Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 11

Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering

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  • 11
    Mosquitoes Larval Breeding Habitat in Urban and Suburban Areas, Peninsular Malaysia
    Larval survey was carried out in 6 localities in the urban areas (Putrajaya) and suburban areas (Kuala Selangor) from January until December 2010. A total of 520 representative households in 6 localities were selected. Breeding habitats were sampled outdoors in the surroundings of housing areas. The study indicated that the most predominant species found in both areas was Aedes albopictus with the gardening utensil as a preferred breeding microhabitat for Putrajaya, in contrast to the artificial containers for Kuala Selangor. From a total of 1083 mosquito larvae species, 984 were Aedes albopictus larvae, 67 positive larvae of Aedes aegypti and 32 of Culex larvae. Aedes Index and Container Index were elevated in Putrajaya with 13% and 11% respectively which is higher than the standard given by the Ministry of Health, Malaysia. This results implicating dengue-sensitive skewed to the urban areas. Breteau Index result also above the standard in both study locations.
    Influencing of Rice Residue Management Method on GHG Emission from Rice Cultivation
    Thailand is one of the world-s leaders of rice producers and exporters. Farmers have to increase the rice cultivation frequency for serving the national increasing of export-s demand. It leads to an elimination of rice residues by open burning which is the quickest and costless management method. The open burning of rice residue is one of the major causes of air pollutants and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission. Under ASEAN agreement on trans-boundary haze, Thailand set the master plan to mitigate air pollutant emission from open burning of agricultural residues. In this master plan, residues incorporation is promoted as alternative management method to open burning. However, the assessment of both options in term of GHG emission in order to investigate their contribution to long-term global warming is still scarce or inexistent. In this study, a method on rice residues assessment was first developed in order to estimate and compare GHG emissions from rice cultivation under rice residues open burning and the case with incorporation of the same amount of rice residues, using 2006 IPCC guidelines for emission estimation and Life Cycle Analysis technique. The emission from rice cultivation in different preparing area practice was also discussed.
    Expression of Gen Extracellular Matrix and Cell Adhesion Molecule of Brain Embrio Mice at GD-10 By Real Time RT-PCR

    research goal was to determine the expression levels cDNA of brain embrio at gestation days 10 (GD-10). The Electroforesis DNA results showed that GAPDH, Fibronectin1, Ncam1, Tenascin, Vimentin, Neurofilament heavy, Neurofilament medium and Neurofilament low were 447 bp, 462 bp, 293 bp. 416 bp, 327 bp, 301 bp, 398 bp and 289 bp. Result of real-time RT-PCR on brain Embryo at gestation days 10 showed that the expression of copy gen Fibronectin 36 copies, Ncam 21,708 copies; Tenascin 24,505 copies; Vimentin 538,554 copies; Neurofilament heavy 2,419 copies; Neurofilament medium 92,928 copies; Neurofilament low 125,809 copies. Vimentin expressed gene copies is very high compared with other gene copies. This condition are caused by Vimentin, that contribute to proliferate of brain development. The vimentin role to cell proliferation of brain.

