Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 14

Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering

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  • 14
    Biodegradation of Carbazole By a Promising Gram-Negative Bacterium
    In the present work we report a gram negative bacterial isolate, from soil of a dye industry, with promising biorefining and bioremediation potential. This isolate (GBS.5) could utilize carbazole (nitrogen containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon) as the sole source of nitrogen and carbon and utilize almost 98% of 3mM carbazole in 100 hours. The specific activity of our GBS.5 isolate for carbazole degradation at 30°C and pH 7.0 was found to be 11.36 μmol/min/g dry cell weight as compared to 10.4 μmol/min/g dry cell weight, the highest reported specific activity till date. The presence of car genes (the genes involved in denitrogenation of carbazole) was confirmed through PCR amplification.
    Effect of Electromagnetic Fields on Structure and Pollen Grains Development in Chenopodium album L
    The role of the pollen grain, with to the reproductive process of higher plants, is to deliver the spermatic cells to the embryo sac for egg fertilization. The aim of this project was study the effect of electromagnetic fields on structure and pollen grains development in Chenopodium album. Anthers of Chenopodium album L. were collected at different stages of development from control (without electromagnetic field) and plants grown at 10m from the field sources. Structure and development of pollen grains were studied and compared. The studying pollen structure by Light and Scanning electron microscopy showed that electromagnetic fields reduction of pollen grains number and male sterility, thus , in some anthers, pollen grains were attached together and deformed compared to control ones. The data presented suggest that prolonged exposures of plants to magnetic field may cause different biological effects at the cellular tissue and organ levels.
    Application of Data Envelopment Analysis and Performance Indicators to Irrigation Systems in Thessaloniki Plain (Greece)
    In this paper, a benchmarking framework is presented for the performance assessment of irrigations systems. Firstly, a data envelopment analysis (DEA) is applied to measure the technical efficiency of irrigation systems. This method, based on linear programming, aims to determine a consistent efficiency ranking of irrigation systems in which known inputs, such as water volume supplied and total irrigated area, and a given output corresponding to the total value of irrigation production are taken into account simultaneously. Secondly, in order to examine the irrigation efficiency in more detail, a cross – system comparison is elaborated using a performance indicators set selected by IWMI. The above methodologies were applied in Thessaloniki plain, located in Northern Greece while the results of the application are presented and discussed. The conjunctive use of DEA and performance indicators seems to be a very useful tool for efficiency assessment and identification of best practices in irrigation systems management.
    An Information Theoretic Approach to Rescoring Peptides Produced by De Novo Peptide Sequencing
    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is the engine driving high-throughput protein identification. Protein mixtures possibly representing thousands of proteins from multiple species are treated with proteolytic enzymes, cutting the proteins into smaller peptides that are then analyzed generating MS/MS spectra. The task of determining the identity of the peptide from its spectrum is currently the weak point in the process. Current approaches to de novo sequencing are able to compute candidate peptides efficiently. The problem lies in the limitations of current scoring functions. In this paper we introduce the concept of proteome signature. By examining proteins and compiling proteome signatures (amino acid usage) it is possible to characterize likely combinations of amino acids and better distinguish between candidate peptides. Our results strongly support the hypothesis that a scoring function that considers amino acid usage patterns is better able to distinguish between candidate peptides. This in turn leads to higher accuracy in peptide prediction.
    MIM: A Species Independent Approach for Classifying Coding and Non-Coding DNA Sequences in Bacterial and Archaeal Genomes
    A number of competing methodologies have been developed to identify genes and classify DNA sequences into coding and non-coding sequences. This classification process is fundamental in gene finding and gene annotation tools and is one of the most challenging tasks in bioinformatics and computational biology. An information theory measure based on mutual information has shown good accuracy in classifying DNA sequences into coding and noncoding. In this paper we describe a species independent iterative approach that distinguishes coding from non-coding sequences using the mutual information measure (MIM). A set of sixty prokaryotes is used to extract universal training data. To facilitate comparisons with the published results of other researchers, a test set of 51 bacterial and archaeal genomes was used to evaluate MIM. These results demonstrate that MIM produces superior results while remaining species independent.
    A Comparison of SVM-based Criteria in Evolutionary Method for Gene Selection and Classification of Microarray Data
    An evolutionary method whose selection and recombination operations are based on generalization error-bounds of support vector machine (SVM) can select a subset of potentially informative genes for SVM classifier very efficiently [7]. In this paper, we will use the derivative of error-bound (first-order criteria) to select and recombine gene features in the evolutionary process, and compare the performance of the derivative of error-bound with the error-bound itself (zero-order) in the evolutionary process. We also investigate several error-bounds and their derivatives to compare the performance, and find the best criteria for gene selection and classification. We use 7 cancer-related human gene expression datasets to evaluate the performance of the zero-order and first-order criteria of error-bounds. Though both criteria have the same strategy in theoretically, experimental results demonstrate the best criterion for microarray gene expression data.
    Investigating Feed Mix Problem Approaches: An Overview and Potential Solution

