Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Abstract Count: 45989

Searching for Novel Scaffolds of Triazole Non-Nucleoside Inhibitors of HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase
Azoles are a promising class of the new generation of HIV-1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs). From thousands of reported compounds, many possess the same basic structure of an aryl substituted azole ring linked by a thioglycolamide chain with another aromatic ring. To find novel extensions for this primary scaffold, we explored the 5-position substitution of triazole NNRTIs using molecular docking followed by synthesis of selected compounds. We discovered that heterocyclic substituents in 5-position of the triazole ring are detrimental to the inhibitory activity of compounds with 4-membered thioglycolamide linker. This substitution seems to be viable only for compounds with a shorter 2-membered linker such as in derivatives of 4‐benzyl‐3‐(benzyl-sulfanyl)‐5‐(thiophen‐2‐yl)‐4H‐1,2,4‐triazole reported earlier. A new scaffold of 2‐[(4‐benzyl‐5‐methyl‐4H‐1,2,4‐triazol‐3‐yl)sulfanyl]‐N‐phenylacetamide has been identified in this study.
Selective Laser Melting (SLM) Process and Its Influence on the Machinability of TA6V Alloy
Titanium alloys are among the most important material in the aircraft industry, due to its low density, high strength, and corrosion resistance. However, these alloys are considered as difficult to machine because they have poor thermal properties and high reactivity with cutting tools. The Selective Laser Melting (SLM) process becomes even more popular through industry since it enables the design of new complex components, that cannot be manufactured by standard processes. However, the high temperature reached during the melting phase as well as the several rapid heating and cooling phases, due to the movement of the laser, induce complex microstructures. These microstructures differ from conventional equiaxed ones obtained by casting+forging. Parts obtained by SLM have to be machined in order calibrate the dimensions and the surface roughness of functional surfaces. The ball milling technique is widely applied to finish complex shapes. However, the machinability of titanium is strongly influenced by the microstructure. So the objective of this work is to investigate the influence of the SLM process, i.e. microstructure, on the machinability of titanium, compared to conventional forming processes. The machinability is analyzed by measuring surface roughness, cutting forces, cutting tool wear for a range of cutting conditions (depth of cut ap, feed per tooth fz, spindle speed N) in accordance with industrial practices.
TA6V Selective Laser Melting as an Innovative Method Produce Complex Shapes
Additive manufacturing is a hot topic for industry. Among the additive techniques, Selective Laser Melting (SLM) becomes even more popular, especially for making parts for aerospace applications, thanks to its design freedom (customized and light structures) and its reduced time to market. However, some functional surfaces have to be machined to achieve small tolerances and low surface roughness to fulfill industry specifications. The complex shapes designed for SLM (ex: titanium turbine blades) necessitate the use of ball end milling operations like in the conventional process after forging. However, the metallurgical state of TA6V is very different from the one obtained usually from forging, because of the laser sintering layer by layer. So this paper aims to investigate the influence of new TA6V metallurgies produced by SLM on the machinability in ball end milling. Machinability is considered as the property of a material to obtain easily and by a cheap way a functional surface. This means, for instance, the property to limit cutting tool wear rate and to get smooth surfaces. So as to reach this objective, SLM parts have been produced and heat treated with various conditions leading to various metallurgies that are compared with a standard equiaxed α+β wrought microstructure. The machinability is analyzed by measuring surface roughness, tool wear and cutting forces for a range of cutting conditions (depth of cut 'ap', feed per tooth 'fz', spindle speed 'N') in accordance with industrial practices. This work has revealed that TA6V produced by SLM can lead to a better machinability that standard wrought alloys.
