Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 15

Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering

  • 2017
  • 2016
  • 2015
  • 2014
  • 2013
  • 2012
  • 2011
  • 2010
  • 2009
  • 2008
  • 2007
  • 15
    Investigation of Water Deficit Stress on Agronomical Traits of Soybean Cultivars in Temperate Climate
    In order to investigate water deficit stress on 24 of soybean (Glycine Max. L) cultivars and lines in temperate climate, an experiment was conducted in Iran Seed and Plant Improvement Institute. Stress levels were irrigation after evaporation of 50, 100, 150 mm water from pan, class A. Randomized Completely Block Design was arranged for each stress levels. Some traits such as, node number, plant height, pod number per area, grain number per pod, grain number per area, 1000 grains weight, grain yield and harvest index were measured. Results showed that water deficit stress had significant effect on node number, plant height, pod number per area, grain number per pod, grain number per area, 1000 grains weight and harvest index. Also all of agronomic traits except harvest index influenced significantly by cultivars and lines. The least and most grain yield was belonged to Ronak X Williams and M41 x Clark respectively.
    Screening of Process Variables for the Production of Extracellular Lipase from Palm Oil by Trichoderma Viride using Plackett-Burman Design
    Plackett-Burman statistical screening of media constituents and operational conditions for extracellular lipase production from isolate Trichoderma viride has been carried out in submerged fermentation. This statistical design is used in the early stages of experimentation to screen out unimportant factors from a large number of possible factors. This design involves screening of up to 'n-1' variables in just 'n' number of experiments. Regression coefficients and t-values were calculated by subjecting the experimental data to statistical analysis using Minitab version 15. The effects of nine process variables were studied in twelve experimental trials. Maximum lipase activity of 7.83 μmol /ml /min was obtained in the 6th trail. Pareto chart illustrates the order of significance of the variables affecting the lipase production. The present study concludes that the most significant variables affecting lipase production were found to be palm oil, yeast extract, K2HPO4, MgSO4 and CaCl2.
    Differential Sensitivity of Nitrogen-Fixing, Filamentous Cyanobacterial Species to an Organochlorine Insecticide - 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 10- Hexachloro-1, 5, 5a, 6, 9, 9a-Hexahydro-6, 9- Methano-2, 4, 3-Benzodioxathiepine-3-Oxide
    Application of pesticides in the paddy fields has deleterious effects on non-target organisms including cyanobacteria which are photosynthesizing and nitrogen fixing micro-organisms contributing significantly towards soil fertility and crop yield. Pesticide contamination in the paddy fields has manifested into a serious global environmental concern. To study the effect of one such pesticide, three cyanobacterial strains; Anabaena fertilissima, Aulosira fertilissima and Westiellopsis prolifica were selected for their stress responses to an Organochlorine insecticide - 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 10-hexachloro-1, 5, 5a, 6, 9, 9a-hexahydro-6, 9-methano-2, 4, 3- benzodioxathiepine-3-oxide, with reference to their photosynthesic pigments-chlorophyll-a and carotenoids as well as accessory pigments-phycobiliproteins (phycocyanin, allophycocyanin and phycoerythrin), stress induced biochemical metabolites like carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, phenols and enzymes-nitrate reductase, glutamine synthetase and succinate dehydrogenase. All the three cyanobacterial strains were adversely affected by the insecticide doses and inhibition was dose dependent. Reduction in photosynthetic and accessory pigments, metabolites, nitrogen fixing and respiratory enzymes of the test organisms were accompanied with an initial increase in their total protein at lower Organochlorine doses. On the other hand, increased amount of phenols in all the insecticide treated concentrations was indicative of stressed activities of the organisms.
