Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 34

Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering

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  • 34
    Classifying of Maize Inbred Lines into Heterotic Groups using Diallel Analysis
    The selection of parents and breeding strategies for the successful maize hybrid production will be facilitated by heterotic groupings of parental lines and determination of combining abilities of them. Fourteen maize inbred lines, used in maize breeding programs in Iran, were crossed in a diallel mating design. The 91 F1 hybrids and the 14 parental lines were studied during two years at four locations of Iran for investigation of combining ability of gentypes for grain yield and to determine heterotic patterns among germplasm sources, using both, the Griffing-s method and the biplot approach for diallel analysis. The graphical representation offered by biplot analysis allowed a rapid and effective overview of general combining ability (GCA) and specific combining ability (SCA) effects of the inbred lines, their performance in crosses, as well as grouping patterns of similar genotypes. GCA and SCA effects were significant for grain yield (GY). Based on significant positive GCA effects, the lines derived from LSC could be used as parent in crosses to increase GY. The maximum best- parent heterosis values and highest SCA effects resulted from crosses B73 × MO17 and A679 × MO17 for GY. The best heterotic patterns were LSC × RYD, which would be potentially useful in maize breeding programs to obtain high-yielding hybrids in the same climate of Iran.
    External Morphological Study of Wild Labeo calbasu with Reference to Body Weight' Total Length and Condition Factor from the River Chenab, Punjab, Pakistan
    115 samples of Labeo calbasu ranged 8.0-17.9cm length with mean11.90±1.96 and 4.9-68.5g weight with mean 22.25±12.54 from the River Chenab, Southern Punjab, Pakistan were analyzed to investigate length-weight relationships (LWR) of fish in relation to condition factor (K). Standard length (SL), fork length (FL), head length (HL) head width (HW), body girth (BG), dorsal fin length (DFL), dorsal fin base (DFB), pectoral fin length (PcFL), pelvic fin length (PvFL) and anal fin length (AFL) are found to be highly correlated with increasing total length and wet body weight (r > 0.500). Wet body weight has positive (r=0.540) and total length has no correlation (r=0.344) with calculated Condition factor (K). The slope “b" in the relationship is 3.27 and intercepts -2.2258.
    Evaluation of drought Tolerance Indices in Dryland Bread wheat Genotypes under Post-Anthesis drought Stress
    Post-anthesis drought stress is the most important problem affecting wheat production in dryland fields, specially in Mediterranean regions. The main objective of this research was to evaluate drought tolerance indices in dryland wheat genotypes under post-anthesis drought stress. The research was including two different experiments. In each experiment, twenty dryland bread wheat genotypes were sown in a randomized complete blocks design (RCBD) with three replications. One of experiments belonged to rain-fed conditions (post-anthesis drought stress) and other experiment was under non-stress conditions (with supplemental irrigation). Different drought tolerance indices include Stress Tolerance (Tol), Mean Productivity (MP), Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP), Stress Susceptibility Index (SSI), Stress Tolerance Index (STI), Harmonic Mean (HAM), Yield Index (YI) and Yield Stability Index (YSI) were evaluate based on grain yield under rain-fed (Ys) and supplemental irrigation (Yp) environments. G10 and G12 were the most tolerant genotypes based on TOL and SSI. But, based on MP, GMP, STI, HAM and YI indices, G1 and G2 were selected. STI, GMP and MP indices had high correlation with grain yield under rain-fed and supplementary irrigation conditions and were recognized as appropriate indices to identify genotypes with high grain yield and low sensitivity to drought stress environments.
    Cyprus- Offshore Aquaculture Mooring Systems: Current Status and Future Development
    Cyprus- offshore aquaculture industry has promising prospects taking into account that Cyprus is an island. Its production trend is increasing overtaking bigger countries such Greece and Italy. However, current mooring systems seem to be under-performing acting as obstacles for its future development. Furthermore, shallow coastal waters scarcity due to competing industries dictates future development to come by moving further from shore exposing fish farms and subsequently mooring systems to harsher environmental loadings. It is, therefore, of paramount importance to design mooring systems based on engineering and scientific principles and leave behind the present “trial and error" methods. This paper presents the current state of Cyprus- offshore aquaculture industry and focuses of its mooring designs by proposing a new methodology for designing more reliable systems, hence ensuring its future.
    Influence of Jerusalem Artichoke Powder on the Nutritional Value of Pastry Products