Study on Carbon Nanostructures Influence on Changes in Static Friction Forces
The Chair of Thermal Engineering at Poznan University of Technology has been conducted research works on the possibilities of using carbon nanostructures in energy and mechanics applications for a couple of years. Those studies have provided results in a form of co-operation with foreign research centres, numerous publications and patent applications. Authors of this paper have studied the influence of multi-walled carbon nanostructures on changes in static friction arising when steel surfaces were moved. Tests were made using the original test stand consisting of automatically controlled inclined plane driven by precise stepper motors. Computer program created in the LabView environment was responsible for monitoring of the stand operation, accuracy of measurements and archiving the obtained results. Such a solution enabled to obtain high accuracy and repeatability of all conducted experiments. Tests and analysis of the obtained results allowed us to determine how additional layers of carbon nanostructures influenced on changes of static friction coefficients. At the same time, we analyzed the potential possibilities of applying nanostructures under consideration in mechanics.
Cryogenic Separation of CO2 from Molten Carbonate Fuel Cell Anode Outlet—Experimental Guidelines
This paper presents an analysis of using cryogenic separation unit for recovering fuel from anode off gas of molten carbonate fuel cells (MCFCs) in order to upgrade the efficiently of the unit. In the proposed solution, the CSU is used for condensing water and carbon dioxide from anode off gas, and re-cycling the rest of the stream to the anode, saving certain amount of fuel (at least 30%). The resulting system efficiency is increased considerably. CSU, virtually consumes power, thus this solution has energy penalty as well, on the other hand, MCFC generates large amount of heat at elevated temperature, thus part of the CSU can be based on absorption chiller. In all cases, a high amount of fuel is obtained after condensation of water and carbon dioxide and re-cycled to the anode inlet. Based on mathematical modeling done previously, the concept and guidelines for forthcoming experimental investigations are presented in this paper. During planned experiments, an existing single cell laboratory stand will be equipped with re-cycle device (a fan, a peristaltic pump, etc.). Parallel, a mixture of anode off gas will be cooled down for determining the proper temperature for the separation of water and carbon dioxide.
CFD Simulation Research on a Double Diffuser for Wind Turbines
Wind power is based on a variety of construction solutions to convert wind energy into electrical energy. These constructions are constrained by the correlation between their energy conversion efficiency and the area they occupy. Their energy conversion efficiency can be improved by wind tunnel tests of a rotor as a diffuser to optimize shapes of aerodynamic elements, to adapt these elements to changing conditions and to increase airflow intensity. This paper discusses the results of computer simulations and aerodynamic analyzes of this innovative diffuser design. The research aims at determining the aerodynamic phenomena triggered by the airflow inside this construction, and developing a design to improve the efficiency of the wind turbine. The research results enable us to design a diffuser with a double Venturi nozzle and specially shaped blades. The design of this type uses Bernoulli’s law on the behavior of the flowing medium in the tunnel of a decreasing diameter. The air flowing along the tunnel changes its velocity so the rotor inside such a decreased tunnel diameter rotates faster in this airflow than does the wind outside this tunnel, which makes the turbine more efficient. Additionally, airflow velocity is improved by applying aerodynamic rings with extended trailing edges to achieve controlled turbulent vortices.
A Dual Spark Ignition Timing Influence for the High Power Aircraft Radial Engine Using a CFD Transient Modeling
A high power radial reciprocating engine is characterized by a large displacement volume of a combustion chamber. Choosing the right moment for ignition is important for a high performance or high reliability and ignition certainty. This work shows methods of simulating ignition process and its impact on engine parameters. For given conditions a flame speed is limited when a deflagration combustion takes place. Therefore, a larger length scale of the combustion chamber compared to a standard size automotive engine makes combustion take longer time to propagate. In order to speed up the mixture burn-up time the second spark is introduced. The transient Computational Fluid Dynamics model capable of simulating multicycle engine processes was developed. The CFD model consists of ECFM-3Z combustion and species transport models. A relative ignition timing difference for the both spark sources is constant. The temperature distribution on engine walls was calculated in the separate conjugate heat transfer simulation. The in-cylinder pressure validation was performed for take-off power flight conditions. The influence of ignition timing on parameters like in-cylinder temperature or rate of heat release was analyzed. The most advantageous spark timing for the highest power output was chosen. The conditions around the spark plug locations for the pre-ignition period were analyzed. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.
