Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 16

Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering

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  • 16
    Biospeckle Techniques in Quality Evaluation of Indian Fruits

    In this study spatial-temporal speckle correlation techniques have been applied for the quality evaluation of three different Indian fruits namely apple, pear and tomato for the first time. The method is based on the analysis of variations of laser light scattered from biological samples. The results showed that crosscorrelation coefficients of biospeckle patterns change subject to their freshness and the storage conditions. The biospeckle activity was determined by means of the cross-correlation functions of the intensity fluctuations. Significant changes in biospeckle activity were observed during their shelf lives. From the study, it is found that the biospeckle activity decreases with the shelf-life storage time. Further it has been shown that biospeckle activity changes according to their respiration rates.

    Nitrogen Dynamics and Removal by Algal Turf Scrubber under High Ammonia and Organic Matter Loading in a Recirculating Aquaculture System
    A study was undertaken to assess the potential of an Algal Turf Scrubber to remove nitrogen from aquaculture effluent to reduce environmental pollution. High total ammonia nitrogen concentrations were introduced to an Algal Turf Scrubber developed under varying hydraulic surface loading rates of African catfish (Clarius gariepinus) effluent in a recirculating aquaculture system. Nutrient removal rates were not affected at total suspended solids concentration of up to 0.04g TSS/l (P > 0.05). Nitrogen removal rates 0.93-0.99g TAN/m²/d were recorded at very high loading rates 3.76-3.81 g TAN/m²/d. Total ammonia removal showed ½ order kinetics between 1.6 to 2.3mg/l Total Ammonia Nitrogen concentrations. Nitrogen removal increased with its loading, which increased with hydraulic surface loading rate. Total Ammonia Nitrogen removal by Algal turf scrubber was higher than reported values for fluidized bed filters and trickling filters. The algal turf scrubber also effectively removed nitrate thereby reducing the need for water exchange.
    Unnoticeable Mumps Infection in India: Does MMR Vaccine Protect against Circulating Mumps Virus Genotype C?
    MMR vaccine failure had been reported globally and here we report that it occurs now in India. Samples were collected from clinically suspected mumps cases were subjected for anti mumps antibodies, virus isolation, RT-PCR, sequencing and phylogenetic tree analysis. 56 samples collected from men and women belonging to various age groups. 30 had been vaccinated and the status of 26 patients was unknown. 28 out of 30 samples were found to be symptomatic and positive for Mumps IgM, indicating active mumps infection in 93.4% of the vaccinated population. A phylogenetic tree comparison of the clinical isolate is shown to be genotype C which is distinct from vaccine strain. Our study clearly sending warning signs that MMR vaccine is a failure and it needs to be revamped for the human use by increasing its efficacy and efficiency.
    A Heat-Inducible Transgene Expression System for Gene Therapy
    Heat-inducible gene expression vectors are useful for hyperthermia-induced cancer gene therapy, because the combination of hyperthermia and gene therapy can considerably improve the therapeutic effects. In the present study, we developed an enhanced heat-inducible transgene expression system in which a heat-shock protein (HSP) promoter and tetracycline-responsive transactivator were combined. When the transactivator plasmid containing the tetracycline-responsive transactivator gene was co-transfected with the reporter gene expression plasmid, a high level of heat-induced gene expression was observed compared with that using the HSP promoter without the transactivator. In vitro evaluation of the therapeutic effect using HeLa cells showed that heat-induced therapeutic gene expression caused cell death in a high percentage of these cells, indicating that this strategy is promising for cancer gene therapy.
    Study of the Glucidic Fraction of Celtis Australis L, Crataegus Azarolus L, Crataegus Monogyna Jacq., Elaeagnus Angustifolia L. and Zizyphus Lotus L. Fruits

    In Algeria, some fruit trees produce fruits in free nature. Such trees are Celtis australis, Crataegus azarolus, Crataegus monogyna and Zizyphus lotus. In spite of their appreciable consumption, their nutritional value remains unknown. The objective of this study is the determination of sugars in the pulpe and almond of the above fruits. The biochemical analysis shows that these fruits present interesting contents of soluble sugars which confers significant caloric intakes to them. As well as significant fibres which give them therapeutic and industrial benefits? The analysis of the almonds shows that it contains considerable contents of sugars which enable them to be an energetic food.