    From year to year, the incidence of different diseases is increasing in humans, and the cause is inadequate intake of dietary fibre, vitamins, and minerals. One of the possibilities to take care of your health preventively is including in the diet products with increased dietary fibre, vitamin, and mineral content.Jerusalem artichoke powder (JAP) made from Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L) roots is a valuable product. By adding it to pastry goods, we can obtain a fibre-rich food that could be healthier and an excellent alternative to the classical pastry products of this kind.Experiments were carried out at the Faculty of Food Technology of Latvia University of Agriculture (LLU). Results of experiments showed that addition of Jerusalem artichoke powder has significant impact on all the studied pastry products nutritional value (p<0.05). With increasing concentration of Jerusalem artichoke powder in pastry products increase it nutritional value and decrease energy value.

    The Advent of Electronic Logbook Technology - Reducing Cost and Risk to Both Marine Resources and the Fishing Industry
    Fisheries management all around the world is hampered by the lack, or poor quality, of critical data on fish resources and fishing operations. The main reasons for the chronic inability to collect good quality data during fishing operations is the culture of secrecy common among fishers and the lack of modern data gathering technology onboard most fishing vessels. In response, OLRAC-SPS, a South African company, developed fisheries datalogging software (eLog in short) and named it Olrac. The Olrac eLog solution is capable of collecting, analysing, plotting, mapping, reporting, tracing and transmitting all data related to fishing operations. Olrac can be used by skippers, fleet/company managers, offshore mariculture farmers, scientists, observers, compliance inspectors and fisheries management authorities. The authors believe that using eLog onboard fishing vessels has the potential to revolutionise the entire process of data collection and reporting during fishing operations and, if properly deployed and utilised, could transform the entire commercial fleet to a provider of good quality data and forever change the way fish resources are managed. In addition it will make it possible to trace catches back to the actual individual fishing operation, to improve fishing efficiency and to dramatically improve control of fishing operations and enforcement of fishing regulations.
    SIMGraph: Simplifying Contig Graph to Improve de Novo Genome Assembly Using Next-generation Sequencing Data

    De novo genome assembly is always fragmented. Assembly fragmentation is more serious using the popular next generation sequencing (NGS) data because NGS sequences are shorter than the traditional Sanger sequences. As the data throughput of NGS is high, the fragmentations in assemblies are usually not the result of missing data. On the contrary, the assembled sequences, called contigs, are often connected to more than one other contigs in a complicated manner, leading to the fragmentations. False connections in such complicated connections between contigs, named a contig graph, are inevitable because of repeats and sequencing/assembly errors. Simplifying a contig graph by removing false connections directly improves genome assembly. In this work, we have developed a tool, SIMGraph, to resolve ambiguous connections between contigs using NGS data. Applying SIMGraph to the assembly of a fungus and a fish genome, we resolved 27.6% and 60.3% ambiguous contig connections, respectively. These results can reduce the experimental efforts in resolving contig connections.