Aerodynamic Interference of Propellers Group with Adjustable Mutual Position
The research results of the influence of the adjustable mutual position of the propellers for getting optimal lift force on a specially designed bench. The bench consists of frame with electric motors and with attached propellers. Engines were arranged in a matrix of two columns and three rows. The distance between the columns averages from 0 to 20”, while the engine was placed at a height of 8”, 15.5” and 23.6”. By adjusting the tilt of an electric motor, an angle of the propeller in the range of 0° to 60°, by 15° was controlled. Propellers with a diameter of 8" and pitch of 4.5” were driven by brushless model engines Roxxy BL-Outrunner 2827/26 with a power of 110W (each). Rotational speed control of electric motors were realized parallel for all propellers. The speed adjustment was realized using an aggregate of radio-controlled regulators. Electric power supplied to the engines from zero to maximum power, by the setting for every 14W, was controlled by radio system. Measurement system was placed on a laboratory scale. The lift was measured and recorded by an electronic scale. The lift force for different configurations of propellers arrangement was recorded during the test. All propellers were driven in one rotational direction and in different directions when they were in the same pairs. Propellers were driven concurrently and contra-concurrently along one of the columns and along the selected rows. During the tests, except the lift, parameters such as: rotational speed of propellers, voltage and current to the electric engines were recorded. The main aim of the research was to show the influence of aerodynamic interference between the propellers to receive lift force depending on the drive configuration of individual propellers. The research has shown that, this interference exists. The increase of the lift force for a distance between columns above 26.6” was noticed during the driving propellers in different directions. The optimum tilt angle of the propeller was 45°. Furthermore there has been also approx. 12% increase of the lift for propellers driven alternately in column and contra-concurrently in relation to the contra-rotating drive in the row.
The Characteristics of the Operating Parameters of the Vertical Axis Wind Turbine for the Selected Wind Speed
The paper discusses the results of the research into a wind turbine with a vertical axis of rotation which was performed with the open return wind tunnel, Gunt HM 170, at the laboratory of the Department of Thermodynamics, Fluid Mechanics and Propulsion Aviation Systems of Lublin University of Technology. Wind tunnel experiments are a necessary step to construct any new type of wind turbine, to validate design assumptions and numerical results. This research focused on the rotor with the blades capable of modifying their working surfaces, i.e. absorbing wind kinetic energy. The operation of this rotor is based on adjusting angular aperture α of the top and bottom parts of the blades mounted on an axis. If this angle α increases, the working surface which absorbs wind kinetic energy also increases. The study was performed on scaled and geometrically similar models with the criteria of similarity relevant for the type of research preserved. The rotors with varied angular apertures of their blades were printed for the research with a powder 3D printer, ZPrinter® 450. This paper presents the research results for the selected flow speed of 6.5 m/s for the three angular apertures of the rotor blades, i.e. 30°, 60°, 90° at varied speeds. The test stand enables the turbine rotor to be braked to achieve the required speed and airflow speed and torque to be recorded. Accordingly, the torque and power as a function of airflow were plotted. The rotor with its adjustable blades enables turbine power to be adjusted within a wide range of wind speeds. A variable angular aperture of blade working surfaces α in a wind turbine enables us to control the speed of the turbine and consequently its output power. Reducing the angular aperture of working surfaces results in reduced speed, and if a special current generator applied, electrical output power is reduced, too. Speed adjusted by changing angle α enables the maximum load acting on rotor blades to be controlled. The solution under study is a kind of safety against a damage of a turbine due to possible high wind speed.
