An Energy Efficient Algorithm for Distributed Mutual Exclusion in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
This paper reports a distributed mutual exclusion
algorithm for mobile Ad-hoc networks. The network is clustered
hierarchically. The proposed algorithm considers the clustered
network as a logical tree and develops a token passing scheme
to get the mutual exclusion. The performance analysis and
simulation results show that its message requirement is optimal,
and thus the algorithm is energy efficient.
Critical section, Distributed mutual exclusion, MobileAd-hoc network, Token-based algorithms.
A Simulation Study of Bullwhip Effect in a Closed-Loop Supply Chain with Fuzzy Demand and Fuzzy Collection Rate under Possibility Constraints
Along with forward supply chain organization needs
to consider the impact of reverse logistics due to its economic
advantage, social awareness and strict legislations. In this paper, we
develop a system dynamics framework for a closed-loop supply
chain with fuzzy demand and fuzzy collection rate by incorporating
product exchange policy in forward channel and various recovery
options in reverse channel. The uncertainty issues associated with
acquisition and collection of used product have been quantified using
possibility measures. In the simulation study, we analyze order
variation at both retailer and distributor level and compare bullwhip
effects of different logistics participants over time between the
traditional forward supply chain and the closed-loop supply chain.
Our results suggest that the integration of reverse logistics can reduce
order variation and bullwhip effect of a closed-loop system. Finally,
sensitivity analysis is performed to examine the impact of various
parameters on recovery process and bullwhip effect.
Bullwhip Effect, Fuzzy Possibility Measures,
Reverse Supply Chain, System Dynamics.
Comparative Analysis of Various Multiuser Detection Techniques in SDMA-OFDM System Over the Correlated MIMO Channel Model for IEEE 802.16n
SDMA (Space-Division Multiple Access) is a MIMO
(Multiple-Input and Multiple-Output) based wireless communication
network architecture which has the potential to significantly increase
the spectral efficiency and the system performance. The maximum
likelihood (ML) detection provides the optimal performance, but its
complexity increases exponentially with the constellation size of
modulation and number of users. The QR decomposition (QRD)
MUD can be a substitute to ML detection due its low complexity and
near optimal performance. The minimum mean-squared-error
(MMSE) multiuser detection (MUD) minimises the mean square
error (MSE), which may not give guarantee that the BER of the
system is also minimum. But the minimum bit error rate (MBER)
MUD performs better than the classic MMSE MUD in term of
minimum probability of error by directly minimising the BER cost
function. Also the MBER MUD is able to support more users than
the number of receiving antennas, whereas the rest of MUDs fail in
this scenario. In this paper the performance of various MUD
techniques is verified for the correlated MIMO channel models based
on IEEE 802.16n standard.
Multiple input multiple output, multiuser detection,
orthogonal frequency division multiplexing, space division multiple
access, Bit error rate
Effects of Capacitor Bank Defects on Harmonic Distortion and Park's Pattern Analysis in Induction Motors
Properly sized capacitor banks are connected across induction motors for several reasons including power factor correction, reducing distortions, increasing capacity, etc. Total harmonic distortion (THD) and power factor (PF) are used in such cases to quantify the improvements obtained through connection of the external capacitor banks. On the other hand, one of the methods for assessing the motor internal condition is by the use of Park-s pattern analysis. In spite of taking adequate precautionary measures, the capacitor banks may sometimes malfunction. Such a minor fault in the capacitor bank is often not apparently discernible. This may however, give rise to substantial degradation of power factor correction performance and may also damage the supply profile. The case is more severe with the fact that the Park-s pattern gets distorted due to such external capacitor faults, and can give anomalous results about motor internal fault analyses. The aim of this paper is to present simulation and hardware laboratory test results to have an understanding of the anomalies in harmonic distortion and Park-s pattern analyses in induction motors due to capacitor bank defects.
Capacitor bank, harmonic distortion, induction motor, Park's pattern, PSCAD simulation.
3D Dynamic Representation System for the Human Head
The human head representations usually are based on
the morphological – structural components of a real model. Over the
time became more and more necessary to achieve full virtual models
that comply very rigorous with the specifications of the human
anatomy. Still, making and using a model perfectly fitted with the
real anatomy is a difficult task, because it requires large hardware
resources and significant times for processing. That is why it is
necessary to choose the best compromise solution, which keeps the
right balance between the details perfection and the resources
consumption, in order to obtain facial animations with real-time
rendering. We will present here the way in which we achieved such a
3D system that we intend to use as a base point in order to create
facial animations with real-time rendering, used in medicine to find
and to identify different types of pathologies.