    Spent Caustic Bioregeneration by using Thiobacillus denitrificans Bacteria
    Spent Sulfidic Caustic was biologically treated and regenerated for reusing by Thiobacillus denitrificans bacteria, sulfide content oxidized and RSNa reduced dramatically.PH in this test was 11.8 and no neutralization has been done on spent caustic, so spent caustic as the most difficult of industrial wastes to dispose could be regenerate and reuse instead of disposing to sea or deep wells
    Influence of Active Packaging on the Quality of Pumpkin - Rowanberry Marmalade Candies
    Experiments with pumpkin-rowanberry marmalade candies were carried out at the Faculty of Food Technology of the Latvia University of Agriculture. The objective of this investigation was to evaluate the quality changes of pumpkin-rowanberry marmalade candies packed in different packaging materials during the storage of 15 weeks, and to find the most suitable packaging material for prolongation of low sugar marmalade candies shelf-life. An active packaging in combination with modified atmosphere (MAP, CO2 100%) was examined and compared with traditional packaging in air ambiance. Polymer Multibarrier 60 and paper bags were used. Influence of iron based oxygen absorber in sachets of 500 cc obtained from Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Europe Ageless® on the marmalade candies’ quality was tested during shelf life. Samples of 80±5 g were packaged in polymer pouches (110 mm x 110 mm), hermetically sealed by MULTIVAC C300 vacuum chamber machine, and stored in a room temperature +21±0.5 °C. The physiochemical properties –moisture content, hardness, aw, pH, changes of atmosphere content (CO2 and O2), ascorbic acid, total carotenoids, total phenols in headspace of packs, and microbial conditions were analysed before packaging and in the 1st, 3rd , 5th, 8th, 11th and 15th weeks of storage.
    Aroma Composition and Polyphenol Content of Ciders Available in Latvian Market
    Aroma forming volatiles are important components of fermented beverages. The aim of current research is to evaluate the volatile compounds and phenolic compounds of commercial ciders. Volatile aroma compounds and TPC of seven commercial ciders were determined. Extraction of aroma compounds was performed using solid phase microextraction (DVB/Car/PDMS fibre). Analysis of volatile aroma compounds was made using a Perkin Elmer Clarus 500 GC/MS. Total phenol content (TPC) was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric method and results were expressed as gallic acid equivalents. The highest volatile compounds were in apple ciders with pear flavor. The highest TPC and lower content of volatile compounds were detected in French ciders.
    Effects of Late Sowing on Quality of Coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.)
    Coriander is an annual and herbaceous plant, belong to the apiaceae family. This plant is cultivated world widely. It is well known for having medicinal properties. The aim of this experiment was to study seed quality of species grown in Kermanshah conditions. The experiment was carried out in research farm, Campus of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran. Coriander (local type) was grown in late spring May (5th and 20th) and Jun (4th and 19th), and plant density (10, 30, 50 and 70 plants m-2) in 2009. The experimental plots were laid out in a factorial according to a randomized complete block design with three replications. The fruits were harvest between 83.5 – 106.5 days after sowing. The essential oil and oil content was extracted by Clevenger and Soxhlet apparatuses, respectively. Results showed that delay at planting date increased the oil content. Also, with the increase at plant density was decreased oil content and essential oil.
    Effect of Genotype, Explant Type and Growth Regulators on The Accumulation of Flavonoides of (Silybum marianum L.) in In vitro Culture

    The extract of milk thistle contains a mix of flavonolignans termed silymarine.. In order to analysis influence of growth regulators, genotype, explant and subculture on the accumulation of flavonolignans, a study was carried out by using two genotype (Budakalszi and Noor abad moghan cultivars), cotyledon and hypocotyle explants, solid media of MS supplemented by different combinations of two growth regulators; Kinetin (0.1, 1 mg/l) and 2,4-D (1, 2 mg/l). Seeds of the plant were germinated in MS media whitout growth regulators in growth chamber at 26°C and darkness condition. In order to callus induction, the culture media was supplemented whit different concentrations of 2,4-D and kinetin. Calli obtained from explants were sub-cultured four times into the fresh media of the first experiment. flavonoides was extracted from calli in four subcultures. The flavonoid components were determined by high- performance liquid choromatography (HPLC) and separated into Taxifolin, Silydianin+Silychristin, Silybin A+B and Isosilybin A+B. Results showed that with increasing callus age, increased accumulation of silybin A+B, but reduced Isosilybin A+B content. Highest accumulation of Taxifolin was observed at first calli. Calli produced from cotyledon explant of Budakalszi cultivar were superior for Silybin A+B, where calli from hypocotyl explant produced higher amount of Taxifolin and Silydianin+Silychristin. The best cultivar for Silymarin production in this study was Budakalszi cultivar. High amount of SBN A+B and TXF were obtained from hypocotil explant.