    Salinity on Survival and Early Development of Biofuel Feedstock Crops
    Salinity level may affect early development of biofuel feedstock crops. The biofuel feedstock crops canola (Brassica napus L.), sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench], and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.); and the potential feedstock crop sweet corn (Zea mays L.) were planted in media in pots and treated with aqueous solutions of 0, 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 M NaCl once at: 1) planting; 2) 7-10 days after planting or 3) first true leaf expansion. An additional treatment (4) comprised of one-half strength of the 0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 M (concentrations 0.05, 0.25, 0.5 M at each application) was applied at first true leaf expansion and four days later. Survival of most crops decreased below 90% above 0.5 M; survival of canola decreased above 0.1 M. Application timing had little effect on crop survival. For canola root fresh and dry weights improved when application was at plant emergence; for sorghum top and root fresh weights improved when the split application was used. When application was at planting root dry weight was improved over most other applications. Sunflower top fresh weight was among the highest when saline solutions were split and top dry weight was among the highest when application was at plant emergence. Sweet corn root fresh weight was improved when the split application was used or application was at planting. Sweet corn root dry weight was highest when application was at planting or plant emergence. Even at high salinity rates survival rates greater than what might be expected occurred. Plants that survived appear to be able to adjust to saline during the early stages of development.
    Hydrolysis of Hull-Less Pumpkin Oil Cake Protein Isolate by Pepsin
    The present work represents an investigation of the hydrolysis of hull-less pumpkin (Cucurbita Pepo L.) oil cake protein isolate (PuOC PI) by pepsin. To examine the effectiveness and suitability of pepsin towards PuOC PI the kinetic parameters for pepsin on PuOC PI were determined and then, the hydrolysis process was studied using Response Surface Methodology (RSM). The hydrolysis was carried out at temperature of 30°C and pH 3.00. Time and initial enzyme/substrate ratio (E/S) at three levels were selected as the independent parameters. The degree of hydrolysis, DH, was mesuared after 20, 30 and 40 minutes, at initial E/S of 0.7, 1 and 1.3 mA/mg proteins. Since the proposed second-order polynomial model showed good fit with the experimental data (R2 = 0.9822), the obtained mathematical model could be used for monitoring the hydrolysis of PuOC PI by pepsin, under studied experimental conditions, varying the time and initial E/S. To achieve the highest value of DH (39.13 %), the obtained optimum conditions for time and initial E/S were 30 min and 1.024 mA/mg proteins.
    Computational Identification of MicroRNAs and their Targets in two Species of Evergreen Spruce Tree (Picea)
    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, non-coding and regulatory RNAs about 20 to 24 nucleotides long. Their conserved nature among the various organisms makes them a good source of new miRNAs discovery by comparative genomics approach. The study resulted in 21 miRNAs of 20 pre-miRNAs belonging to 16 families (miR156, 157, 158, 164, 165, 168, 169, 172, 319, 390, 393, 394, 395, 400, 472 and 861) in evergreen spruce tree (Picea). The miRNA families; miR 157, 158, 164, 165, 168, 169, 319, 390, 393, 394, 400, 472 and 861 are reported for the first time in the Picea. All 20 miRNA precursors form stable minimum free energy stem-loop structure as their orthologues form in Arabidopsis and the mature miRNA reside in the stem portion of the stem loop structure. Sixteen (16) miRNAs are from Picea glauca and five (5) belong to Picea sitchensis. Their targets consist of transcription factors, growth related, stressed related and hypothetical proteins.
    Improving Protein-Protein Interaction Prediction by Using Encoding Strategies and Random Indices
    A New features are extracted and compared to improve the prediction of protein-protein interactions. The basic idea is to select and use the best set of features from the Tensor matrices that are produced by the frequency vectors of the protein sequences. Three set of features are compared, the first set is based on the indices that are the most common in the interacting proteins, the second set is based on the indices that tend to be common in the interacting and non-interacting proteins, and the third set is constructed by using random indices. Moreover, three encoding strategies are compared; that are based on the amino asides polarity, structure, and chemical properties. The experimental results indicate that the highest accuracy can be obtained by using random indices with chemical properties encoding strategy and support vector machine.