3D models, virtual reality.
Intellectual Capital Research through Corporate Social Responsibility: (Re) Constructing the Agenda
The business strategy of any company wanting to be
competitive on the market should be designed around the concept of
intangibles, with an increasingly decisive role in knowledge transfer
of the biggest corporations. Advancing the research in these areas,
this study integrates the two approaches, emphasizing the
relationships between the components of intellectual capital and
corporate social responsibility. The three dimensions of intellectual
capital in terms of sustainability requirements are debated. The paper
introduces the concept of sustainable intellectual capital and debates
it within an assessment model designed on the base of key
performance indicators. The results refer to the assessment of
possible ways for including the information on intellectual capital
and corporate responsibility within the corporate strategy. The
conclusions enhance the need for companies to be ready to support
the integration of this type of information the knowledge transfer
process, in order to develop competitive advantage on the market.
Corporate social responsibility, corporate strategy,
intellectual capital, sustainability
Molecular Docking on Recomposed versus Crystallographic Structures of Zn-Dependent Enzymes and their Natural Inhibitors
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP) are a class of
structural and functional related enzymes involved in altering the
natural elements of the extracellular matrix. Most of the MMP
structures are cristalographycally determined and published in
WorldWide ProteinDataBank, isolated, in full structure or bound to
natural or synthetic inhibitors. This study proposes an algorithm to
replace missing crystallographic structures in PDB database. We
have compared the results of a chosen docking algorithm with a
known crystallographic structure in order to validate enzyme sites
reconstruction there where crystallographic data are missing.
matrix metalloproteinases, molecular docking, structure superposition, surface complementarity.
Signature Recognition and Verification using Hybrid Features and Clustered Artificial Neural Network(ANN)s
Signature represents an individual characteristic of a
person which can be used for his / her validation. For such application
proper modeling is essential. Here we propose an offline signature
recognition and verification scheme which is based on extraction of
several features including one hybrid set from the input signature
and compare them with the already trained forms. Feature points
are classified using statistical parameters like mean and variance.
The scanned signature is normalized in slant using a very simple
algorithm with an intention to make the system robust which is
found to be very helpful. The slant correction is further aided by the
use of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN). The suggested scheme
discriminates between originals and forged signatures from simple
and random forgeries. The primary objective is to reduce the two
crucial parameters-False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection
Rate (FRR) with lesser training time with an intension to make the
system dynamic using a cluster of ANNs forming a multiple classifier
offline, algorithm, FAR, FRR, ANN.
Suppression of Narrowband Interference in Impulse Radio Based High Data Rate UWB WPAN Communication System Using NLOS Channel Model
Study on suppression of interference in time domain equalizers is attempted for high data rate impulse radio (IR) ultra wideband communication system. The narrow band systems may cause interference with UWB devices as it is having very low transmission power and the large bandwidth. SRAKE receiver improves system performance by equalizing signals from different paths. This enables the use of SRAKE receiver techniques in IRUWB systems. But Rake receiver alone fails to suppress narrowband interference (NBI). A hybrid SRake-MMSE time domain equalizer is proposed to overcome this by taking into account both the effect of the number of rake fingers and equalizer taps. It also combats intersymbol interference. A semi analytical approach and Monte-Carlo simulation are used to investigate the BER performance of SRAKEMMSE receiver on IEEE 802.15.3a UWB channel models. Study on non-line of sight indoor channel models (both CM3 and CM4) illustrates that bit error rate performance of SRake-MMSE receiver with NBI performs better than that of Rake receiver without NBI. We show that for a MMSE equalizer operating at high SNR-s the number of equalizer taps plays a more significant role in suppressing interference.
IR-UWB, UWB, IEEE 802.15.3a, NBI, data rate, bit error rate.
