Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 19

Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering

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  • 19
    Impact of Environmental Factors on Profit Efficiency of Rice Production: A Study in Vietnam-s Red River Delta
    Environmental factors affect agriculture production productivity and efficiency resulted in changing of profit efficiency. This paper attempts to estimate the impacts of environmental factors to profitability of rice farmers in the Red River Delta of Vietnam. The dataset was extracted from 349 rice farmers using personal interviews. Both OLS and MLE trans-log profit functions were used in this study. Five production inputs and four environmental factors were included in these functions. The estimation of the stochastic profit frontier with a two-stage approach was used to measure profitability. The results showed that the profit efficiency was about 75% on the average and environmental factors change profit efficiency significantly beside farm specific characteristics. Plant disease, soil fertility, irrigation apply and water pollution were the four environmental factors cause profit loss in rice production. The result indicated that farmers should reduce household size, farm plots, apply row seeding technique and improve environmental factors to obtain high profit efficiency with special consideration is given for irrigation water quality improvement.
    Sexual behaviour and Semen Characteristics of Young Male Boer Goats in Tropical Condition: A Case in Indonesia
    Sexual behavior and semen charactertistics were evaluated in young male Boer goats in tropical condition during time period of September to November 2009. The animal was let to have adaptation for five months after importation from Australian climate. A total of 20 bucks were observed for sexual behavior and ability of semen production. Out of this number, 4 faild to libido and 3 produced poor semen. The remaing 13 animals were divided into three groups according to the ages (11-13, 15-16 and 18-25 months). Sexual behavior consisting response time to female teaser, ejaculation time, fixing strenght to female and erection status were normaly observer in 13 bucks, and there was no significant difference between age groups. Semen characteristics from 13 bucks were in normal quality in the volume, sperm mass motility, individual motility, percentage of live- and abnormal sperm. We concluded that is possible to collect semen of Boer goats during the period of September to November under tropical condition. Collection during other time period should be analyzed.
    An Integrated Biotechnology Database of the National Agricultural Information Center in Korea
    The National Agricultural Biotechnology Information Center (NABIC) plays a leading role in the biotechnology information database for agricultural plants in Korea. Since 2002, we have concentrated on functional genomics of major crops, building an integrated biotechnology database for agro-biotech information that focuses on bioinformatics of major agricultural resources such as rice, Chinese cabbage, and microorganisms. In the NABIC, integration-based biotechnology database provides useful information through a user-friendly web interface that allows analysis of genome infrastructure, multiple plants, microbial resources, and living modified organisms.
    Response of Chickpea Genotypes to Drought
    Water is the main component of biological processes. Water management is important to obtain higher productivity. In this study, some of the yield components were investigated together with different drought levels. Four chickpea genotypes (CDC Frontier, CDC Luna, Sawyer and Sierra) were grown in pots with 3 different irrigation levels (a dose of 17.5 ml, 35 ml and 70 ml for each pot per day) after three weeks from sowing. In the research, flowering, pod set, pod per plant, fertile pod, double seed/pod, stem diameter, plant weight, seed per plant, 1000 seed weight, seed diameter, vegetation length and weekly plant height were measured. Consequently, significant differences were observed on all the investigated characteristics owing to genotypes (except double seed/pod and stem diameter), water levels (except first pod, seed weight and height on 3rd week) and genotype x water level interaction (except first pod, double seed/pod, seed weight and height).
    Effects of Drought on Yield and Some Yield Components of Chickpea
    This research was conducted to determine responses of chickpeas to drought in different periods (early period, late period, no-irrigation, two times irrigation as control). The trial was made in “Randomized Complete Block Design" with three replications on 2010 and 2011 years in Konya-Turkey. Genotypes were consisted from 7 lines of ICARDA, 2 certified lines and 1 local population. The results showed that; as means of years and genotypes, early period stress showed highest (207.47 kg da-1) seed yield and it was followed by control (202.33 kg da-1), late period (144.64 kg da-1) and normal (106.93 kg da-1) stress applications. The genotypes were affected too much by drought and, the lowest seed was taken from non-irrigated plots. As the means of years and stress applications, the highest (196.01 kg da-1) yield was taken from genotype 22255. The reason of yield variation could be derived from different responses of genotypes to drought.
    Source of Oseltamivir Resistance Due to R152K Mutation of Influenza B Virus Neuraminidase: Molecular Modeling
    Every 2-3 years the influenza B virus serves epidemics. Neuraminidase (NA) is an important target for influenza drug design. Although, oseltamivir, an oral neuraminidase drug, has been shown good inhibitory efficiency against wild-type of influenza B virus, the lower susceptibility to the R152K mutation has been reported. Better understanding of oseltamivir efficiency and resistance toward the influenza B NA wild-type and R152K mutant, respectively, could be useful for rational drug design. Here, two complex systems of wild-type and R152K NAs with oseltamivir bound were studied using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Based on 5-ns MD simulation, the loss of notable hydrogen bond and decrease in per-residue decomposition energy from the mutated residue K152 contributed to drug compared to those of R152 in wildtype were found to be a primary source of high-level of oseltamivir resistance due to the R152K mutation.
    Control of Aspergillus flavus Growth in Tomato Paste by Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oils
    This study was conducted to evaluate the antifungal activities of Cinnamomum zeylanicum and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil against Aspergillus flavus in culture media and tomato paste. 200 ppm of cinnamon and 500 ppm of oregano completely inhibited A. flavus growth in culture media, while in tomato paste 300 ppm of cinnamon and 200 ppm of oregano had the same effect. Test panel evaluations revealed that samples with 100 and 200 ppm cinnamon were acceptable. The results may suggest the potential use of Cinnamomum zeylanicum essential oil as natural preservative in tomato paste.
    Turfgrass Quality Changes from Season to Season on Perennial Ryegrass (lolium perenne l.) Genotypes Collected from Natural Flora

    Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) plants are cultivated for lawn constitution and as forage plants. Considerable number of perennial ryegrass genotypes are present in the flora of our country and they present substantial was performed based on a Project supported bu TUBITAK (Project numver : 106O159) and perannial ryegrass genotypes from 8 provinces were collected during 2006. Seeds of perennial ryegrass were collected from 48 different locations. Populations of turfgrass seeds in flowerpots to be 20 and 1 cm deep greenhouse were sown in three replications at 07.07.2007.Then the growth of turfgrass seedlings in the greenhouse in pots showed sufficiently separated from the plants were planted in each population. Plants planted in the garden of the observation scale of 1-9 was evaluated by the quality, 1 = the weakest / worst, 6 = acceptable and 9 = superior or considered as an ideal. Essentially only recognized in assessing the quality of the color of grass, but the color, density, uniformity, texture (texture), illness or environmental stresses are evaluated as a combination reaction. Turfgrass quality 15.11.2007, 19.03.2008, 27.05.2008, 27.11.2008, 07.03.2009 and 02.06.2009 have been 6 times to be in order. Observations made regarding the quality of grass; 3 years according to seasonal environments turf quality genotypes belonging to 14 different populations were found to be 7.5 and above are reserved for future use in breeding works.The number of genotypes belonging to 41 populations in terms of turfgrass quality was determined as 7.9 of 3 year average seasonal. Argıthan between Doğanhisar (Konya) is located 38.09 latitude and 31.40 longitude, altitude 1158 m in the set that population numbered 41.