    Investigation on the Effectiveness of Zinc Sulphate and Biofertilizer on Mustard Plant
    The present work was conducted to find out the effect of biofertilizer formulated with four species of bacteria (two species of Azotobacter and two species of Lysobacter) and zinc sulphate. Field experiments with mustard plant were conducted to study the effectiveness of soil application of zinc sulphate and biofertilizer at 0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 days after sowing. Plant height and condition of plant was found to be increased significantly using a mixture of biofertilizer and zinc sulphate than other treatments after 40 days sowing. Three treatments were also used in this field experiment such as bacteria only, zinc sulphate only and mixture of biofertilizer and zinc sulphate. The treatment using a mixture of zinc sulphate and biofertilizer had the best yield (4688.008 kg/ha) within 50 days of sowing and performed better than other treatments. Field experiment using zinc sulphate only was second best yield (3380.75Kg/ha) and biofertilizer only treatment gave (2639.04kg/ha).
    Effects of a Nectandra Membranacea Extract on Labeling of Blood Constituents with Technetium-99m and on the Morphology of Red Blood Cells

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the possible interference of a Nectandra membranacea extract (i) on the labeling of blood cells (BC), (ii) on the labeling process of BC and plasma (P) proteins with technetium-99m (Tc-99m) and (iii) on the morphology of red blood cells (RBC). Blood samples were incubated with a Nectandra membranacea crude extract, stannous chloride, Tc- 99m (sodium pertechnetate) was added, and soluble (SF) and insoluble (IF) fractions were isolated. Morphometry studies were performed with blood samples incubated with Nectandra membranacea extract. The results show that the Nectandra membranacea extract does not promote significant alteration of the labeling of BC, IF-P and IF-BC. The Nectandra membranacea extract was able to alter the erythrocyte membrane morphology, but these morphological changes were not capable to interfere on the labeling of blood constituents with Tc-99m.

    Prevalence and Antimicrobial Susceptibility Patterns of Enteric Bacteria Isolated from Water and Fish in Lake Victoria Basin of Western Kenya
    A cross sectional study design and standard microbiological procedures were used to determine the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility patterns of Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica serovar typhimurium and Vibrio cholerae O1 isolated from water and two fish species Rastrineobola argentea and Oreochromis niloticus collected from fish landing beaches and markets in the Lake Victoria Basin of western Kenya. Out of 162 samples analyzed, 133 (82.1%) were contaminated, with S. typhimurium as the most prevalent (49.6%), followed by E. coli (46.6%), and lastly V. cholerae (2.8%). All the bacteria isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin. E. coli isolates were resistant to ampicillin, tetracycline, cotrimoxazole, chloramphenical and gentamicin while S. typhimurium isolates exhibited resistance to ampicillin, tetracycline, and cotrimoxazole. The V. cholerae O1 isolates were resistant to tetracycline and ampicillin. The high prevalence of drug resistant enteric bacteria in water and fish from the study region needs public health intervention from the local government.
    Use of Cell Phone by Farmers and its Implication on Farmers- Production Capacity in Oyo State Nigeria
    Relevant agricultural information disseminator (extension agent) ratio of 1:3500 farm families which become a menace to agricultural production capacity in developing countries necessitate this study. Out of 4 zones in the state, 24 extension agents in each zone, 4 extension agents using cell phones and 120 farmers using cell phone and 120 other farmers not using cell phone were purposively selected to give 240 farmers that participated in the research. Data were collected using interview guide and analysized using frequency, percentage and t-test.. Frequency of contact with agricultural information centers revealed that cell phone user farmers had greater means score of X 41.43 contact as against the low mean X19.32 contact recorded by farmers receiving agricultural information from extension agents not using cell phone and their production was statistically significant at P < 0.05. Usage of cell phone increase extension agent contact and increase farmers- production capacity.
    An Evaluation of Pesticide Stress Induced Proteins in three Cyanobacterial Species-Anabaena Fertilissima, Aulosira Fertilissima and Westiellopsis Prolifica using SDS-PAGE
    The whole-cell protein-profiling technique was evaluated for studying differences in banding pattern of three different species of Cyanobacteria i.e. Anabaena fertilissima, Aulosira fertilissima and Westiellopsis prolifica under the influence of four different pesticides-2,4-D (Ethyl Ester of 2,4-Dichloro Phenoxy Acetic Acid), Pencycuron (N-[(4-chlorophenyl)methyl]-Ncyclopentyl- N'–phenylurea), Endosulfan (6,7,8,9,10,10hexachloro- 1,5,5a,6,9,9a-hexahydro-6,9-methano-2,4,3-benzodioxathiepine-3- oxide) and Tebuconazole (1-(4-Chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-3-(1,2,4- triazol-1-ylmethyl)pentan-3-ol). Whole-cell extracts were obtained by sonication treatment (Sonifier cell disruptor -Branson Digital Sonifier S-450D, USA) and were analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). SDS-PAGE analyses of the total protein profile of Anabaena fertilissima, Aulosira fertilissima and Westiellopsis prolifica showed a linear decrease in the protein content with increasing pesticide stress when administered to different concentrations of 2, 4-D, Pencycuron, Endosulfan and Tebuconazole. The results indicate that different stressors exert specific effects on cyanobacterial protein synthesis.