    Interspecific Variation in Heat Stress Tolerance and Oxidative Damage among 15 C3 Species
    The C3 plants are frequently suffering from exposure to high temperature stress which limits the growth and yield of these plants. This study seeks to clarify the physiological mechanisms of heat tolerance in relation to oxidative stress in C3 species. Fifteen C3 species were exposed to prolonged moderately high temperature stress 36/30°C for 40 days in a growth chamber. Chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm) showed great difference among species at 40 days of the stress. The species showed decreases in Fv/Fm and increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) content under stress condition as well as negative correlation between Fv/Fm and MDA (r = -0.61*) at 40 days of the stress. Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) content before and after stress in addition to its response under stress showed great differences among species. The results suggest that the difference in heat tolerance among C3 species is closely associated with the ability to suppress oxidative damage but not with the content of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which is regulated by complex network.
    Cr, Fe and Se Contents of the Turkish Black and Green Teas and the Effect of Lemon Addition
    Tea is consumed by a big part of the world-s population. It has an enormous importance for the Turkish culture. Nearly it is brewed every morning and evening at the all houses. Also it is consumed with lemon wedge. Habitual drinking of tea infusions may significantly contribute to daily dietary requirements of elements. Different instrumental techniques are used for determination of these elements. But atomic and mass spectroscopic methods are preferred most. In these study chromium, iron and selenium contents after the hot water brewing of black and green tea were determined by Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Furthermore, effect of lemon addition on chromium, iron and selenium concentration tea infusions is investigated. Results of the investigation showed that concentration of chromium, iron and selenium increased in black tea with lemon addition. On the other hand only selenium is increased with lemon addition in green tea. And iron concentration is not detected in green tea but its concentration is determined as 1.420 ppm after lemon addition.
    Smart Motion

    Austenite and Martensite indicate the phases of solids undergoing phase transformation which we usually associate with materials and not with living organisms. This article provides an overview of bacterial proteins and structures that are undergoing phase transformation and suggests its probable effect on mechanical behavior. The context is mainly within the role of phase transformations occurring in the flagellum of bacteria. The current knowledge of molecular mechanism leading to phase variation in living organisms is reviewed. Since in bacteria, each flagellum is driven by a separate motor, similarity to a Differential drive in case of four-wheeled vehicles is suggested. It also suggests the application of the mechanism in which bacteria changes its direction of movement to facilitate single point turning of a multi-wheeled vehicle. Finally, examples are presented to illustrate that the motion due to phase transformation of flagella in bacteria can start a whole new research on motion mechanisms.

    Polymorphic Marker Designed from Bioinformatics Sequences Related to Cell Wall Strength for Discrimination of Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana L.) Clones Resistant to Gamboge Disorder

    Gamboge disorder (GD) or fruit damage by the yellow sap is a major problem in mangosteen. Mangosteen plants varied in the level of GD, from very low or non GD to low, moderate and high GD. However it was difficult to differentiate between GD and non GD plants because evaluation of the disorder is strongly influenced by environment. In this study we investigated the usefulness of primer designed from bioinformatics related to cell wall strength, termed as MCWS, to predict GD. Plant materials used were 28 mangosteen plants selected based on percentage of GD categorized as high, moderate, low and very low or non GD. The result showed that the specific DNA fragments were absent in the high GD accessions. The MCWS marker suggests as a novel polymorphic marker for GD in mangosteen as well as a marker for detect variability in mangosteen as apomictic plant.

    Comparison of Anti-Shadoo Antibodies – Where is the Endogenous Shadoo protein?

