazide derivatives as potent Staphylococcus aureus DNA gyrase inhibitors.
Searching for Novel Scaffolds of Triazole Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase
Azoles are a promising class of the new generation of HIV-1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). From thousands of reported compounds, many possess the same basic structure of an aryl substituted azole ring linked by a thioglycolamide chain with another aromatic ring. To find novel extensions for this primary scaffold, we explored the 5-position substitution of triazole NNRTIs using molecular docking followed by synthesis of selected compounds. We discovered that heterocyclic substituents in 5-position of the triazole ring are detrimental to the inhibitory activity of compounds with 4-membered thioglycolamide linker. This substitution seems to be viable only for compounds with a shorter 2-membered linker such as in derivatives of 4‐benzyl‐3‐(benzyl-sulfanyl)‐5‐(thiophen‐2‐yl)‐4H‐1,2,4‐triazole reported earlier. A new scaffold of 2‐[(4‐benzyl‐5‐methyl‐4H‐1,2,4‐triazol‐3‐yl)sulfanyl]‐N‐phenylacetamide has been identified in this study.
Health Effect of the Central European Diet in Postmenopausal Women with Increased Waist Circumference: A Preliminary Study
The Mediterranean diet (MED) is regarded as beneficial in the therapy of central obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities. However, in the traditional diet of the Central European countries, food items with positive nutritional profiles (rye bread, oats, buckwheat, herrings, linseed and rapeseed oil, berries, apples, plums, root vegetables etc.) are also used. We hypothesized that the Central European Diet (CED) may be comparatively effective in reducing symptoms of central obesity as MED. We tested the health effects of the CED, which is an environmentally friendly regional diet and the traditional MED diet in a group of postmenopausal centrally obese women. A total 58 with a mean age of 60 y (50-70y), body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 33.4 (22.6-47.3), and waist circumference of 105 cm (87.5-137 cm) were randomly assigned to receive either the diet based on food items commonly used in Central Europe (the CED group; n = 29) or the Mediterranean diet (the MED group; n = 29) for 15 weeks. Body mass and body composition were measured with a Bod Pod (Cosmed, Italy). A non-elastic flexible measuring tape was used to measure waist circumference. Additionally, blood pressure, plasma lipid and glucose levels were assessed with the use of a biochemical analyzer. A total of 50 subjects [86% (CED 83%; MED 90%)] completed the intervention. A high dietary compliance for both described diets was achieved. The mean (±SEM) weight and waist circumference changes were -7.4 ± 0.7 kg; -8.3 ± 0.7 cm and -8.1 ± 0.5 kg; -7.1 ± 0.6 cm for the CED and MED groups, respectively. Moreover, there were no differences between the effectiveness of the diets used in terms of the influence on fat mass, blood pressure, and biochemical parameters. The preliminary data suggest that both described diets may be successfully used for improving central obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities. The project was financed by the National Science Centre awarded based on the number of decision DEC-013/09/B/NZ9/02365
Circadian Clock and Subjective Time Perception: A Simple Open Source Application for the Analysis of Induced Time Perception in Humans
Subjective time perception implies connection to cognitive functions, attention, memory and awareness, but a little is known about connections with homeostatic states of the body coordinated by circadian clock. In this paper, we present results from experimental study of subjective time perception in volunteers performing physical activity on treadmill in various phases of their circadian rhythms. Subjects were exposed to several time illusions simulated by programmed timing systems. This study brings better understanding for further improvement of of work quality in isolated areas. 
Assessment of the High-Speed Ice Friction of Bob Skeleton Runners
Bob skeleton is a highly competitive sport in which an athlete reaches speeds up to 40 m/s sliding, head first, down an ice track. It is believed that the friction between the runners and ice significantly contributes to the amount of the total energy loss during a bob skeleton descent. There is only limited available experimental data regarding the friction of bob skeleton runners or indeed steel on the ice at high sliding speeds ( > 20 m/s). Testing methods used to investigate the friction of steel on ice in winter sports have been outlined, and their accuracy and repeatability discussed. A system thinking approach was used to investigate the runner-ice interaction during sliding and create concept designs of three ice tribometers. The operational envelope of the bob skeleton system has been defined through mathematical modelling. Designs of a drum, linear and inertia pin-on-disk tribometers were developed specifically for bob skeleton runner testing with the requirement of reaching up to 40 m/s speed and facilitate fresh ice sliding. The design constraints have been outline and the proposed solutions compared based on the ease of operation, accuracy and the development cost.