    Effect of Polarization and Coherence of Optical Radiation on Sturgeon Sperm Motility

    This work contains information about the influence low-level optical irradiation on sperm motility of sturgeon fish. On the basis of given and earlier received data the following conclusion has been made. Among the photophysical processes of a resonant and not resonant nature (oriented action of light; action of gradient forces; dipole-dipole interaction; termooptical processes), which are capable to cause the photobiological effects depended on such laserspecific characteristics as polarization and coherency, determining influence belongs to oriented action of light and dipole-dipole interactions among the processes studied in the present work.

    Active Packaging Influence on Shelf Life Extension of Sliced Wheat Bread
    The research object was wheat bread. Experiments were carried out at the Faculty of Food Technology of the Latvia University of Agriculture. An active packaging in combination with modified atmosphere (MAP, CO2 60% and N2 40%) was examined and compared with traditional packaging in air ambiance. Polymer Multibarrier 60, PP and OPP bags were used. Influence of iron based oxygen absorber in sachets of 100 cc obtained from Mitsubishi Gas Chemical Europe Ageless® was tested on the quality during the shelf of wheat bread. Samples of 40±4 g were packaged in polymer pouches (110 mm x 120 mm), hermetically sealed by MULTIVAC C300 vacuum chamber machine, and stored in room temperature +21.0±0.5 °C. The physiochemical properties – weight losses, moisture content, hardness, pH, colour, changes of atmosphere content (CO2 and O2) in headspace of packs, and microbial conditions were analysed before packaging and in the 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th days of storage.
    Synchrotron X-ray based Investigation of Fe and Zn Atoms in Tissue Samples at Different Growth Stages
    The zinc and iron environments in different growth stages have been studied with EXAFS and XANES with Brookhaven Synchrotron Light Source. Tissue samples included meat, organ, vegetable, leaf, and yeast. The project studied the EXAFS and XANES of tissue samples using Zn and Fe K-edges. Duck embryo samples show that brain and intestine would contain shorter EXFAS determined Zn-N/O bond; as with the cases of fresh yeast versus reconstituted live yeast and green leaf versus yellow leaf. The XANES Fourier transform characteristic-length would be useful as a functionality index for selected types of tissue samples in various physical states. The extension to the development of functional synchrotron imaging for tissue engineering application based on spectroscopic technique is discussed.
    The Key Role of the Steroidal Hormones in the Pattern Distribution of the Epiphyseal Structure in Rabbit

    Steroidal hormones with the efficient changes on the epiphyseal growth plate may influence tissue structure properties. Presents paper to investigate the effects of gonadectomy in the pattern distribution of the epiphyseal structure. Fifteen adult female New Zealand white rabbits were separated into three groups. One group was intact and others groups were selected for surgical operation. From these two groups, one group carried out steroidal administration. The results obtained showed that there is no statistically difference in the mean diameter of the growth plate cells between all three groups. The maximum value of the cartilage cells were allocated to the gonadectomized group and the minimum number were observed in Hormonal induced group significantly. Growth plate height was significantly greater in gonadectomized group than in two other groups.