Synthesis and Preparation of Carbon Ferromagnetic Nanocontainers for Cancer Therapy
In the article the development and demonstration of method and the model device for hyperthermic selective destruction of cancer cells are presented. This method was based on the synthesis and functionalization of carbon nanotubes serving as ferromagnetic material nano containers. Methodology of the production carbon - ferromagnetic nanocontainers includes: the synthesis of carbon nanotubes, chemical and physical characterization, increasing the content of ferromagnetic material and biochemical functionalization involving the attachment of the key addresses. Biochemical functionalization of ferromagnetic nanocontainers is necessary in order to increase the binding selectively with receptors presented on the surface of tumour cells. Multi-step modification procedure was finally used to attach folic acid on the surface of ferromagnetic nanocontainers. Folic acid is ligand of folate receptors which is overexpresion in tumor cells. The presence of ligand should ensure the specificity of the interaction between ferromagnetic nanocontainers and tumor cells. The chemical functionalization contains several step: oxidation reaction, transformation of carboxyl groups into more reactive ester or amide groups, incorporation of spacer molecule (linker), attaching folic acid. Activation of carboxylic groups was prepared with triazine coupling reagent (preparation of superactive ester attached on the nanocontainers). The spacer molecules were designed and synthesized. In order to ensure biocompatibillity of linkers they were built from amino acids or peptides. Spacer molecules were synthesized using the SPPS method. Synthesis was performed on 2-Chlorotrityl resin. The linker important feature is its length. Due to that fact synthesis of peptide linkers containing from 2 to 4 -Ala- residues was carried out. Independent synthesis of the conjugate of foilic acid with 6-aminocaproic acid was made. Final step of synthesis was connecting conjugat with spacer molecules and attaching it on the ferromagnetic nanocontainer surface. This article contains also information about special CVD and microvave plasma system to produce nanotubes and ferromagnetic nanocontainers. The first tests in the device for hyperthermal RF generator will be presented. The frequency of RF generator was in the ranges from 10 to 14Mhz and from 265 to 621kHz.
Seasonal Variations, Environmental Parameters, and Standing Crop Assessment of Benthic Foraminifera in Western Bahrain, Arabian Gulf
We conducted a survey of living benthic foraminifera in a relatively unpolluted site of Bahrain in the Arabian Gulf, with the aim of determining the seasonal variability in their populations, as well as various environmental parameters that affect their distribution. The maximum standing crop was observed during winter, with highest population of rotaliids, followed by a peak in miliolids. The highest population is attributed to an increasing number juveniles observed along the depth transect. A strong correlation between sediment grain size and the foraminiferal population indicates that juveniles were most abundant on coarser sandy substrate and less abundant on fine substrate. In spring, the total living population decreased, and lowest values are observed in the summer. The population started to increase again in the autumn with highest juveniles/adult ratios. Moreover, results of relative abundance and species consistency show that Ammonia is found to be consistent from the shallowest to the deepest station, whereas miliolids start appearing in the deeper stations. The average numbers of Peneroplis and Elphidium also increases along the depth transect. Environmental characterization reveals that although the site is subjected to eutrophication caused by nitrates and sulfates, pollution caused by hydrocarbons and heavy metals is not significant. The assessment of 63 heavy metals showed that none of the metals had concentrations that exceed internationally accepted norms [the devised level of Effect Range-Low], with the exception of strontium. The lack of a significant environmental effect of heavy metals is confirmed by a Foraminiferal Deformities Index value of less than 2%. Likewise, no hydrocarbon contamination was detected in the water or sediment samples. Lastly, observations of cytoplasmic streaming and pseudopodial activity in Petri dishes suggest that the foraminiferal population is not stressed. We conclude that the site in Bahrain is not yet adversely affected by human development, and therefore can provide baseline information for future comparison and assessment of foraminiferal assemblages in contaminated zones of the Arabian Gulf.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Calculations of the Wind Turbine with an Adjustable Working Surface