Engineering Method to Measure the Impact Sound Improvement with Floor Coverings
Methodology used to measure the reduction of transmitted impact sound by floor coverings situated on a massive floor is described in ISO 10140-3: 2010. To carry out such tests, the standardised reverberation room separated by a standard floor from the second measuring room are required. The need to have a special laboratory results in high cost and low accessibility of this measurement. The authors propose their own engineering method to measure the impact sound improvement with floor coverings. This method does not require standard rooms and floor. This paper describes the measurement procedure of proposed engineering method. Further, verification tests were performed. Validation of the proposed method was based on the analytical model, Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) model and empirical measurements. The received results were related to corresponding ones obtained from ISO 10140-3:2010 measurements. The study confirmed the usefulness of the engineering method.
Designing a Functional Bread Premixes Recipes Involving White Mulberry Fruit
The object of this study was to develop recipes and technology of production of functional bread with morus alba fruit addition. There were prepared four samples of functional breads and the control sample also. Bread recipe was designed for supporting the treatment of anemia, diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular diseases. Samples of bread were baked with mixes directly after preparation and after three months' storage, each time preparing the water and methanol extracts. The sensory analysis and nutritional value were estimated. The antioxidant activity were estimated used tests such as the ability to scavenge free radical DPPH, the ability to scavenge the ABTS cation, chelating properties and the total content of polyphenols. The study results showed that the prepared sample of functional breads were characterized by a high nutritional value with high concentration of biologically active compounds which showed antioxidant activity. In addition, the profile sensory of bread samples was highly rated. However, to determine whether they can be considered as a new product preset pro-health properties require additional nutritional studies - clinical trials.
Deceased Donors with Terminal Acute Kidney Injury as a Valuable Source of Organs
Background: Organ transplantation is currently the standard management of patients with end-stage failure of renal, liver or heart. The criteria for organ acceptance became more flexible due to the big discrepancy between organ supply and increasing requirements. However, kidneys from deceased donors with acute kidney injury (AKI) are not widely accepted for transplantation. Aim: The aim of this study was to report the results of kidney transplantation when organs were procured from deceased donors with AKI. Material and Methods: Four hundred sixty-five patients received cadaveric renal transplants in the analyzed period. Data regarding donors, organ storage, recipients, and results of kidney transplantation were collected. Terminal AKI was identified when the terminal serum creatinine concentration was greater than 1.99 mg/dL (110 cases). Results: There were more episodes of delayed graft function (DGF) observed in the AKI group compared to the non-AKI group (50% vs. 29%, P < 0.05). There were no differences in the serum creatinine concentrations in the first, third, or fourth year post-transplantation between groups. There were no differences in patient and graft survival between the groups. Conclusion: Donors with AKI are valuable source of kidneys and may expand the organ pool.
The Effect of Addition of White Mulberry Fruit on the Polyphenol Content in the New Developed Bioactive Bread
In recent years, proceed to the attractiveness of typical bakery products. Expanding the education and nutrition knowledge society will develop the production of functional foods, which has a positive impact on human health. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the addition of white mulberry fruit on the content of biologically active compounds in the new designed functional bread premixes designed for selected disease: anemia, diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. For flavonols and phenolic acids content UPLC was conducted, using an NovaPack C18 column and a gradient elution system. It was found that all attempts bread characterized by a high content of biologically active compounds: polyphenols, phenolic acids, and flavonoids. The highest total content of polyphenolic compounds found in the samples of bread for anemia, diabetes and cardiovascular disease both before and after storage. The analyzed sample differed in content of phenolic acids. The highest content of these compounds were found in samples of bread for anemia and diabetes. It was found that the analyzed sample contained phenolic acids that are derivatives of hydroxybenzoic and hydroxycinnamic acid. The new designed bread contained significant amounts of flavonols, of which the dominant was routine.