    Shadoo protein (Sho) was described in 2003 as the newest member of Prion protein superfamily [1]. Sho has similar structural motifs like prion protein (PrP) that is known for its central role in transmissible spongiform enchephalopathies. Although a great number of functions have been proposed, the exact physiological function of PrP is not known yet. Investigation of the function and localization of Sho may help us to understand the function of the Prion protein superfamily. Analyzing the subcellular localization of YFP-tagged forms of Sho, we detected the protein in the plasma membrane and in the nucleus of various cell lines. To reveal the localization of the endogenous protein we generated antibodies against Shadoo as well as employed commercially available anti-Shadoo antibodies: i) EG62 anti-mouse Shadoo antibody generated by Eurogentec Ltd.; ii) S-12 anti-human Shadoo antibody by Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc.; iii) R-12 anti-mouse Shadoo antibody by Santa Cruz Biotechnology Inc.; iv) SPRN antibody against human Shadoo by Abgent Inc. We carried out immunocytochemistry on non-transfected HeLa, Zpl 2-1, Zw 3-5, GT1-1, GT1-7 and SHSY5Y cells as well as on YFP-Sho, Sho-YFP, and YFP-GPI transfected HeLa cells. Their specificity (in antibody-peptide competition assay) and co-localization (with the YFP signal) were assessed.

    Destination of the Solid Waste Generated at the Agricultural Products Wholesale Market in Brazil

    The Brazilian Agricultural Products Wholesale Market fits well as example of residues generating system, reaching 750 metric tons per month of total residues, from which 600 metric tons are organic material and 150 metric tons are recyclable materials. Organic material is basically composed of fruit, vegetables and flowers leftovers from the products commercialization. The recyclable compounds are generate from packing material employed in the commercialization process. This research work devoted efforts in carrying quantitative analysis of the residues generated in the agricultural enterprise at its final destination. Data survey followed the directions implemented by the Residues Management Program issued by the agricultural enterprise. It was noticed from that analysis the necessity of changing the logistics applied to the recyclable material collecting process. However, composting process was elected as the organic compounds destination which is considered adequate for a material composed of significant percentage of organic matter far higher than wood, cardboard and plastics contents.

    Effect of Nutrient Induced Salinity on Growth, Membrane Permeability, Nitrate Reductase Activity, Proline Content and Macronutrient Concentrations of Tomato Grown in Greenhouse

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of different types of nutrients induced salinity on the growth, membrane permeability, nitrate reductase activity, proline content and macronutrient concentrations of tomato plants. The plants were subjected to six different treatments: 1 (control) containing basic solution, 2 basic solution+40mM of NaCl, 3 basic solution+40 mM of KNO3, 4 basic solution+20 mM of Ca(NO3)2.4H2O, 5 basic solution+20 mM of Mg(NO3)2.6H2O and 6 basic solution+20 mM of KNO3+5 mM of Ca(NO3)2.4H2O+5 mM of Mg(NO3)2.6H2O. Membrane permeability was increased significantly only with addition of NaCl, and then decreased to its lower level with addition of Ca(NO3)2.4H2O and Mg(NO3)2.6H2O. Proline accumulation were followed the same trend of results when they had been exposed to NaCl salinity. Nitrate reductase activity (NRA) was significantly affected by addition of different types of nutrient induced salinity.

