Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 7

Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering

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  • 7
    The Effection of Different Culturing Proportion of Deep Sea Water(DSW) to Surface Sea Water(SSW) in Reductive Ability and Phenolic Compositions of Sargassum Cristaefolium
    Characterized as rich mineral substances, low temperature, few bacteria, and stability with numerous implementation aspects on aquaculture, food, drinking, and leisure, the deep sea water (DSW) development has become a new industry in the world. It has been report that marine algae contain various biologically active compounds. This research focued on the affections in cultivating Sagrassum cristaefolium with different concentration of deep sea water(DSW) and surface sea water(SSW). After two and four weeks, the total phenolic contents were compared in Sagrassum cristaefolium culturing with different ways, and the reductive activity of them was also be tried with potassium ferricyanide. Those fresh seaweeds were dried with oven and were ground to powder. Progressively, the marine algae we cultured was extracted by water under the condition with heating them at 90Ôäâ for 1hr.The total phenolic contents were be executed using Folin–Ciocalteu method. The results were explaining as follows: the highest total phenolic contents and the best reductive ability of all could be observed on the 1/4 proportion of DSW to SSW culturing in two weeks. Furthermore, the 1/2 proportion of DSW to SSW also showed good reductive ability and plentiful phenolic compositions. Finally, we confirmed that difference proportion of DSW and SSW is the major point relating to ether the total phenolic components or the reductive ability in the Sagrassum cristaefolium. In the future, we will use this way to mass production the marine algae or other micro algae on industry applications.
    In Silico Analysis of Pax6 Interacting Proteins Indicates Missing Molecular Links in Development of Brain and Associated Disease

    The PAX6, a transcription factor, is essential for the morphogenesis of the eyes, brain, pituitary and pancreatic islets. In rodents, the loss of Pax6 function leads to central nervous system defects, anophthalmia, and nasal hypoplasia. The haplo-insufficiency of Pax6 causes microphthalmia, aggression and other behavioral abnormalities. It is also required in brain patterning and neuronal plasticity. In human, heterozygous mutation of Pax6 causes loss of iris [aniridia], mental retardation and glucose intolerance. The 3- deletion in Pax6 leads to autism and aniridia. The phenotypes are variable in peneterance and expressivity. However, mechanism of function and interaction of PAX6 with other proteins during development and associated disease are not clear. It is intended to explore interactors of PAX6 to elucidated biology of PAX6 function in the tissues where it is expressed and also in the central regulatory pathway. This report describes In-silico approaches to explore interacting proteins of PAX6. The models show several possible proteins interacting with PAX6 like MITF, SIX3, SOX2, SOX3, IPO13, TRIM, and OGT. Since the Pax6 is a critical transcriptional regulator and master control gene of eye and brain development it might be interacting with other protein involved in morphogenesis [TGIF, TGF, Ras etc]. It is also presumed that matricelluar proteins [SPARC, thrombospondin-1 and osteonectin etc] are likely to interact during transport and processing of PAX6 and are somewhere its cascade. The proteins involved in cell survival and cell proliferation can also not be ignored.

    Wasp Venom Peptides may play a role in the Pathogenesis of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in Humans: A Structural Similarity Analysis
    Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) has been reported to develop after a hymenoptera sting, but its pathogenesis is not known in detail. Myelin basic protein (MBP)- specific T cells have been detected in the blood of patients with ADEM, and a proportion of these patients develop multiple sclerosis (MS). In an attempt to understand the mechanisms underlying ADEM, molecular mimicry between hymenoptera venom peptides and the human immunodominant MBP peptide was scrutinized, based on the sequence and structural similarities, whether it was the root of the disease. The results suggest that the three wasp venom peptides have low sequence homology with the human immunodominant MBP residues 85-99. Structural similarity analysis among the three venom peptides and the MS-related HLA-DR2b (DRA, DRB1*1501)-associated immunodominant MHC binding/TCR contact residues 88-93, VVHFFK showed that hyaluronidase residues 7-12, phospholipase A1 residues 98-103, and antigen 5 residues 109-114 showed a high degree of similarity 83.3%, 100%, and 83.3% respectively. In conclusion, some wasp venom peptides, particularly phospholipase A1, may potentially act as the molecular motifs of the human 3HLA-DR2b-associated immunodominant MBP88-93, and possibly present a mechanism for induction of wasp sting-associated ADEM.
    Application of Staining Intensity Correlation Analysis to Visualize Protein Colocalizationat a Cellular Level

