Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 11

Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering

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  • 11
    Impacts of Climate Change under the Threat of Global Warming for an Agricultural Watershed of the Kangsabati River
    The effects of global warming on India vary from the submergence of low-lying islands and coastal lands to the melting of glaciers in the Indian Himalayas, threatening the volumetric flow rate of many of the most important rivers of India and South Asia. In India, such effects are projected to impact millions of lives. As a result of ongoing climate change, the climate of India has become increasingly volatile over the past several decades; this trend is expected to continue. Climate change is one of the most important global environmental challenges, with implications for food production, water supply, health, energy, etc. Addressing climate change requires a good scientific understanding as well as coordinated action at national and global level. The climate change issue is part of the larger challenge of sustainable development. As a result, climate policies can be more effective when consistently embedded within broader strategies designed to make national and regional development paths more sustainable. The impact of climate variability and change, climate policy responses, and associated socio-economic development will affect the ability of countries to achieve sustainable development goals. A very well calibrated Soil and Water Assessment Tool (R2 = 0.9968, NSE = 0.91) was exercised over the Khatra sub basin of the Kangsabati River watershed in Bankura district of West Bengal, India, in order to evaluate projected parameters for agricultural activities. Evapotranspiration, Transmission Losses, Potential Evapotranspiration and Lateral Flow to reach are evaluated from the years 2041-2050 in order to generate a picture for sustainable development of the river basin and its inhabitants. India has a significant stake in scientific advancement as well as an international understanding to promote mitigation and adaptation. This requires improved scientific understanding, capacity building, networking and broad consultation processes. This paper is a commitment towards the planning, management and development of the water resources of the Kangsabati River by presenting detailed future scenarios of the Kangsabati river basin, Khatra sub basin, over the mentioned time period. India-s economy and societal infrastructures are finely tuned to the remarkable stability of the Indian monsoon, with the consequence that vulnerability to small changes in monsoon rainfall is very high. In 2002 the monsoon rains failed during July, causing profound loss of agricultural production with a drop of over 3% in India-s GDP. Neither the prolonged break in the monsoon nor the seasonal rainfall deficit was predicted. While the general features of monsoon variability and change are fairly well-documented, the causal mechanisms and the role of regional ecosystems in modulating the changes are still not clear. Current climate models are very poor at modelling the Asian monsoon: this is a challenging and critical region where the ocean, atmosphere, land surface and mountains all interact. The impact of climate change on regional ecosystems is likewise unknown. The potential for the monsoon to become more volatile has major implications for India itself and for economies worldwide. Knowledge of future variability of the monsoon system, particularly in the context of global climate change, is of great concern for regional water and food security. The major findings of this paper were that of all the chosen projected parameters, transmission losses, soil water content, potential evapotranspiration, evapotranspiration and lateral flow to reach, display an increasing trend over the time period of years 2041- 2050.
    Production of Cellulases by Aspergillus Heteromorphus from Wheat Straw under Submerged Fermentation

    To investigate the production of cellulases from Aspergillus heteromorphus, submerged fermentation was performed using wheat straw as substrate. Optimization of saccharification conditions like pH, temperature and time were studied. Highest reducing sugar was released on 5th day at 5 pH, 30° C temperature. When A. heteromorphous was grown on wheat straw in submerged fermentation after 5 days incubation at 30 ° C, 3.2 IU/ml and 83 IU/ml, filter paper activity and CMCase activity respectively.

    Study on Using the Ground as A Heat Sink for A 12,000-Btu/h Modified Air Conditioner
    This paper presents the results of the experimental tests of the cooling performance of a 12,000-Btu/h modified air conditioner (referred to as M-AC) that use the ground as a heat sink of a condenser. In the tests, cooling capacity of M-AC with an optimal length of a condensing coil as well as life expectancy of copper coil buried underground were investigated. The lengths of copper coil fabricated and used as condenser coil of M-AC were set at 67, 50, 40 and 30 m whereas that of a 12,000-Btu/h conventional split-type air conditioner (referred to as C-AC) was about 22 m. The results showed that the ground can absorb heat rejected from a condenser of M-AC. The coefficient of performance (COP) of C-AC was about 2.5 whereas those of M-AC were found to be higher. It was found that the values of COP of M-AC with condensing coils of 67, 50 and 40 m long were about 6.9, 5.5 and 3.3, respectively, while that of 30-m-long one was found to be about 2.1. The electrical consumptions of M-AC were found lower than that of C-AC in the range of 11.5 – 15.5%. Additionally, life expectancy of underground condensing coil of M-AC was found to be over 7 years.