    Evaluation of the Inhibitory Effect of Some Plant Crude Extracts Against Albugo Candida, the Causal Agent of White Rust
    White rust, caused by Albugo candida, is the most destructive foliar diseases of persian cress, Lepidium sativum in Iran. Application of fungicide is the most common method for the disease control. However, regarding the problems created by synthetic pesticides application, environmentally safe methods are needed to replace chemical pesticides. In this study, the antifungal activity of plant natural extracts was investigated for their ability to inhibit zoospore release from sporangia of A. candida. The crude extract of 46 plants was obtained using methanol. The inhibitory effect of the extracts was examined by mixing the plant extracts with a zoosporangial suspension of A. candida (1×106 spore/ml) at three concentrations, 250, 100 and 50 ppm. The experiments were conducted in a completely randomized design, with three replicates. The results of the experiment showed that three out of 46 plants species, including, Rhus coriaria, Anagallis arvensis and Mespilus germanica were completely inhibit zoospore release from zoosporangia of Albugo candida at concentration of 50 ppm.
    A New Edit Distance Method for Finding Similarity in Dna Sequence
    The P-Bigram method is a string comparison methods base on an internal two characters-based similarity measure. The edit distance between two strings is the minimal number of elementary editing operations required to transform one string into the other. The elementary editing operations include deletion, insertion, substitution two characters. In this paper, we address the P-Bigram method to sole the similarity problem in DNA sequence. This method provided an efficient algorithm that locates all minimum operation in a string. We have been implemented algorithm and found that our program calculated that smaller distance than one string. We develop PBigram edit distance and show that edit distance or the similarity and implementation using dynamic programming. The performance of the proposed approach is evaluated using number edit and percentage similarity measures.
    Mirror Neuron System Study on Elderly Using Dynamic Causal Modeling fMRI Analysis
    Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is a promising technique to study the connectivity among brain regions and effects of stimuli through modeling neuronal interactions from time-series neuroimaging. The aim of this study is to study characteristics of a mirror neuron system (MNS) in elderly group (age: 60-70 years old). Twenty volunteers were MRI scanned with visual stimuli to study a functional brain network. DCM was employed to determine the mechanism of mirror neuron effects. The results revealed major activated areas including precentral gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, inferior occipital gyrus, and supplementary motor area. When visual stimuli were presented, the feed-forward connectivity from visual area to conjunction area was increased and forwarded to motor area. Moreover, the connectivity from the conjunction areas to premotor area was also increased. Such findings can be useful for future diagnostic process for elderly with diseases such as Parkinson-s and Alzheimer-s.
    Improved Technique of Non-viral Gene Delivery into Cancer Cells
    Liposomal magnetofection is a simple, highly efficient technology for cell transfection, demonstrating better outcome than a number of other common gene delivery methods. However, aggregate complexes distribution over the cell surface is non-uniform due to the gradient of the permanent magnetic field. The aim of this study was to estimate the efficiency of liposomal magnetofection for prostate carcinoma PC3 cell line using newly designed device, “DynaFECTOR", ensuring magnetofection in a dynamic gradient magnetic field. Liposomal magnetofection in a dynamic gradient magnetic field demonstrated the highest transfection efficiency for PC3 cells – it increased for 21% in comparison with liposomal magnetofection and for 42% in comparison with lipofection alone. The optimal incubation time under dynamic magnetic field for PC3 cell line was 5 minutes and the optimal rotation frequency of magnets – 5 rpm. The new approach also revealed lower cytotoxic effect to cells than liposomal magnetofection.
    Comparative Study on the Antioxidant Activity of Leaf Extract and Carotenoids Extract from Ipomoea batatas var. Oren (Sweetpotato) Leaves
    Ipomoea batatas (Sweetpotato) is currently ranked sixth in the total world food production and are planted mainly for their storage roots. The present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the antioxidant properties of the leaf and carotenoids extract from the Ipomoea batatas var. Oren leaves. Total flavonoids in the leaf extract was 144.6 ± 40.5 μg/g compared to 114.86 ± 4.35 μg/g catechin equivalent in the carotenoids extract. Total polyphenols in the leaf extracts (3.470 ± 0.024 GAE g/100g DW) was slightly higher compared to carotenoids extract (2.994 ± 0.078 GAE g/100g DW). The carotenoids extract marked a higher radical scavenging capacity with the IC50= 491.86 μg/ml compared to leaf extract (IC50= 545.39 μg/ml). Concentration-dependent reducing activity was observed for both extracts. Thus, the carotenoids extraction process retained most of the antioxidant capacity from the leaves and can be made into potential natural yellow dye with antioxidant property.
    Insecticidal Effects of Two Plant Aqueous Extracts against Second Instar Larvae of Lycoriella Auripila (Diptera: Sciaridae)
    The toxicity of aqueous extracts of two plants, Nicotiana tobacum and Eucalyptus globulus were investigated against second instar larvae of Lycoriella auripila, one of the most important pests of button mushroom, using agar dilution technique. Seven concentrations of aqueous extracts of both plants were applied on second instar larvae and their mortality were evaluated after 24, 48 and 72 h. The obtained results revealed that aqueous extracts of N. tabacum and E. globulus caused 77.55 and 72.5% mortality of larvae of L. auripila at concentration of 4000 ppm after 72h, respectively. Toxicities of tobacco extract after 24, 48 and 72 h were 1.52, 1.85 and 1.70 times greather than eucalyptus, respectively. The estimated LC50 after 24, 48 and 72 h were 7316.5, 2468.5 and 2013.1 ppm for tobacco and 64870.0, 6839.5 and 3326.4 ppm for eucalyptus, respectively. These plants merit further study as potential insecticides for the control of L. auripila.
    Detection and Analysis of Deficiencies in Groundnut Plant using Geometric Moments
    We propose our genuine research of geometric moments which detects the mineral inadequacy in the frail groundnut plant. This plant is prone to many deficiencies as a result of the variance in the soil nutrients. By analyzing the leaves of the plant, we detect the visual symptoms that are not recognizable to the naked eyes. We have collected about 160 samples of leaves from the nearby fields. The images have been taken by keeping every leaf into a black box to avoid the external interference. For the first time, it has been possible to provide the farmer with the stages of deficiencies. This paper has applied the algorithms successfully to many other plants like Lady-s finger, Green Bean, Lablab Bean, Chilli and Tomato. But we submit the results of the groundnut predominantly. The accuracy of our algorithm and method is almost 93%. This will again pioneer a kind of green revolution in the field of agriculture and will be a boon to that field.
    Effect of Commercial or Bovine Yeasts on the Performance and Blood Variables of Broiler Chickens Intoxicated with Aflatoxins
    The effects of commercial or bovine yeasts on the performance and blood variables of broiler chickens intoxicated with aflatoxin were investigated in broilers. Four hundred eighty broilers (Arbor Acres; 3-wk-old) were randomly assigned to 4 groups. Each group (120 broiler chickens) was further randomly divided into 6 replicates of 20 chickens. The treatments were control diet without additives (treatment 1), 250 ppb AFB1 (treatment 2), commercial yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, (CY 2.5 x 107 CFU/g) + 250 ppb AFB1 (treatment 3) and bovine yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, (BY 2.5 x 107 CFU/g + 250 ppb AFB1 (treatment 4). Complete randomized design (CRD) was used in the experiment. Feed consumption and body weight were recorded at every five-day period. On day 42, carcass compositions were determined from 30 birds per treatment. While chicks were sacrificed, 3-4 ml blood sample was taken and stored frozen at (-20°C) for serum chemical analysis to determine effects of consumption of diets on blood chemistry (total protein, albumin, glucose, urea, cholesterol and triglycerides). There were no significant differences in ADFI among the treatments(P>0.05). However, BWG, FCR and mortality were highly significantly different (P