    Effect of Sperm Concentration and Length of Storage at 5 C on Motility of Goat Spermatozoa
    The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of different concentration of spermatozoa and length of storage in 5 0C on sperm motility. Semen was collected using artificial vagina from goat aged 2 to 2.5 years. Fresh goat semen with sperm motility ≥ 70% was used as material. Semen was divided into 4 treatments of concentration (40 x 10 6 / ml, 50 x 106/ml, 60x106/ml, 70x106/ml) with length of storage 0,12,24,36 h. in 5 0C. There were interactions (P
    5-Aminolevulinic Acid-Loaded Gel, Sponge Collagen to Enhance the Delivery Ability to Skin
    Topical photodynamic therapy (PDT) with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) is an alternative therapy for treating superficial cancer, especially for skin or oral cancer. ALA, a precursor of the photosensitizer protoporphyrin IX (PpIX), is present as zwitterions and hydrophilic property which make the low permeability through the cell membrane. Collagen is a traditional carrier; its molecular composed various amino acids which bear positive charge and negative charge. In order to utilize the ion-pairs with ALA and collagen, the study employed various pH values adjusting the net charge. The aim of this study was to compare a series collagen form, including solution, gel and sponge to investigate the topical delivery behavior of ALA. The in vivo confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) study demonstrated that PpIX generation ability was different pattern after apply for 6 h. Gel type could generate high PpIX, and archived more deep of skin depth.
    Topical Delivery of Thymidine Dinucleotide to Induce p53 Generation in the Skin by Elastic Liposome
    Transcription factor p53 has a powerful tumor suppressing function that is associated with many cancers. However, p53 of the molecular weight was higher make the limitation across to skin or cell membrane. Thymidine dinucleotide (pTT), an oligonucleotide, can activate the p53 transcription factor. pTT is a hydrophilic and negative charge oligonucleotide, which delivery in to cell membrane need an appropriate carrier. The aim of this study was to improve the bioavailability of the nucleotide fragment, thymidine dinucleotide (pTT), using elasic liposome carriers to deliver the drug into the skin. The study demonstrate that dioleoylphosphocholine (DOPC) incorporated with sodium cholate at molar ratio 1:1 can archived the particle size about 220 nm. This elastic liposome could penetration through skin from stratum corneum to whole epidermis by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Moreover, we observed the the slight increase in generation of p53 by western blot.
    Importance of the Green Belts to Reduce Noise Pollution and Determination of Roadside Noise Reduction Effectiveness of Bushes in Konya, Turkey
    The impact of noise upon live quality has become an important aspect to make both urban and environmental policythroughout Europe and in Turkey. Concern over the quality of urban environments, including noise levels and declining quality of green space, is over the past decade with increasing emphasis on designing livable and sustainable communities. According to the World Health Organization, noise pollution is the third most hazardous environmental type of pollution which proceeded by only air (gas emission) and water pollution. The research carried out in two phases, the first stage of the research noise and plant types providing the suction of noise was evaluated through literature study and at the second stage, definite types (Juniperus horizontalis L., Spirea vanhouetti Briot., Cotoneaster dammerii C.K., Berberis thunbergii D.C., Pyracantha coccinea M. etc.) were selected for the city of Konya. Trials were conducted on the highway of Konya. The biggest value of noise reduction was 6.3 dB(A), 4.9 dB(A), 6.2 dB(A) value with compared to the control which includes the group that formed by the bushes at the distance of 7m, 11m, 20m from the source and 5m, 9m, 20m of plant width, respectively. In this paper, definitions regarding to noise and its sources were made and the precautions were taken against to noise that mentioned earlier with the adverse effects of noise. Plantation design approaches and suggestions concerning to the diversity to be used, which are peculiar to roadside, were developed to discuss the role and the function of plant material to reduce the noise of the traffic.
    Structural Characterization of Piscine Globin Superfamily Proteins
    Globin superfamily proteins including myoglobin and hemoglobin, have welcome new members recently, namely, cytoglobin, neuroglobin and globin X, though their physiological functions are still to be addressed. Fish are the excellent models for the study of these globins, but their characteristics have not yet been discussed to date. In the present study, attempts have been made to characterize their structural uniqueness by making use of proteomics approach. This is the first comparative study on the characterization of globin superfamily proteins from fish.
    Effects of Winter and Spring Sowing on Yield Components of Safflower Genotypes
    The research was conducted with three replications as “Randomized Block Design” in Konya-Turkey ecological conditions. In the study, 16 of promising safflower lines (A8, E1, F4, F6, G16, H14, I1), and 1 cultivar (Dinçer) were evaluated in 2008-09 growing season. Some of the yield components such as plant height (cm), first branch height (cm), number of branches per plant, 1000 seed weight (g), seed yield (kg ha-1), oil content (%), oil yield (kg ha-1) were determined. Winter sowing showed higher values than spring sowing. The highest values were taken from Dinçer for plant height (86.7 cm), E1 (37.5 cm) for first branch height, F6 for number of branch (11.6 per plant), I1 for number of head (24.9 per plant), A8 for 1000 seed weight (51.75 g), Dinçer for seed yield (2927.1 kg ha-1), oil content (28.79 %) and also for oil yield (87.44 kg ha-1) respectively.
    The Nematode Fauna Dynamics Peculiarities of Highlands Different Ecosystems (Eastern Georgia)
    There was studied dynamic of the number of nematodes fauna of various ecosystems of Gombori Mountain Ridge that belongs to peak of fauna dynamic. The nature of dynamic is in general similar in all six biotypes and the difference is evident only in total number of nematodes.
    Critical Assessment of Scoring Schemes for Protein-Protein Docking Predictions