Isotope Effects on Inhibitors Binding to HIV Reverse Transcriptase
In order to understand in details the interactions between ligands and the enzyme isotope effects were studied between clinically used drugs that bind in the active site of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Reverse Transcriptase, HIV-1 RT, as well as triazole-based inhibitor that binds in the allosteric pocket of this enzyme. The magnitudes and origins of the resulting binding isotope effects were analyzed. Subsequently, binding isotope effect of the same triazole-based inhibitor bound in the active site were analyzed and compared. Together, these results show differences in binding origins in two sites of the enzyme and allow to analyze binding mode and place of newly synthesized inhibitors. Typical protocol is described below on the example of triazole ligand in the allosteric pocket. Triazole was docked into allosteric cavity of HIV-1 RT with Glide using extra-precision mode as implemented in Schroedinger software. The structure of HIV-1 RT was obtained from Protein Data Bank as structure of PDB ID 2RKI. The pKa for titratable amino acids was calculated using PROPKA software, and in order to neutralize the system 15 Cl- were added using tLEaP package implemented in AMBERTools ver.1.5. Also N-terminals and C-terminals were build using tLEaP. The system was placed in 144x160x144Å3 orthorhombic box of water molecules using NAMD program. Missing parameters for triazole were obtained at the AM1 level using Antechamber software implemented in AMBERTools. The energy minimizations were carried out by means of a conjugate gradient algorithm using NAMD. Then system was heated from 0 to 300 K with temperature increment 0.001 K. Subsequently 2 ns Langevin−Verlet (NVT) MM MD simulation with AMBER force field implemented in NAMD was carried out. Periodic Boundary Conditions and cut-offs for the nonbonding interactions, range radius from 14.5 to 16 Å, are used. After 2 ns relaxation 200 ps of QM/MM MD at 300 K were simulated. The triazole was treated quantum mechanically at the AM1 level, protein was described using AMBER and water molecules were described using TIP3P, as implemented in fDynamo library. Molecules 20 Å apart from the triazole were kept frozen, with cut-offs established on range radius from 14.5 to 16 Å. In order to describe interactions between triazole and RT free energy of binding using Free Energy Perturbation method was done. The change in frequencies from ligand in solution to ligand bounded in enzyme was used to calculate binding isotope effects.
The Effect of Addition of White Mulberry Fruit on the Sensory Quality of the New Developed Bioactive Bread
The relationship between the choice of a proper diet, a diet, lifestyle man and his health has been known for a long time. Because of the increase in public awareness of food ingredients and their influence on health status, measures have been taken towards the production of food, which is designed to not only eat, but also to protect against the incidence of lifestyle diseases. For this purpose, the bio active products with healthy properties was developed. Mulberry have a very high nutritional value, rich in chemical composition and many properties used in the prevention of lifestyle diseases. In addition to basic chemical components, nutrients, mulberry fruit contain compounds having a physiological effect. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of white mulberry fruit on the sensory quality of bread to be healthy diet of people suffering from anemia, diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Sensory analysis was carried out by the profile method. Intra-operative differentiators color, aroma, taste, texture, and overall assessment. Sensory analysis showed that all test trials were characterized by a uniform and concise consistency, similar in color from dark to light beige. The taste and smell of herbal characteristic was designed in an attempt to prevention of diabetes, while the other samples were characterized by a typical taste and smell of bread grain. There were no foreign taste and odor in the test bread. It was found that the addition of white mulberry fruit does not affect the sensory quality of the newly developed bioactive bread.