    Mutations of the telomeric copy of the survival motor neuron 1 (SMN1) gene cause spinal muscular atrophy. A deletion of the Eef1a2 gene leads to lower motor neuron degeneration in wasted mice. Indirect evidences have been shown that the eEF1A protein family may interact with SMN, and our previous study showed that abnormalities of neuromuscular junctions in wasted mice were similar to those of Smn mutant mice. To determine potential colocalization between SMN and tissue-specific translation elongation factor 1A2 (eEF1A2), an immunochemical analysis of HeLa cells transfected with the plasmid pcDNA3.1(+)C-hEEF1A2- myc and a new quantitative test of colocalization by intensity correlation analysis (ICA) was used to explore the association of SMN and eEF1A2. Here the results showed that eEF1A2 redistributed from the cytoplasm to the nucleus in response to serum and epidermal growth factor. In the cytoplasm, compelling evidence showed that staining for myc-tagged eEF1A2 varied in synchrony with that for SMN, consistent with the formation of a SMN-eEF1A2 complex in the cytoplasm of HeLa cells. These findings suggest that eEF1A2 may colocalize with SMN in the cytoplasm and may be a component of the SMN complex. However, the limitation of the ICA method is an inability to resolve colocalization in components of small organelles such as the nucleus.

    The Effect of Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus on Physicochemical, Proteolysis, and Antioxidant Activity in Yogurt
    Yogurt is a coagulated milk product obtained from the lactic acid fermentation by the action of Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. The additions of fruits into milk may enhance the taste and the therapeutical values of milk products. However fruits also may change the fermentation behaviour. In this present study, the changes in physicochemical, the peptide concentration, total phenolics content and the antioxidant potential of yogurt upon the addition of Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus (white and red dragon fruit) were investigated. Fruits enriched yogurt (10%, 20%, 30% w/w) were prepared and the pH, TTA, syneresis measurement, peptide concentration, total phenolics content and DPPH antioxidant inhibition percentage were determined. Milk fermentation rate was enhanced in red dragon fruit yogurt for all doses (-0.3606 - -0.4126 pH/h) while only white dragon fruit yogurt with 20% and 30% (w/w) composition showed increment in fermentation rate (-0.3471 - -0.3609 pH/h) compared to plain yogurt (-0.3369pH/h). All dragon fruit enriched yogurts generally showed lower pH readings (pH 3.95 - 4.03) compared to plain yogurt (pH 4.05). Both fruit yogurts showed a higher lactic acid percentage (1.14-1.23%) compared to plain yogurt (1.08%). Significantly higher syneresis percentage (57.19 - 70.32%) compared to plain yogurt (52.93%) were seen in all fruit enriched yogurts. The antioxidant activity of plain yogurt (19.16%) was enhanced by the presence of white and red dragon fruit (24.97- 45.74%). All fruit enriched yogurt showed an increment in total phenolic content (36.44 - 64.43mg/ml) compared to plain yogurt (20.25mg/ml). However, the addition of white and red dragon fruit did not enhance the proteolysis of milk during fermentation. Therefore, it could be concluded that the addition of white and red dragon fruit into yogurt enhanced the milk fermentation rate, lactic acid content, syneresis percentage, antioxidant activity, and total phenolics content in yogurt.
    Optimization of the Nutrient Supplients for Cellulase Production with the Basal Medium Palm Oil Mill Effluent

    A statistical optimization was studied to design a media composition to produce optimum cellulolytic enzyme where palm oil mill effluent (POME) as a basal medium and filamentous fungus, Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 were used in the liquid state bioconversion(LSB). 2% (w/v) total suspended solid, TSS, of the POME supplemented with 1% (w/v) cellulose, 0.5%(w/v) peptone and 0.02% (v/v) Tween 80 was estimated to produce the optimum CMCase activity of 18.53 U/ml through the statistical analysis followed by the faced centered central composite design(FCCCD). The probability values of cellulose (<0.0011) and peptone (0.0021) indicated the significant effect on the production of cellulase with the determination coefficient (R2) of 0.995.

    Manipulation of Probiotics Fermentation of Yogurt by Cinnamon and Licorice: Effects on Yogurt Formation and Inhibition of Helicobacter Pylori Growth in vitro

    Probiotic bacteria especially Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium exert suppressive effect on Helicobacter pylori. Cinnamon and licorice have been traditionally used for the treatment of gastric ulcer. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of herbs on yogurt fermentation, the level of probiotic bacteria in yogurt during 28 days storage and the effect of herbal yogurt on the growth of H. pylori in vitro. Cinnamon or licorice was mixed with milk and the mixture was fermented with probiotic bacteria to form herbal-yogurt. Changes of pH and total titratable acids were monitored and the viability of probiotic bacteria was evaluated during and after refrigerated storage. The in vitro inhibition of H. pylori growth was determined using agar diffusion and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method. The presence of herbs did not affect the probiotic population during storage. There were no significant differences in pH and TTA between herbal-yogurts and plain-yogurt during fermentation and storage. Water extract of cinnamon-yogurt showed the highest inhibition effect (13.5mm) on H. pylori growth in comparison with licorice-yogurt (11.2mm). The present findings indicate cinnamon and licorice has bioactive components to decrease the growth of H. pylori.