    Preparation Influences of Breed, sex and Sodium Butyrate Supplementation on the Performance, Carcass Traits and Mortality of Fattening Rabbits
    Twenty four New Zealand white rabbits (12 does and 12 bucks) and twenty four Flanders (12 does and 12 bucks) rabbits, allotted into two feeding regime (6 for each breed, 3 males and 3 females) first one fed commercial ration and second one fed commercial diet plus sodium butyrate (300 g/ton). The obtained results showed that at end of 8th week experimental period New Zealand white rabbits were heavier body weight than Flanders rabbits (1934.55+39.05 vs. 1802.5+30.99 g); significantly high body weight gain during experimental period especially during 8th week (136.1+3.5 vs. 126.8+1.8 g/week); better feed conversion ratio during all weeks of experiment from first week (3.07+0.16 vs. 3.12+0.10) till the 8th week of experiment (5.54+0.16 vs. 5.76+0.07) with significantly high dressing percentages (0.54+0.01 vs. 0.52+0.01). Also all carcass cuts were significantly high in New Zealand white rabbits than Flanders. Females rabbits (at the same age) were lower body weight than males from start of experiment (941.1+39.8 vs.972.1+33.5 g) till the end of experiment (1833.64+37.69 vs. 1903.41+36.93 g); gained less during all weeks of experiment except during 8th week (132.1+2.3 vs. 130.9+3.4 g/week), with lower dressing percentage (0.52+0.01 vs. 0.53+0.01) and lighter carcass cuts than males, however, they had better feed conversion ratio during 1st week, 7th week and 8th week of experiment. Addition of 300g sodium butyrate/ton of rabbit increased the body weight of rabbits at the end of experimental period (1882.71+26.45 vs. 1851.5+49.82 g); improve body weight gain at 3rd, 4th, 5th, 6th and 7th week of experiment and significantly improve feed conversion ratio during all weeks of the experiment from 1st week (2.85+0.07 vs. 3.30+0.15) till the 8th week of the experiment (5.51+0.12 vs. 5.77+0.12). Also the dressing percentage was higher in Sodium butyrate fed groups than control one (0.53+0.01 vs. 0.52+0.01) and the most important results of feeding sodium butyrate is the reducing of the mortality percentage in rabbits during 8 week experiment to zero percentage as compared with 16% in control group.
    The Effects of Feeding Raw Fiber Concentrate on Growth Performance and Blood Metabolites of Suckling Holstein Calves
    Sixteen female Holstein calves allocated in three treatments including: 1: control, 2: fed raw fiber concentrate (RFC) for 45 days and 3: fed RFC for 90 days. RFC supplement (Vitacel® 200) was added to milk immediately before feeding (10 g/L milk). Withers height and body weights of calves were measured monthly. Individual dry matter intake was recorded daily. Blood samples were taken monthly. The result showed that calves consumed RFC had significantly greater weaning and final body weight. Treatment effect on dry matter intake was not significant (p>0.05). Calves fed RFC had better feed efficiency. Withers height of calves fed RFC were taller than the control group (p
    The effect of Gamma Irradiation on the Nutritional Properties of Functional Products of the Green Banana

    Banana is one of the most consumed fruits in the tropics and subtropics. Brazil accounts for about 9% of the world banana production. However, the production losses are as high as 30 to 40% and even much higher in some developing countries. The green banana flour is a complex carbohydrate source, including a high total starch (73.4%), resistant starch (17.5%) with functional properties. Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation. It has been performed due to the need of extending the shelf - life of foods, whilst maintaining their safety and avoiding one of the main concerns: the nutrient loss. In this work data about on the effects of ionizing radiation on the physicochemical analysis (carbohydrate, proteins, lipids, alimentary fiber, moistures and ashes) of Brazilian functional products (biscuits and bread) of the green banana pulp are presented. The caloric value was calculated. No significant difference was observed between the samples of irradiated and non – irradiated green banana biscuits with the following determinations: carbohydrates, proteins, alimentary fiber and ashes. Only a small significant difference was found in lipids (macronutrients). The results of physical chemical analysis of the irradiated and non- irradiated green banana bread non- irradiated showed no significant difference with the following determinations: carbohydrates, lipids (macronutrients), moisture, ashes and caloric value. A small difference was found in proteins (macronutrients). Irradiation of functional products (biscuits and bread) with doses of 1 and 3kGy maintained their original macronutrients content, showing good radioresistance.