    Feed is one of the factors which play an important role in determining a successful development of an aquaculture industry. It is always critical to produce the best aquaculture diet at a minimum cost in order to trim down the operational cost and gain more profit. However, the feed mix problem becomes increasingly difficult since many issues need to be considered simultaneously. Thus, the purpose of this paper is to review the current techniques used by nutritionist and researchers to tackle the issues. Additionally, this paper introduce an enhance algorithm which is deemed suitable to deal with all the issues arise. The proposed technique refers to Hybrid Genetic Algorithm which is expected to obtain the minimum cost diet for farmed animal, while satisfying nutritional requirements. Hybrid GA technique with artificial bee algorithm is expected to reduce the penalty function and provide a better solution for the feed mix problem.

    Serum Nitric Oxide and Sialic Acid: Possible Biochemical Markers for Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy

    This study was designed to investigate the role of serum nitric oxide and sialic acid in the development of diabetic nephropathy as disease marker. Total 210 diabetic patients (age and sex matched) were selected followed by informed consent and divided into four groups (70 each) as I: control; II: diabetic; III: diabetic hypertensive; IV: diabetic nephropathy. The blood samples of all subjects were collected and analyzed for serum nitric oxide, sialic acid, fasting blood glucose, serum urea, creatinine, HbA1c and GFR. The BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, blood glucose, HbA1c and serum sialic acid levels were high (p<0.01) in group II as compared to control subjects. The higher levels (p<0.01) of BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, blood glucose, HbA1c, serum urea, creatinine and sialic acid were observed in group III and IV as compared to controls. Significantly low levels of GFR and serum nitric oxide (p<0.01) were observed in group III and IV as compared to controls. Results indicated that serum nitric oxide and sialic acid are the major biochemical indicators for micro and macrovascular complications of diabetes such as hypertension and nephropathy. These should be taken into account during screening procedures regarding identifications of the diabetic patients to get them rid of progressive renal impairment to ESRD.

    The Effects of Sowing Dates and Densities on Yield and Yield Components of Coriander(Coriandrum sativum L.)
    Sowing date and density are two important factors in produce of coriander. A field experiment was conducted with treatments: sowing time (5 May, 20 May, 4 June and 19 June 2009) and plant density (10, 30, 50 and 70 plants m-2). The experimental plots were laid out in a factorial according to a RCBD with three replications. Results showed that the effect of sowing dates and densities were significant on grain yield and yield components, but interaction effects between sowing time and density were non significant for all of traits in this trial. At sowing times 5 May, 20 May, 4 June and 19 June, grain yield obtained 736.9, 837.8, 1003.1 and 1299.6 kg ha-1, respectively. At 10, 30, 50 and 70 plants m-2, grain yield were 794.9, 1031.0, 1092.3 and 959.3 kg ha-1, respectively. In this experiment, sowing at 19 June and 50 and 30 plants m-2 had the most grain yield.
    Effect of Anoxia on Root Growth and Grain Yield of Wheat Cultivars
    Waterlogging reduces shoot and root growth and final yield of wheat. Waterlogged sites have a combination of low slope, high rainfall, heavy texture and low permeability. This study was aimed the importance of waterlogging on root growth and wheat yield. In order to study the effects of different waterlogging duration (0, 10, 20 and 30 days) at growth stages (1-leaf stage, tillering stage and stem elongation stage) on root growth of wheat cultivars (Chamran, Vee/Nac and Yavaroos), one pot experiment was carried out. The experiment was a factorial according to a RCBD with three replications. Results showed that root dry weight and total root length in the anthesis and grain ripening stages and biological and grain yields were significantly different between cultivars, growth stages and waterlogging durations. Vee/Nac was found superior with respect to other cultivars. Susceptibility to waterlogging at different growth stages for cultivars was 1-leaf stage > tillering stage > stem elongation stage. Under waterlogging treatments, grain and biological yields, were decreased 44.5 and 39.8%, respectively. Root length and root dry weight were reduced 55.1 and 45.2%, respectively, too. In this experiment, decrease at root growth because of waterlogging reduced grain and biological yields. Based on the results, even short period (10 days) of waterlogging had unrecoverable effects on the root growth and grain yield of wheat.
    Comparative Studies on Vertical Stratification,Floristic Composition, and Woody Species Diversity of Subtropical Evergreen Broadleaf Forests Between the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, and South China