Anatomy of the Human Mitral Valve Leaflets: Implications for Transcatheter and Surgical Mitral Valve Repair Techniques
Introduction: Rapid development of the surgical and less-invasive percutaneous mitral valve repair procedures greatly increase the interest of the mitral valve anatomy. The aim of this study was to characterize morphological variability of the mitral valve leaflets and to provide the size of their particular parts. Materials and Methods: In the study, we included 200 autopsied human hearts from Caucasian individuals (25% females) with mean age 47.5 (±17.9) without any valvular diseases. The morphology of the mitral valve was evaluated. The intercommissural and aorto-mural diameters of the mitral annulus were measured. All leaflets and their scallops were identified. The base and the height of the posteromedial commissure (PM-C), anterolateral commissure (AL-C), anterior leaflet (AL) and posterior leaflet (PL) with their scallops were measured. Results: The intercommissural diameter was 28.0±4.8 mm, the aorto-mural diameter 19.7±4.8 mm, circumference of the mitral annulus 89.9±12.6 mm and the area of the mitral valve 485.4±171.4 mm2. Classical mitral valves (AL+AL-C+PL(P1,P2,P3)+PM-C) were found in 141 (70.5%) specimens. In classical type, the mean AL base and height were 30.8±4.9 mm and 20.6±4.2 mm, while mean PL base and height 45.1±8.2 mm 12.9±2.8 mm respectively. The mean ratio of the AL base to PL base was 0.7±0.2. Variations in PL were found in 55 (27.5%) and in AL in 5 (2.5%) hearts. The most common variations were: valve with one accessory scallop (AcS) between P3 and PM-C (7%); AcS between P1 and AL-C (4%); connections of P2 and P3 scallops (4%); connections of P1 and P2 scallops (3%); AcS in AL (2.5%). All AcS were smaller than the main PL scallops. The mean intertrigonal distance was 21.9±3.8 mm. Conclusions: In all cases, the mitral valve is built by two main leaflets with possible variants in secondary to leaflets scallops (29.5%). The variations are largely associated with PL and are mostly related to the presence of AcS. Anatomically the AL is not divided into scallops, and it occupies 34.5% of the mitral annulus circumference. Understanding the anatomy of the mitral valve leaflets helps to planning and performing mitral valve repair procedures.
Validation of the Formula for Air Attenuation Coefficient for Acoustic Scale Models
Methodology of measurement of sound absorption coefficient in scaled models is based on the ISO 354 standard. The measurement is realised indirectly - the coefficient is calculated from the reverberation time of an empty chamber as well as a chamber with an inserted sample. It is crucial to maintain the atmospheric conditions stable during both measurements. Possible differences may be amended basing on the formulas for atmospheric attenuation coefficient α given in ISO 9613-1. Model studies require scaling particular factors in compliance with specified characteristic numbers. For absorption coefficient measurement, these are for example: frequency range or the value of attenuation coefficient m. Thanks to the possibilities of modern electroacoustic transducers, it is no longer a problem to scale the frequencies which have to be proportionally higher. However, it may be problematic to reduce values of the attenuation coefficient. It is practically obtained by drying the air down to a defined relative humidity. Despite the change of frequency range and relative humidity of the air, ISO 9613-1 standard still allows the calculation of the amendment for little differences of the atmospheric conditions in the chamber during measurements. The paper discusses a number of theoretical analyses and experimental measurements performed in order to obtain consistency between the values of attenuation coefficient calculated from the formulas given in the standard and by measurement. The authors performed measurements of reverberation time in a chamber made in a 1/8 scale in a corresponding frequency range, i.e. 800 Hz - 40 kHz and in different values of the relative air humidity (40% 5%). Based on the measurements, empirical values of attenuation coefficient were calculated and compared with theoretical ones. In general, the values correspond with each other, but for high frequencies and low values of relative air humidity the differences are significant. Those discrepancies may directly influence the values of measured sound absorption coefficient and cause errors. Therefore, the authors made an effort to determine an amendment minimizing described inaccuracy.