    Survey on Nano-fibers from Acetobacter Xylinum

    fibers of pure cellulose can be made from some bacteria such as acetobacter xylinum. Bacterial cellulose fibers are very pure, tens of nm across and about 0.5 micron long. The fibers are very stiff and, although nobody seems to have measured the strength of individual fibers. Their stiffness up to 70 GPa. Fundamental strengths should be at least greater than those of the best commercial polymers, but best bulk strength seems to about the same as that of steel. They can potentially be produced in industrial quantities at greatly lowered cost and water content, and with triple the yield, by a new process. This article presents a critical review of the available information on the bacterial cellulose as a biological nonwoven fabric with special emphasis on its fermentative production and applications. Characteristics of bacterial cellulose biofabric with respect to its structure and physicochemical properties are discussed. Current and potential applications of bacterial cellulose in textile, nonwoven cloth, paper, films synthetic fiber coating, food, pharmaceutical and other industries are also presented.

    Soil-Vegetation Relationships in Arid Rangelands (Case Study: Nodushan Rangelands of Yazd, Iran)
    The objective of this research was to identify the vegetation-soil relationships in Nodushan arid rangelands of Yazd. 5 sites were selected for measuring the cover of plant species and soil attributes. Soil samples were taken in 0-10 and 10-80 cm layers. The species studied were Salsola tomentosa, Salsola arbuscula, Peganum harmala, Zygophylum eurypterum and Eurotia ceratoides. Canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) was used to analyze the data. Based on the CCA results, 74.9 % of vegetation-soil variation was explained by axis 1-3. Axis 1, 2 and 3 accounted for 27.2%, 24.9 % and 22.8% of variance respectively. Correlation between axis 1, 2, 3 and speciesedaphic variables were 0.995, 0.989, 0.981 respectively. Soil texture, lime, salinity and organic matter significantly influenced the distribution of these plant species. Determination of soil-vegetation relationships will be useful for managing and improving rangelands in arid and semi arid environments.
    Sperm Production Rate, Gonadal and Extragonadal Sperm Reserves in the Sokoto Red (Maradi) Buck in a Tropical Environment
    28 healthy adult Maradi bucks were used to evaluate sperm production and sperm storage capacity in the breed. Daily sperm production (DSP) averaged 0.55±0.05x109, while the daily sperm production/g (DSP/g) was 1.37±0.12 x107. Gonadal sperm reserve was 1.99±0.18 x109, while the caput, upper corpus and lower corpus averaged 0.58±0.04 x109, 0.36±0.02 x109 and 0.33±0.08 x109 respectively. The proximal cauda, mid cauda, distal cauda and ductus deferens had values of 0.68±0.10 x109, 1.23±0.16 x109,1.87±0. x109and 0.17±0.05 x109 respectively. The relative contributions of the respective epididymal sections and ductus deferens to the total extragonadal sperm reserves were, 11.11%, 6.89%, 6.32%, 13.03%, 23.56%, 35.82% and 3.26% respectively. Gonadal sperm reserves were significantly higher (p0.05) to mid cauda and distal cauda epididymal reserves.
    Muscularity and Leg Tissue Composition of Lambs Fed with Hydrolyzed Sugarcane

    This study aimed to evaluate the muscularity and tissue composition of 24 legs of Ile de France lambs. They were fed with diets containing “in nature" or hydrolyzed sugarcane with 0.6% of calcium oxide in aerobic and anaerobic environments. Animals entered the trial at 15 and were slaughtered at 32 kg of body weight. The leg tissue composition, as well as muscularity (0.47), muscle:bone (6.66) and muscle:fat (4.25) were not affected (P>0.05) by treatments. The proportions found were: 67.62% for muscle, 17.52% for bone and 10.15% for fat. In relation to lambs fed with “in nature" sugarcane, hydrolyzed sugarcane with calcium oxide in aerobic and anaerobic environments did not affect muscularity and leg tissue composition of lambs.