Attacks and Counter Measures in BST Overlay Structure of Peer-To-Peer System
There are various overlay structures that provide
efficient and scalable solutions for point and range query in a peer-topeer
network. Overlay structure based on m-Binary Search Tree
(BST) is one such popular technique. It deals with the division of the
tree into different key intervals and then assigning the key intervals to
a BST. The popularity of the BST makes this overlay structure
vulnerable to different kinds of attacks. Here we present four such
possible attacks namely index poisoning attack, eclipse attack,
pollution attack and syn flooding attack. The functionality of BST is
affected by these attacks. We also provide different security
techniques that can be applied against these attacks.
BST, eclipse attack, index poisoning attack,
pollution attack, syn flooding attack.
On the Steady-State Performance Characteristics of Finite Hydrodynamic Journal Bearing under Micro-Polar Lubrication with Turbulent Effect
The objective of the present paper is to theoretically investigate the steady-state performance characteristics of journal bearing of finite width, operating with micropolar lubricant in a turbulent regime. In this analysis, the turbulent shear stress coefficients are used based on the Constantinescu’s turbulent model suggested by Taylor and Dowson with the assumption of parallel and inertia-less flow. The numerical solution of the modified Reynolds equation has yielded the distribution of film pressure which determines the static performance characteristics in terms of load capacity, attitude angle, end flow rate and frictional parameter at various values of eccentricity ratio, non-dimensional characteristics length, coupling number and Reynolds number.
Hydrodynamic lubrication, steady-state, micropolar lubricant, turbulent.
General Regression Neural Network and Back Propagation Neural Network Modeling for Predicting Radial Overcut in EDM: A Comparative Study
This paper presents a comparative study between two
neural network models namely General Regression Neural Network
(GRNN) and Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) are used
to estimate radial overcut produced during Electrical Discharge
Machining (EDM). Four input parameters have been employed:
discharge current (Ip), pulse on time (Ton), Duty fraction (Tau) and
discharge voltage (V). Recently, artificial intelligence techniques, as
it is emerged as an effective tool that could be used to replace
time consuming procedures in various scientific or engineering
applications, explicitly in prediction and estimation of the complex
and nonlinear process. The both networks are trained, and the
prediction results are tested with the unseen validation set of the
experiment and analysed. It is found that the performance of both the
networks are found to be in good agreement with average percentage
error less than 11% and the correlation coefficient obtained for the
validation data set for GRNN and BPNN is more than 91%. However,
it is much faster to train GRNN network than a BPNN and GRNN is
often more accurate than BPNN. GRNN requires more memory space
to store the model, GRNN features fast learning that does not require
an iterative procedure, and highly parallel structure. GRNN networks
are slower than multilayer perceptron networks at classifying new
Electrical-discharge machining, General Regression Neural Network, Back-propagation Neural Network, Radial Overcut.
Effectiveness of Natural Zeolite in Mitigating Alkali Silica Reaction Expansions
This paper investigates the effectiveness of two
natural zeolites in reducing expansion of concrete due to alkali-silica
reaction. These natural zeolites have different reactive silica content.
Three aggregates; two natural sands and one crushed stone aggregate
were used while preparing mortar bars in accordance with accelerated
mortar bar test method, ASTM C1260. Performances of natural
zeolites are compared by examining the expansions due to alkali
silica reaction. Natural zeolites added to the mixtures at 10% and
20% replacement levels by weight of cement. Natural zeolite with
high reactive silica content had better performance on reducing
expansions due to ASR. In this research, using high reactive zeolite at
20% replacement levels was effective in mitigating expansions.
Alkali silica reaction, natural zeolite, durability,
Membership Surface and Arithmetic Operations of Imprecise Matrix
In this paper, a method has been developed to
construct the membership surfaces of row and column vectors and
arithmetic operations of imprecise matrix. A matrix with imprecise
elements would be called an imprecise matrix. The membership
surface of imprecise vector has been already shown based on
Randomness-Impreciseness Consistency Principle. The Randomness-
Impreciseness Consistency Principle leads to defining a normal law
of impreciseness using two different laws of randomness. In this
paper, the author has shown row and column membership surfaces
and arithmetic operations of imprecise matrix and demonstrated with
the help of numerical example.
Imprecise number, Imprecise vector, Membership
surface, Imprecise matrix.