The Effect of Addition of White Mulberry Fruits on the Antioxidant Activity of the New Developed Bioactive Bread
Cereal products, including mainly bread is a staple food known from the beginning of history throughout the world. It is now believed that there is no replacement of the basic food. Bread, due to the high content of starch is the energy source for the proper functioning of our body. It also contains proteins, fats, vitamins, especially of the B group and vitamin E, a number of minerals, and fiber. The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant activity of new developed bread premixes with mulberry fruits for people with anemia, diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. From the finished product-bread, aqueous and methanol extracts was prepared, which in next step were analyzed to assess the activity of the radical DPPH test, ABTS, chelating activity, the ability to reduce metals. Extracts were prepared from bread were acquired with premixes directly after production and stored for three months. The resulting trial breads effect by different mechanisms of antioxidant. They showed the ability to scavenge radicals ABTS and DPPH and chelating activity. Methanol extracts showed significantly greater antioxidant activity in comparison with aqueous extracts, and the largest effect was estimated for sample of bread for anemia, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. The greatest ability to scavenging ABTS radicals showed breads for anemia, diabetes and cardiovascular disease, while smaller for anemia and control sample. It was shown that the methanol extracts of the breads samples showed no ability to chelate iron (II). These properties are observed only in the aqueous extracts. The greatest ability attempt had anemia while the lowest control sample. Financial supported by the UE Project no POIG 01.01.02-00-061/09.
Corporate Social Responsibility and the Legal Framework of Foreign Direct Investment: Time for Conceptual Innovation
Rapidly increasing debates and initiatives in the area of Corporate Social Responsibility (“CSR”) have reached the world of international investment law. CSR standards that focus on the operations of multinational companies are increasingly relevant in the context of international investment policy making. In the past, the connection between CSR standards and legal framework for foreign direct investment has been largely non-existent. Recently, however, there is a growing trend of a more balance approach to rights and obligations as between investors and states under investment treaties. CSR principles join other social and environmental measures slowly being included in the investment treaties to enhance their sustainable development dimension. Issues of CSR are present on negotiation tables of new mega regional investment treaties like TTIP for example. To date, only a very few bilateral investment treaties and a handful of other international treaties with investment provisions include CSR clauses. In addition, the existing provisions tend to be of a soft type, where parties merely acknowledge importance of good corporate governance and CSR for sustainable development or generally affirm their aim to encourage enterprises to observe internationally recognised guidelines and principles of CSR. The relevant provisions often leave it up to the states to encourage enterprises operating within their territories to voluntarily incorporate CSR principles. The interaction between general non-binding CSR standards, domestic laws and policies and provisions of international investment treaties have not been tested by investment tribunals yet. The role of investment treaties in raising awareness and promoting CSR is still in its infancy. The use of CSR standards in the international investment protection regime for promotion of CSR standards, and as a tool for disciplining investors into complying with such standards, pose a number of questions and is met with resistance from investors` lobbies. Integration of these two areas, CSR and international investment law, both consisting of multilayered, diverse and often overlapping instruments is by no means an easy task. Whether international investment world is ready to embrace CSR standards or shrug them off is a matter of uncertain future. The subject however has been raised, first introductions have been made and the time will show whether the relationship between legal framework of international investment and CSR will flourish or remain dormant.
Anticancer Study of Copper and Zinc Complexes with Doxorubicin
Doxorubicin belongs to the group of anthracycline antitumor antibiotics. Because of the wide spectrum of actions, it is one of the most widely used anthracycline antibiotics, including the treatment of breast, ovary, bladder, lung cancers as well as neuroblastoma, lymphoma, leukemia and myeloid leukemia. Antitumor activity of doxorubicin is based on the same mechanisms as for most anthracyclines. Like the metal ions affect the nucleic acids on many biological processes, so the environment of the metal chelates of antibiotics can have a significant effect on the pharmacological properties of drugs. Complexation of anthracyclines with metal ions may contribute to the production of less toxic compounds. In the framework of this study, the composition of complexes obtained in aqueous solutions of doxorubicin with metal ions (Cu2+ and Zn2+). Complexation was analyzed by spectrophotometric titration in aqueous solution at pH 7.0. The pH was adjusted with 0.02M Tris-HCl buffer. The composition of the complexes found was Cu: doxorubicin (1: 2) and a Zn: doxorubicin (1: 1). The effect of Dox, Dox-Cu and Dox-Zn was examined in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, which were obtained from American Type Culture Collection (ATCC). The compounds were added to the cultured cells for a final concentration in the range of 0,01µM to 0,5µM. The number of MCF-7 cells with division into living and dead, was determined by direct counts of cells with the use of trypan blue dye using LUNA Logos Biosystems cell counter. ApoTox-Glo Triplex Assay (Promega, Madison, Wisconsin, USA) was used according to the manufacturer’s instructions to measure the MCF-7 cells’ viability, cytotoxicity and apoptosis. We observed a decrease in cells proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. An increase in cytotoxicity and decrease in viability in the ApoTox Triplex assay was also showed for all tested compounds. Apoptosis, showed as caspase 3/7 activation, was observed only in Dox treatment. In Dox-Zn and Dox-Cu caspase 3/7 activation was not observed. This work was financially supported by National Science Centre, Poland, under the research project number 2014/13/B/NZ7/02 352.