    Utilization of 3-N-trimethylamino-1-propanol by Rhodococcus sp. strain A4 isolated from Natural Soil
    The aim of this study was to screen for microorganism that able to utilize 3-N-trimethylamino-1-propanol (homocholine) as a sole source of carbon and nitrogen. The aerobic degradation of homocholine has been found by a gram-positive Rhodococcus sp. bacterium isolated from soil. The isolate was identified as Rhodococcus sp. strain A4 based on the phenotypic features, physiologic and biochemical characteristics, and phylogenetic analysis. The cells of the isolated strain grown on both basal-TMAP and nutrient agar medium displayed elementary branching mycelia fragmented into irregular rod and coccoid elements. Comparative 16S rDNA sequencing studies indicated that the strain A4 falls into the Rhodococcus erythropolis subclade and forms a monophyletic group with the type-strains of R. opacus, and R. wratislaviensis. Metabolites analysis by capillary electrophoresis, fast atom bombardment-mass spectrometry, and gas chromatography- mass spectrometry, showed trimethylamine (TMA) as the major metabolite beside β-alanine betaine and trimethylaminopropionaldehyde. Therefore, the possible degradation pathway of trimethylamino propanol in the isolated strain is through consequence oxidation of alcohol group (-OH) to aldehyde (-CHO) and acid (-COOH), and thereafter the cleavage of β-alanine betaine C-N bonds yielded trimethylamine and alkyl chain.
    Biodegradation of PCP by the Rhizobacteria Isolated from Pentachlorophenol-tolerant Crop Species
    Pentachlorophenol (PCP) is a polychlorinated aromatic compound that is widespread in industrial effluents and is considered to be a serious pollutant. Among the variety of industrial effluents encountered, effluents from tanning industry are very important and have a serious pollution potential. PCP is also formed unintentionally in effluents of paper and pulp industries. It is highly persistent in soils and is lethal to a wide variety of beneficial microorganisms and insects, human beings and animals. The natural processes that breakdown toxic chemicals in the environment have become the focus of much attention to develop safe and environmentfriendly deactivation technologies. Microbes and plants are among the most important biological agents that remove and degrade waste materials to enable their recycling in the environment. The present investigation was carried out with the aim of developing a microbial system for bioremediation of PCP polluted soils. A number of plant species were evaluated for their ability to tolerate different concentrations of pentachlorophenol (PCP) in the soil. The experiment was conducted for 30 days under pot culture conditions. The toxic effect of PCP on plants was studied by monitoring seed germination, plant growth and biomass. As the concentration of PCP was increased to 50 ppm, the inhibition of seed germination, plant growth and biomass was also increased. Although PCP had a negative effect on all plant species tested, maize and groundnut showed the maximum tolerance to PCP. Other tolerating crops included wheat, safflower, sunflower, and soybean. From the rhizosphere soil of the tolerant seedlings, as many as twenty seven PCP tolerant bacteria were isolated. From soybean, 8; sunflower, 3; safflower 8; maize 2; groundnut and wheat, 3 each isolates were made. They were screened for their PCP degradation potentials. HPLC analyses of PCP degradation revealed that the isolate MAZ-2 degraded PCP completely. The isolate MAZ-1 was the next best isolate with 90 per cent PCP degradation. These strains hold promise to be used in the bioremediation of PCP polluted soils.
    Application of Fluorescent Pseudomonads Inoculant Formulations on Vigna mungo through Field Trial
    Vermiculite was used to develop inorganic carrier-based formulations of fluorescent pseudomonad strains R62 and R81. The effect of bio-inoculation of fluorescent pseudomonad strains R62 and R81 (plant growth promoting and biocontrol agent) on growth responses of Vigna-mungo under field condition was enumerated. The combined bioinoculation of these two organisms in a formuation increased the pods yield by 300% in comparison to the control crop. There was also significant increment in the other plant growth responses such as dry root weight, dry shoot weight, shoot length and number of branches per plant.
    Sophorolipids Production by Candida Bombicola using Synthetic Dairy Wastewater
    Sophorolipids (SLs) production by the yeast Candida bombicola was studied in batch shake flasks using synthetic dairy wastewaters (SDWW) with or without any added external carbon and nitrogen sources. A maximum SLs production of 38.76 g/l was observed with the SDWW supplemented with low cost substrate of sugarcane molasses at 50 g/l and soybean oil at 50 g/l. When the SDWW was supplemented with more costly glucose, yeast extract, urea and soybean oil, the production, however, got lowered to only 29.49 g/l, but with a maximum biomass production of 17.38 g/l together with a complete utilization of the carbon sources.