    Seasonal Variations and Different Irrigation Programs on Nutrient Concentrations of 'Starkrimson Delicious' Apple Variety
    This study was aimed to determine seasonal variations of leaf nutrient concentrations to define nutrient needs related to growing period and to compare irrigation programs in terms of nutrient uptake. In this study,'Starkrimson Delicious' variety grafted onto seedling rootstock was used during 2009-2010 growing seasons. The study was conducted at E─ƒirdir Fruit Growing Research Station. Leaf samples were taken in five different sample seasons (May, June, July, August and September). Four different pan coefficients (0.50, 0.75, 1.0, 1.25) were applied during drip irrigation treatments in 7 days irrigation interval. Leaf K, Mg, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Mn and Cu concentrations were determined. The results showed that among the seasonal changes, the highest concentrations of K, Mg, P and Mn in leaves were recorded in May, followed by a decrease in the other months, while in contrast Ca and Fe showed the lowest concentration in May. Results of the study demonstrate that among irrigation programs K and Cu concentration in plants was significantly influenced. Cu concentrations decreased with seasonal variations and different irrigation programs. Thus, nutrient needs of 'Starkrimson Delicious'apple trees at different growth stages should be taken into consideration before making effective fertilization program.
    Molecular Dynamics Study on Laninamivir Inhibiting Neuraminidases of H5N1 and pH1N1 Influenza a Viruses
    Viral influenza A subtypes H5N1 and pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) have worldwide emerged and transmitted. The most common anti-influenza drug for treatment of both seasonal and pandemic influenza viruses is oseltamivir that nowadays becomes resistance to influenza neuraminidase. The novel long-acting drug, laninamivir, was discovered for treatment of the patients infected with influenza B and influenza A viruses. In the present study, laninamivir complexed with wild-type strain of both H5N1 and pH1N1 viruses were comparatively determined the structures and drug-target interactions by means of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The results show that the hydrogen bonding interactions formed between laninamivir and its binding residues are likely similar for the two systems. Additionally, the presence of intermolecular interactions from laninamivir to the residues in the binding pocket is established through their side chains in accordance with hydrogen bond interactions.
    Optimization of Microwave-Assisted Extraction of Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.) Fruit Using Response Surface Methodology

    Optimization of a microwave-assisted extraction of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus) fruit using methanol was studied. The influence of process parameters (microwave power, plant material-to-solvent ratio and the extraction time) on the extraction efficiency were optimized by using response surface methodology. The predicted maximum yield of extractive substances (41.85 g/100 g fresh plant material) was obtained at microwave power of 600 W and plant material to solvent ratio of 0.2 g/cm3 after 26 minutes of extraction, while a mean value of 40.80±0.41 g/100 g fresh plant material was obtained from laboratory experiments. This proves applicability of the model in predicting optimal extraction conditions with minimal laborious and time consuming. The results indicated that all process parameters were effective on the extraction efficiency, while the most important factor was extraction time. In order to rationalize production the optimal economical condition which gave a large total extract yield with minimal energy and solvent consumption was found.

    Promotion of Growth and Modulation of As- Induced Stress Ethylene in Maize by As- Tolerant ACC Deaminase Producing Bacteria

    One of the major pollutants in the environment is arsenic (As). Due to the toxic effects of As to all organisms, its remediation is necessary. Conventional technologies used in the remediation of As contaminated soils are expensive and may even compromise the structure of the soil. An attractive alternative is phytoremediation, which is the use of plants which can take up the contaminant in their tissues. Plant growth promoting bacteria (PGPB) has been known to enhance growth of plants through several mechanisms such as phytohormone production, phosphate solubilization, siderophore production and 1-aminocyclopropane-1- carboxylate (ACC) deaminase production, which is an essential trait that aids plants especially under stress conditions such as As stress. Twenty one bacteria were isolated from As-contaminated soils in the vicinity of the Janghang Smelter in Chungnam Province, South Korea. These exhibited high tolerance to either arsenite (As III) or arsenate (As V) or both. Most of these isolates possess several plant growth promoting traits which can be potentially exploited to increase phytoremediation efficiency. Among the identified isolates is Pseudomonas sp. JS1215, which produces ACC deaminase, indole acetic acid (IAA), and siderophore. It also has the ability to solubilize phosphate. Inoculation of JS1215 significantly enhanced root and shoot length and biomass accumulation of maize under normal conditions. In the presence of As, particularly in lower As level, inoculation of JS1215 slightly increased root length and biomass. Ethylene increased with increasing As concentration, but was reduced by JS1215 inoculation. JS1215 can be a potential bioinoculant for increasing phytoremediation efficiency.