The Employment Experiences of Qualified Refugees in the UK and the Impact on Identity, Integration, and Wellbeing: A Qualitative Enquiry
Background: Unemployment levels among refugees in the UK are much higher than voluntary migrants and UK-born citizens. The lack of employment and/or of suitable employment has detrimental consequences on refugees’ ability to integrate and become active citizens in the host country. Research indicates that, when individuals are forced to migrate, one of the most significant aspects to building their identity is their previous profession; this particularly applies to qualified refugees. Despite this, there is little support available to them. The current study is set in this context and aims to explore highly qualified refugees’ employment-related experiences in the UK as well as their suggestions on how to develop specific interventions that can support them in finding suitable employment. Methods: A qualitative study design was employed. Qualitative methods are in fact well suited to research with refugees, as they allow them to give their direct opinion, rather than this being filtered by stakeholders. Listening to ‘the refugee’s voice’ means developing ‘a refugee centered perspective’ where the diverse narratives told by participants are organized to tell their direct collective story. A total of 12 refugees, attending a non-profit refugee organization in the south-west of England, took part in the study. The selection criteria were being over 18, having a level of English that allows them to sustain a conversation, and having a University degree and/or professional qualification. All participants were interviewed individually; the data were transcribed and analyzed thematically. Findings: Participants had very little support in finding suitable employment; this often only consisted of a few sessions in their local job centers and English tutorials. They indicated that being unemployed/underemployed negatively affected their sense of identity, their acculturative stress, and their in-group/ out-group relations. They suggested that specific employment interventions for qualified refugees should be delivered to them individually in order to address their specific needs. Furthermore, most participants suggested that these interventions should support them in volunteering in organizations that match their skills/ qualifications. They also indicated that the employment interventions should support them in having their qualifications recognized in the UK as well as building links with universities/ centers where they can receive adequate training on how to understand and adapt to the employments needs in the UK. Conclusions: These findings will provide the basis for the second stage of the research where specific employment interventions will be designed and tested with highly qualified refugees. In addition, these findings shed light refugee integration policy.