    In order to compare vertical stratification, floristic composition, and woody species diversity of subtropical evergreen broadleaf forests between the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan, and South China, tree censuses in a 400 m2 plot in Ishigaki Island and a 1225 m2 plot in Dinghushan Nature Reserve were performed. Both of the subtropical forests consisted of five vertical strata. The floristic composition of the Ishigaki forest was quite different from that of the Dinghushan forest in terms of similarity on a species level (Kuno-s similarity index r0 = 0.05). The values of Shannon-s index H' and Pielou-s index J ' tended to increase from the bottom stratum upward in both forests, except H' for the top stratum in the Ishigaki forest and the upper two strata in the Dinghushan forest. The woody species diversity in the Dinghushan forest (H'= 3.01 bit) was much lower than that in the Ishigaki forest (H'= 4.36 bit).

    Long- term Irrigation with Dairy Factory Wastewater Influences Soil Quality

    The effects of irrigation with dairy factory wastewater on soil properties were investigated at two sites that had received irrigation for > 60 years. Two adjoining paired sites that had never received DFE were also sampled as well as another seven fields from a wider area around the factory. In comparison with paired sites that had not received effluent, long-term wastewater irrigation resulted in an increase in pH, EC, extractable P, exchangeable Na and K and ESP. These changes were related to the use of phosphoric acid, NaOH and KOH as cleaning agents in the factory. Soil organic C content was unaffected by DFE irrigation but the size (microbial biomass C and N) and activity (basal respiration) of the soil microbial community were increased. These increases were attributed to regular inputs of soluble C (e.g. lactose) present as milk residues in the wastewater. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the soils data from all 11sites confirmed that the main effects of DFE irrigation were an increase in exchangeable Na, extractable P and microbial biomass C, an accumulation of soluble salts and a liming effect. PCA analysis of soil bacterial community structure, using PCR-DGGE of 16S rDNA fragments, generally separated individual sites from one another but did not group them according to irrigation history. Thus, whilst the size and activity of the soil microbial community were increased, the structure and diversity of the bacterial community remained unaffected.

    Extraction Condition of Echinocactus grusonii
    The optimal extraction condition of dried Echinocactus grusonii powder was studied. The three independent variables are raw material drying temperature, extraction temperature, and extraction time. The dependent variables are both yield percentage of crude extract and total phenolic quantification as gallic acid equivalent in crude extract. The experimental design was based on central composite design. Highest yield percentage of crude extract could get from extraction condition at raw material drying temperature at 60°C, extraction temperature at 15°C, and extraction time for 25 min °C. Moreover, the crude extract with highest phenolic occurred by extraction condition of raw material drying temperature at 60°C, extraction temperature at 35 °C, and extraction lasting 25 min.
    Study the Efficacies of Green Manure Application as Chickpea Pre Plant
    In order to Study the efficacy application of green manure as chickpea pre plant, field experiments were carried out in 2007 and 2008 growing seasons. In this research the effects of different strategies for soil fertilization were investigated on grain yield and yield component, minerals, organic compounds and cooking time of chickpea. Experimental units were arranged in splitsplit plots based on randomized complete blocks with three replications. Main plots consisted of (G1): establishing a mixed vegetation of Vicia panunica and Hordeum vulgare and (G2): control, as green manure levels. Also, five strategies for obtaining the base fertilizer requirement including (N1): 20 t.ha-1 farmyard manure; (N2): 10 t.ha-1 compost; (N3): 75 kg.ha-1 triple super phosphate; (N4): 10 t.ha-1 farmyard manure + 5 t.ha-1 compost and (N5): 10 t.ha-1 farmyard manure + 5 t.ha-1 compost + 50 kg.ha-1 triple super phosphate were considered in sub plots. Furthermoree four levels of biofertilizers consisted of (B1): Bacillus lentus + Pseudomonas putida; (B2): Trichoderma harzianum; (B3): Bacillus lentus + Pseudomonas putida + Trichoderma harzianum; and (B4): control (without biofertilizers) were arranged in sub-sub plots. Results showed that integrating biofertilizers (B3) and green manure (G1) produced the highest grain yield. The highest amounts of yield were obtained in G1×N5 interaction. Comparison of all 2-way and 3-way interactions showed that G1N5B3 was determined as the superior treatment. Significant increasing of N, P2O5, K2O, Fe and Mg content in leaves and grains emphasized on superiority of mentioned treatment because each one of these nutrients has an approved role in chlorophyll synthesis and photosynthesis abilities of the crops. The combined application of compost, farmyard manure and chemical phosphorus (N5) in addition to having the highest yield, had the best grain quality due to high protein, starch and total sugar contents, low crude fiber and reduced cooking time.