    A Novel Cytokine Derived Fusion Tag for Over- Expression of Heterologous Proteins in E. coli
    We report a novel fusion tag for expressing recombinant proteins in E. coli. The fusion tag is the C-terminus part of the human GMCSF gene comprising 45 amino acids, which aid in over expression of otherwise non expressible genes. Expression of hIFN a2b with this fusion tag also escapes the requirement of rare codons for expression. This is also a first report of a small fusion tag of human origin having affinity to heparin sepharose column facilitating the purification of fusion protein.
    An Efficient Protocol for Cyclic Somatic Embryogenesis in Neem (Azadirachta indica A Juss.)
    Neem is a highly heterozygous and commercially important perennial plant. Conventionally, it is propagated by seeds which loose viability within two weeks. Strictly cross pollinating nature of the plant causes serious barrier to the genetic improvement by conventional methods. Alternative methods of tree improvement such as somatic hybridization, mutagenesis and genetic transformation require an efficient in vitro plant regeneration system. In this regard, somatic embryogenesis particularly secondary somatic embryogenesis may offer an effective system for large scale plant propagation without affecting the clonal fidelity of the regenerants. It can be used for synthetic seed production, which further bolsters conservation of this tree species which is otherwise very difficult The present report describes the culture conditions necessary to induce and maintain repetitive somatic embryogenesis, for the first time, in neem. Out of various treatments tested, the somatic embryos were induced directly from immature zygotic embryos of neem on MS + TDZ (0.1 μM) + ABA (4 μM), in more than 76 % cultures. Direct secondary somatic embryogenesis occurred from primary somatic embryos on MS + IAA (5 μM) + GA3 (5 μM) in 12.5 % cultures. Embryogenic competence of the explant as well as of the primary embryos was maintained for a long period by repeated subcultures at frequent intervals. A maximum of 10 % of these somatic embryos were converted into plantlets.
    Recycling for Sustainability: Plant Growth Media from Coal Combustion Products, Biosolids and Compost
    Generation of electricity from coal has increased over the years in the United States and around the world. Burning of coal results in annual production of upwards of 100 millions tons (United States only) of coal combustion products (CCPs). Only about a third of these products are being used to create new products while the remainder goes to landfills. Application of CCPs mixed with composted organic materials onto soil can improve the soil-s physico-chemical conditions and provide essential plant nutritients. Our objective was to create plant growth media utilizing CCPs and compost in way which maximizes the use of these products and, at the same time, maintain good plant growth. Media were formulated by adding composted organic matter (COM) to CCPs at ratios ranging from 2:8 to 8:2 (v/v). The quality of these media was evaluated by measuring their physical and chemical properties and their effect on plant growth. We tested the media by 1) measuring their physical and chemical properties and 2) the growth of three plant species in the experimental media: wheat (Triticum sativum), tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) and marigold (Tagetes patula). We achieved significantly (p < 0.001) higher growth (7-130%) in the experimental media containing CCPs compared to a commercial mix. The experimental media supplied adequate plant nutrition as no fertilization was provided during the experiment. Based on the results, we recommend the use of CCPs and composts for the creation of plant growth media.
    Effects of Dual Inoculation of Azotobacter and Mycorrhiza with Nitrogen and Phosphorus Fertilizer Rates on Grain Yield and Some of Characteristics of Spring Safflower
    In order to evaluate the Effects of dual inoculation of Azotobacter and Mycorrhiza with Nitrogen and Phosphorus levels on yield and yield components of spring safflower, this study was carried out in field of Farahan university in Markazi province in 2007. A factorial in a randomized complete block design with three replications was used inoculation of Azotobacter (with inoculation and without inoculation) and Mycorrhiza (with inoculation and without inoculation ) with Nitrogen and Phosphorus levels [F0= N0+ P0 (kg.ha-1), F1= N50+ P25(kg.ha-1), F2= N100+ P50(kg.ha-1) and F3= N150+ P75 (kg.ha-1)] on spring safflower (cultivar IL-111). In this study characteristics such as: Harvest index, Hectolitre weight, Root dry weight, Seed yield, Mycorrhizal Colonization Root, Number of days to maturity were assessed. Results indicated that treatment (A0M1F3) with grain yield (1556 kg.ha-1) and treatment (A0M1F0) with grain yield (918 kg.ha-1) were significantly superior to the other treatments and according to calculated, inoculation seeds in plantig date with Azotobacter and Mycorrhiza to cause increase grain yield about 5/38 percentage. we can by inoculation safflower seeds with Azotobacter and Mycorrhiza too easily at the time sowing date. The purpose of this research, study and evaluation the role of biological fixation N and P, to provide for feeds plants.