Spectroscopic (Ir, Raman, Uv-Vis) and Biological Study of Copper and Zinc Complexes and Sodium Salt with Cichoric Acid
Forming a complex of a phenolic compound with a metal not only alters the physicochemical properties of the ligand (including increase in stability or changes in lipophilicity), but also its biological activity, including antioxidant, antimicrobial and many others. As part of our previous projects, we examined the physicochemical and antimicrobial properties of phenolic acids and their complexes with metals naturally occurring in foods. Previously we studied the complexes of manganese(II), copper(II), cadmium(II) and alkali metals with ferulic, caffeic and p-coumaric acids. In the framework of this study, the physicochemical and biological properties of cicoric acid, its sodium salt, and complexes with copper and zinc were investigated. Cichoric acid is a derivative of both caffeic acid and tartaric acid. It has first been isolated from Cichorium intybus (chicory) but also it occurs in significant amounts in Echinacea, particularly E. purpurea, dandelion leaves, basil, lemon balm and in aquatic plants, including algae and sea grasses. For the study of spectroscopic and biological properties of cicoric acid, its sodium salt, and complexes with zinc and copper a variety of methods were used. Studies of antioxidant properties were carried out in relation to selected stable radicals (method of reduction of DPPH and reduction of FRAP). As a result, the structure and spectroscopic properties of cicoric acid and its complexes with selected metals in the solid state and in the solutions were defined. The IR and Raman spectra of cicoric acid displayed a number of bands that were derived from vibrations of caffeic and tartaric acids moieties. At 1746 and 1716 cm-1 the bands assigned to the vibrations of the carbonyl group of tartaric acid occurred. In the spectra of metal complexes with cichoric these bands disappeared what indicated that metal ion was coordinated by the carboxylic groups of tartaric acid. In the spectra of the sodium salt, a characteristic wide-band vibrations of carboxylate anion occurred. In the spectra of cicoric acid and its salt and complexes, a number of bands derived from the vibrations of the aromatic ring (caffeic acid) were assigned. Upon metal-ligand attachment, the changes in the values of the wavenumbers of these bands occurred. The impact of metals on the antioxidant properties of cicoric acid was also examined. Cichoric acid has a high antioxidant potential. Complexation by metals (zinc, copper) did not significantly affect its antioxidant capacity. The work was supported by the National Science Centre, Poland (grant no. 2015/17/B/NZ9/03581).
Chaenomeles superba Leaves Extract as Natural Preservative of Pork Meat Products
Curing salt is a commonly used preservative in meat products which consists of sodium chloride – 99.5% and sodium nitrate (III) – 0.5%. However, during heating processes (e.g., grilling), nitrates (III) react with proteins, peptides or amines and as a result, carcinogenic nitrosoamines are released. Therefore, more and more research focus on searching for new, natural methods of meat products preservation. Due to strong antioxidant and antibacterial activity, as well as health benefits, polyphenolic extracts are of great interest now. Even though polyphenols occur in all parts of plants, leaves contain the highest amounts of these compounds. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using Chaenomeles superba leaves extract as natural preservative of pork meat products and potential substitute of curing salt. Leaves were collected in August in central Poland, and polyphenols were extracted with water. Identification and quantification of polyphenols were performed using LC-MS (liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry) and HPLC (high-performance liquid chromatography) methods. The influence of polyphenolic extract (concentration of 1-10%) on the viability of selected meat spoilage bacteria (Brochothrix thermosphacta MMAP4, Staphylococcus aureus ŁOCK 0891, Pseudomonas fragi ATCC 4973, Enterobacter aerogenes PCM 532) was analyzed using acridine orange dye and fluorescence microscopy method. The following pork meat products were produced: sausage with the addition of 2% of Chaenomeles superba leaves extract, control sausage with NaCl, sausage with curing mixture. During refrigerated storage in MAP (modified atmosphere packaging), microbiological analysis, measurement of lipid oxidation (TBARS), water holding capacity, color measurement (CIEL*a*b*) and sensory analysis were performed. The following polyphenols were identified in Chaenomeles superba leaves extract: hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives (caffeic, chlorogenic, cryptochlorogenic and p-coumaroylquinic acids), flavons (luteolin-rutinoside), flavanons (naringenin-glucoside) and flavonols (kaempferol-glucoside). The highest concentration of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives was detected. The extract showed antibacterial activity at minimal concentration of 1% against B. thermosphacta, S. aureus and P. fragi and 2% against E. aerogenes. Chaenomeles superba leaves extract slightly improved microbial quality of pork sausages during refrigerated storage in MAP compared to sausage with NaCl. The extract significantly inhibited lipid oxidation and improved water holding capacity of meat products. No influence was observed on color parameters and only curing salt gave characteristic pink-red color of sausages. The extract did not have any negative effect on sensory attributes of pork sausages. In conclusion, Chaenomeles superba leaves extract is an interesting antibacterial and antioxidant agent and show potential as natural preservative of pork meat products. More research should be conducted to improve microbial quality, and color parameters of pork sausages with Chaenomeles superba leaves extract.