Identifying Knowledge Gaps in Incorporating Toxicity of Particulate Matter Constituents for Developing Regulatory Limits on Particulate Matter
Regulatory bodies has proposed limits on Particulate Matter (PM) concentration in air; however, it does not explicitly indicate the incorporation of effects of toxicities of constituents of PM in developing regulatory limits. This study aimed to provide a structured approach to incorporate toxic effects of components in developing regulatory limits on PM. A four-step human health risk assessment framework consists of - (1) hazard identification (parameters: PM and its constituents and their associated toxic effects on health), (2) exposure assessment (parameters: concentrations of PM and constituents, information on size and shape of PM; fate and transport of PM and constituents in respiratory system), (3) dose-response assessment (parameters: reference dose or target toxicity dose of PM and its constituents), and (4) risk estimation (metric: hazard quotient and/or lifetime incremental risk of cancer as applicable). Then parameters required at every step were obtained from literature. Using this information, an attempt has been made to determine limits on PM using component-specific information. An example calculation was conducted for exposures of PM2.5 and its metal constituents from Indian ambient environment to determine limit on PM values. Identified data gaps were: (1) concentrations of PM and its constituents and their relationship with sampling regions, (2) relationship of toxicity of PM with its components.
Air, component-specific toxicity, human health risks, particulate matter.
Production of Pig Iron by Smelting of Blended Pre-Reduced Titaniferous Magnetite Ore and Hematite Ore Using Lean Grade Coal
The rapid depletion of high-grade iron ore (Fe2O3) has gained attention on the use of other sources of iron ore. Titaniferous magnetite ore (TMO) is a special type of magnetite ore having high titania content (23.23% TiO2 present in this case). Due to high TiO2 content and high density, TMO cannot be treated by the conventional smelting reduction. In this present work, the TMO has been collected from high-grade metamorphic terrain of the Precambrian Chotanagpur gneissic complex situated in the eastern part of India (Shaltora area, Bankura district, West Bengal) and the hematite ore has been collected from Visakhapatnam Steel Plant (VSP), Visakhapatnam. At VSP, iron ore is received from Bailadila mines, Chattisgarh of M/s. National Mineral Development Corporation. The preliminary characterization of TMO and hematite ore (HMO) has been investigated by WDXRF, XRD and FESEM analyses. Similarly, good quality of coal (mainly coking coal) is also getting depleted fast. The basic purpose of this work is to find how lean grade coal can be utilised along with TMO for smelting to produce pig iron. Lean grade coal has been characterised by using TG/DTA, proximate and ultimate analyses. The boiler grade coal has been found to contain 28.08% of fixed carbon and 28.31% of volatile matter. TMO fines (below 75 μm) and HMO fines (below 75 μm) have been separately agglomerated with lean grade coal fines (below 75 μm) in the form of briquettes using binders like bentonite and molasses. These green briquettes are dried first in oven at 423 K for 30 min and then reduced isothermally in tube furnace over the temperature range of 1323 K, 1373 K and 1423 K for 30 min & 60 min. After reduction, the reduced briquettes are characterized by XRD and FESEM analyses. The best reduced TMO and HMO samples are taken and blended in three different weight percentage ratios of 1:4, 1:8 and 1:12 of TMO:HMO. The chemical analysis of three blended samples is carried out and degree of metallisation of iron is found to contain 89.38%, 92.12% and 93.12%, respectively. These three blended samples are briquetted using binder like bentonite and lime. Thereafter these blended briquettes are separately smelted in raising hearth furnace at 1773 K for 30 min. The pig iron formed is characterized using XRD, microscopic analysis. It can be concluded that 90% yield of pig iron can be achieved when the blend ratio of TMO:HMO is 1:4.5. This means for 90% yield, the maximum TMO that could be used in the blend is about 18%.
Briquetting reduction, lean grade coal, smelting reduction, TMO.