    Protein-protein interactions (PPI) play a crucial role in many biological processes such as cell signalling, transcription, translation, replication, signal transduction, and drug targeting, etc. Structural information about protein-protein interaction is essential for understanding the molecular mechanisms of these processes. Structures of protein-protein complexes are still difficult to obtain by biophysical methods such as NMR and X-ray crystallography, and therefore protein-protein docking computation is considered an important approach for understanding protein-protein interactions. However, reliable prediction of the protein-protein complexes is still under way. In the past decades, several grid-based docking algorithms based on the Katchalski-Katzir scoring scheme were developed, e.g., FTDock, ZDOCK, HADDOCK, RosettaDock, HEX, etc. However, the success rate of protein-protein docking prediction is still far from ideal. In this work, we first propose a more practical measure for evaluating the success of protein-protein docking predictions,the rate of first success (RFS), which is similar to the concept of mean first passage time (MFPT). Accordingly, we have assessed the ZDOCK bound and unbound benchmarks 2.0 and 3.0. We also createda new benchmark set for protein-protein docking predictions, in which the complexes have experimentally determined binding affinity data. We performed free energy calculation based on the solution of non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation (nlPBE) to improve the binding mode prediction. We used the well-studied thebarnase-barstarsystem to validate the parameters for free energy calculations. Besides,thenlPBE-based free energy calculations were conducted for the badly predicted cases by ZDOCK and ZRANK. We found that direct molecular mechanics energetics cannot be used to discriminate the native binding pose from the decoys.Our results indicate that nlPBE-based calculations appeared to be one of the promising approaches for improving the success rate of binding pose predictions.

    Physiological and Biochemical Responses to Drought Stress of Chickpea Genotypes
    The experimental design was 4 x 5 factorial with three replications in fully controlled research greenhouse in Department of Soil Sciences and Plant Nutrition, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Selcuk in the year of 2009. Determination of tolerant chickpea genotypes to drought was made in the research. Additionally, sophisticated effects of drought on plant growth and development, biochemical and physical properties or physical defense mechanisms were presented. According to the results, the primary genotypes were Ilgın YP (0.0063 g/gh) for leaf water capacity, 22235 70.44(%) for relative water content, 22159 (82.47%) for real water content, 22159 (5.03 mg/l) for chlorophyll a+b, Ilgın YP (125.89 nmol H2O2.dak-1/ mg protein-1) for peroxidase, Yunak YP (769.67 unit/ mg protein-1) for superoxide dismutase, Seydişehir YP (16.74 μg.TA-1) for proline, Gökçe (80.01 nmol H2O2.dak-1/ mg protein-1) for catalase. Consequently, all the genotypes increased their enzyme activity depending on the increasing of drought stress consider with the effects of drought stress on leaf enzyme activity. Chickpea genotypes are increasing enzyme activity against to drought stress.
    Study of Effective Moisture Diffusivity of Oak Acorn

    The purpose of present work was to study the drying kinetics of whole acorn and its kernel at different drying air temperatures and their effective moisture diffusivity. The results indicated that the drying time of whole acorn was 442, 206 and 188 min at the air temperature of 65, 75 and 85ºC, respectively. At the same temperatures, the drying time of kernel was 131, 56 and 76min. The results showed that the effect of drying air temperature increasing on the drying time reduction could not be significant on acorn drying at all conditions. The effective moisture diffusivity of whole acorn and kernel increased with increasing air temperature from 65 to 75ºC. However more air temperature increasing, led to decreasing this property of acorn kernel. The critical temperature of acorn drying was about 75°C in which acorn kernel had the highest effective moisture diffusivity.

    Statistical Screening of Medium Components on Ethanol Production from Cashew Apple Juice using Saccharomyces diasticus

    In the present study, effect of critical medium components (a total of fifteen components) on ethanol production from waste cashew apple juice (CAJ) using yeast Saccharomyces diasticus was studied. A statistical response surface methodology (RSM) based Plackett-Burman Design (PBD) was used for the design of experiments. The design contains a total of 32 experimental trails. The effect of medium components on ethanol was studied at two different levels such as low concentration level (-) and high concentration levels (+). The dependent variables selected in this study were ethanol concentration (g/L) and cellmass concentration (g/L). Data obtained from RSM on ethanol production were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA). In general, initial substrate concentration significantly influenced the microbial growth and product formation. Of the medium components evaluated, CAJ concentration, yeast extract, (NH4)2SO4, and malt extract showed significant effect on ethanol fermentation. A second-order polynomial model was used to predict the experimental data and the model fitted the data with a high correlation coefficient (R2 > 0.98). Maximum ethanol (15.3 g/L) and biomass (6.4 g/L) concentrations were obtained at the optimum medium composition and at optimum condition (temperature-30°C; initial pH-6.8) after 72 h fermentation using S.diasticus.