    A Pairwise-Gaussian-Merging Approach: Towards Genome Segmentation for Copy Number Analysis
    Segmentation, filtering out of measurement errors and identification of breakpoints are integral parts of any analysis of microarray data for the detection of copy number variation (CNV). Existing algorithms designed for these tasks have had some successes in the past, but they tend to be O(N2) in either computation time or memory requirement, or both, and the rapid advance of microarray resolution has practically rendered such algorithms useless. Here we propose an algorithm, SAD, that is much faster and much less thirsty for memory – O(N) in both computation time and memory requirement -- and offers higher accuracy. The two key ingredients of SAD are the fundamental assumption in statistics that measurement errors are normally distributed and the mathematical relation that the product of two Gaussians is another Gaussian (function). We have produced a computer program for analyzing CNV based on SAD. In addition to being fast and small it offers two important features: quantitative statistics for predictions and, with only two user-decided parameters, ease of use. Its speed shows little dependence on genomic profile. Running on an average modern computer, it completes CNV analyses for a 262 thousand-probe array in ~1 second and a 1.8 million-probe array in 9 seconds
    Nutritional Evaluation of Sorghum Flour (Sorghumbicolor L. Moench) During Processing of Injera
    The present study was carried out to evaluate the nutritional value of sorghum flour during processing of injera (unleavened thick bread). The proximate composition of sorghum flour before and after fermentation and that of injera was determined. Compared to the raw flour and fermented one, injera had low protein (11.55%), ash (1.57%) and fat (2.40%) contents but high in fiber content. Moreover, injera was found to have significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher energy (389.08 Kcal/100g) compared to raw and fermented sorghum flour. Injera contained lower levels of anti-nutritional factors (polyphenols, phytate and tannins) compared to raw and fermented sorghum. Also it was found to be rich in Ca (4.75mg/100g), Fe (3.95 mg/100g), and Cu (0.7 mg/100g) compared to that of raw and fermented flour. Moreover, both the extractable minerals and protein digestibility were high for injera due to low amount of anti-nutrients. Injera was found to contain an appreciable amount of amino acids except arginine and tyrosine.
    Preliminary Toxicological Evaluations of Polypeptide-K Isolated from Momordica Charantia in Laboratory Rats
    This study examined the toxicological effects and safety of polypeptide k isolated from the seeds of Momordica charantia in laboratory rats. 30 male Sprague Dawley rats (12 weeks old, bodyweight 180-200 g) were randomly divided into 3 groups (1000 mg/kg, 500 mg and 0 mg/kg). Rats were acclimatized to laboratory conditions for 7 days and at day 8 rats were dosed orally with polypeptide k (in 2% DMSO/normal saline) and the controls received the dosed vehicle only. Rats were then observed for 72 hours before sacrificed. Rats were anaesthetized by pentobarbital (50 mg/kg ip) and 2-3.0 mL of blood was taken by cardiac puncture and rats were scarified by anaesthetic overdose. Immediately, organs (heart, lungs, liver, kidneys) were weigh and taken for histology. Organ sections were then evaluated by a histopathologist. Serum samples were assayed for liver functions (ALT and γ-GT) and kidney functions (BUN and creatinine). All rats showed normal behavior after the dosing and no statistical changes were observed in all blood parameters and organ weight. Histological examinations revealed normal organ structures. In conclusion, dosing of rats up to 1000 mg/kg did not have any effects on the rat behavior, liver or kidney functions nor histology of the selected organs.