Production of Pre-Reduction of Iron Ore Nuggets with Lesser Sulphur Intake by Devolatisation of Boiler Grade Coal
Boiler coals with low fixed carbon and higher ash content have always challenged the metallurgists to develop a suitable method for their utilization. In the present study, an attempt is made to establish an energy effective method for the reduction of iron ore fines in the form of nuggets by using ‘Syngas’. By devolatisation (expulsion of volatile matter by applying heat) of boiler coal, gaseous product (enriched with reducing agents like CO, CO2, H2, and CH4 gases) is generated. Iron ore nuggets are reduced by this syngas. For that reason, there is no direct contact between iron ore nuggets and coal ash. It helps to control the minimization of the sulphur intake of the reduced nuggets. A laboratory scale devolatisation furnace designed with reduction facility is evaluated after in-depth studies and exhaustive experimentations including thermo-gravimetric (TG-DTA) analysis to find out the volatile fraction present in boiler grade coal, gas chromatography (GC) to find out syngas composition in different temperature and furnace temperature gradient measurements to minimize the furnace cost by applying one heating coil. The nuggets are reduced in the devolatisation furnace at three different temperatures and three different times. The pre-reduced nuggets are subjected to analytical weight loss calculations to evaluate the extent of reduction. The phase and surface morphology analysis of pre-reduced samples are characterized using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), carbon sulphur analyzer and chemical analysis method. Degree of metallization of the reduced nuggets is 78.9% by using boiler grade coal. The pre-reduced nuggets with lesser sulphur content could be used in the blast furnace as raw materials or coolant which would reduce the high quality of coke rate of the furnace due to its pre-reduced character. These can be used in Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) as coolant also.
Alternative ironmaking, coal devolatisation, extent of reduction, nugget making, syngas based DRI, solid state reduction.
Contrast Enhancement of Color Images with Color Morphing Approach
Low contrast images can result from the wrong setting of image acquisition or poor illumination conditions. Such images may not be visually appealing and can be difficult for feature extraction. Contrast enhancement of color images can be useful in medical area for visual inspection. In this paper, a new technique is proposed to improve the contrast of color images. The RGB (red, green, blue) color image is transformed into normalized RGB color space. Adaptive histogram equalization technique is applied to each of the three channels of normalized RGB color space. The corresponding channels in the original image (low contrast) and that of contrast enhanced image with adaptive histogram equalization (AHE) are morphed together in proper proportions. The proposed technique is tested on seventy color images of acne patients. The results of the proposed technique are analyzed using cumulative variance and contrast improvement factor measures. The results are also compared with decorrelation stretch. Both subjective and quantitative analysis demonstrates that the proposed techniques outperform the other techniques.
Contrast enhancement, normalized RGB, adaptive histogram equalization, cumulative variance.
Spectrum of Dry Eye Disease in Computer Users of Manipur India
Computer and video display users might complain about Asthenopia, burning, dry eyes etc. The management of dry eyes is often not in the lines of severity. Following systematic evaluation and grading, dry eye disease is one condition that can be practiced at all levels of ophthalmic care. In the present study, different spectrum causing dry eye and prevalence of dry eye disease in computer users of Manipur, India are determined with 600 individuals (300 cases and 300 control). Individuals between 15 and 50 years who used computers for more than 3 hrs a day for 1 year or more were included. Tear break up time (TBUT) and Schirmer’s test were conducted. It shows that 33 (20.4%) out of 164 males and 47 (30.3%) out of 136 females have dry eye. Possible explanation for the observed result is discussed.
Asthenopia, computer vision syndrome, dry eyes, Schirmer’s test, tear breakup time.
Implementation of Congestion Management Strategies on Arterial Roads: Case Study of Geelong
Natural disasters are inevitable to the biodiversity. Disasters such as flood, tsunami and tornadoes could be brutal, harsh and devastating. In Australia, flooding is a major issue experienced by different parts of the country. In such crisis, delays in evacuation could decide the life and death of the people living in those regions. Congestion management could become a mammoth task if there are no steps taken before such situations. In the past to manage congestion in such circumstances, many strategies were utilised such as converting the road shoulders to extra lanes or changing the road geometry by adding more lanes. However, expansion of road to resolving congestion problems is not considered a viable option nowadays. The authorities avoid this option due to many reasons, such as lack of financial support and land space. They tend to focus their attention on optimising the current resources they possess and use traffic signals to overcome congestion problems. Traffic Signal Management strategy was considered a viable option, to alleviate congestion problems in the City of Geelong, Victoria. Arterial road with signalised intersections considered in this paper and the traffic data required for modelling collected from VicRoads. Traffic signalling software SIDRA used to model the roads, and the information gathered from VicRoads. In this paper, various signal parameters utilised to assess and improve the corridor performance to achieve the best possible Level of Services (LOS) for the arterial road.
Congestion, constraints, management, LOS.