This paper discusses the CFD simulation of a flow around a rotor of a Vertical Axis Wind Turbine. Numerical simulation, unlike experiments, enables us to validate project assumptions when it is designed and avoid a costly preparation of a model or a prototype for a bench test. CFD simulation enables us to compare characteristics of aerodynamic forces acting on rotor working surfaces and define operational parameters like torque or power generated by a turbine assembly. This research focused on the rotor with the blades capable of modifying their working surfaces, i.e. absorbing wind kinetic energy. The operation of this rotor is based on adjusting angular aperture α of the top and bottom parts of the blades mounted on an axis. If this angular aperture α increases, the working surface which absorbs wind kinetic energy also increases. The operation of turbines is characterized by parameters like the angular aperture of blades, power, torque, speed for a given wind speed. These parameters have an impact on the efficiency of assemblies. The distribution of forces acting on the working surfaces in our turbine changes according to the angular velocity of the rotor. Moreover, the resultant force from the force acting on an advancing blade and retreating blade should be as high as possible. This paper is part of the research to improve an efficiency of a rotor assembly. Therefore, using simulation, the courses of the above parameters were studied in three full rotations individually for each of the blades for three angular apertures of blade working surfaces, i.e. 30 °, 60 °, 90 °, at three wind speeds, i.e. 4 m / s, 6 m / s, 8 m / s and rotor speeds ranging from 100 to 500 rpm. Finally, there were created the characteristics of torque coefficients and power as a function of time for each blade separately and for the entire rotor. Accordingly, the correlation between the turbine rotor power as a function of wind speed for varied values of rotor rotational speed. By processing this data, the correlation between the power of the turbine rotor and its rotational speed for each of the angular aperture of the working surfaces was specified. Finally, the optimal values, i.e. of the highest output power for given wind speeds were read. The research results in receiving the basic characteristics of turbine rotor power as a function of wind speed for the three angular apertures of the blades. Given the nature of rotor operation, the growth in the output turbine can be estimated if angular aperture of the blades increases. The controlled adjustment of angle α enables a smooth adjustment of power generated by a turbine rotor. If wind speed is significant, this type of adjustment enables this output power to remain at the same level (by reducing angle α) with no risk of damaging a construction. This work has been financed by the Polish Ministry of Science and Higher Education.
Destruction of Colon Cells by Nanocontainers of Ferromagnetic
The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of electromagnetic field from the range of radio frequencies on the desired nanoparticles for cancer therapy. In the article, the development and demonstration of the method and the model device for hyperthermic selective destruction of cancer cells are presented. This method was based on the synthesis and functionalization of carbon nanotubes serving as ferromagnetic material nanocontainers. The methodology of the production carbon - ferromagnetic nanocontainers (FNCs) includes: The synthesis of carbon nanotubes, chemical, and physical characterization, increasing the content of a ferromagnetic material and biochemical functionalization involving the attachment of the key addresses. The ferromagnetic nanocontainers were synthesised in CVD and microwave plasma system. Biochemical functionalization of ferromagnetic nanocontainers is necessary in order to increase the binding selectively with receptors presented on the surface of tumour cells. Multi-step modification procedure was finally used to attach folic acid on the surface of ferromagnetic nanocontainers. Pristine ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes are not suitable for application in medicine and biotechnology. Appropriate functionalization of ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes allows to receiving materials useful in medicine. Finally, a product contains folic acids on the surface of FNCs. The folic acid is a ligand of folate receptors – α which is overexpressed on the surface of epithelial tumours cells. It is expected that folic acids will be recognized and selectively bound by receptors presented on the surface of tumour cells. In our research, FNCs were covalently functionalized in a multi-step procedure. Ferromagnetic carbon nanotubes were oxidated using different oxidative agents. For this purpose, strong acids such as HNO3, or mixture HNO3 and H2SO4 were used. Reactive carbonyl and carboxyl groups were formed on the open sides and at the defects on the sidewalls of FNCs. These groups allow further modification of FNCs as a reaction of amidation, reaction of introduction appropriate linkers which separate solid surface of FNCs and ligand (folic acid). In our studies, amino acid and peptide have been applied as ligands. The last step of chemical modification was reaction-condensation with folic acid. In all reaction as coupling reagents were used derivatives of 1,3,5-triazine. The first trials in the device for hyperthermal RF generator have been done. The frequency of RF generator was in the ranges from 10 to 14Mhz and from 265 to 621kHz. Obtained functionalized nanoparticles enabled to reach the temperature of denaturation tumor cells in given frequencies.