    Comparison of the Effects of Three Different Types of Probiotics on the Sucrase Activities of the Small Intestine Mucosa of Broiler Chicks

    An experiment was conducted to study the effects of different types of probiotic on Sucrase enzyme activity of the small intestine mucosa in male broilers. The experimental design was arranged as randomized completely blocks in 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatment. 180 male broilers of Ross 308 commercial hybrid were designated into 4 groups. Three replicates of 15 birds were assigned to each treatment. Control treatments (diet contained no probiotic) were fed according to the NRC as base diet and three treatment groups were fed from the same diet plus three different types of probiotics. Birds were slaughtered after 21 and 42 days and different segments of small intestine (at 1,10,30,50,70 and 90% of total length the small intestine) were taken from each replicates (N=2) Sucrase enzyme activities were measured and recorded. Obtained data were analyzed by Spss (P<0.05). In three treatment groups, probiotic had no significant effect on sucrase activity in different ages and segments of small intestine (P<0.05). These data suggested that probiotics administration had no significant effect on treatments comparing to the control group.

    Toxicity Study of Two Different Synthesized Silver Nanoparticles on Bacteria Vibrio Fischeri
    A comparative evaluation of acute toxicity of synthesized nano silvers using two different procedures (biological and chemical reduction methods) and silver ions on bacteria Vibrio fischeri was investigated. The bacterial light inhibition test as a toxicological endpoint was used by applying of a homemade luminometer. To compare the toxicity effects as a quantitative parameter, a nominal effective concentrations (EC) of chemicals and a susceptibility constant (Z-value) of bacteria, after 5 min and 30 min exposure times, were calculated. After 5 and 30 min contact times, the EC50 values of two silver nanoparticles and the EC20 values were about similar. It demonstrates that toxicity of silvers was independent of their procedure. The EC values of nanoparticles were larger than those of the silver ions. The susceptibilities(Z- Values) of V.fischeri (L/mg) to the silver ions were greater than those of the nano silvers. According to the EC and Z values, the toxicity of silvers decreased in the following order: Silver ions >> silver nanoparticles from chemical reduction method ~ silver nanoparticles from biological method.
    Stability of New Macromycetes Phytases under Room, Cooling and Freezing Temperatures of Storage
    Phytases are enzymes used as an important component in monogastric animals feeds in order to improve phosphorous availability, since it is not readily assimilated by these animals in the form of the phytate presented in plants and grains. As these enzymes are used in industrial activities, they must retain its catalytic activities during a certain storage period. This study presents information about the stability of 4 different phytases, produced by four macromycetes fungi through solid-state fermentation (SSF). There is a lack of data in literature concerning phytase from macromycetes shelf-life in storage conditions at room, cooling and freezing temperatures. The 4 phytases from macromycetes still had enzymatic activities around 100 days of storage at room temperature. At cooling temperature in 146 days of studies, the phytase from G. stipitatum was the most stable with 44% of the initial activity, in U.gds (units per gram of dried fermented substrate). The freezing temperature was the best condition storage for phytases from G. stipitatum and T. versicolor. Each condition provided a study for each mushroom phytase, totalizing 12 studies. The phytases showed to be stable for a long period without the addition of additives.
    Phosphine Mortality Estimation for Simulation of Controlling Pest of Stored Grain: Lesser Grain Borer (Rhyzopertha dominica)

    There is a world-wide need for the development of sustainable management strategies to control pest infestation and the development of phosphine (PH3) resistance in lesser grain borer (Rhyzopertha dominica). Computer simulation models can provide a relatively fast, safe and inexpensive way to weigh the merits of various management options. However, the usefulness of simulation models relies on the accurate estimation of important model parameters, such as mortality. Concentration and time of exposure are both important in determining mortality in response to a toxic agent. Recent research indicated the existence of two resistance phenotypes in R. dominica in Australia, weak and strong, and revealed that the presence of resistance alleles at two loci confers strong resistance, thus motivating the construction of a two-locus model of resistance. Experimental data sets on purified pest strains, each corresponding to a single genotype of our two-locus model, were also available. Hence it became possible to explicitly include mortalities of the different genotypes in the model. In this paper we described how we used two generalized linear models (GLM), probit and logistic models, to fit the available experimental data sets. We used a direct algebraic approach generalized inverse matrix technique, rather than the traditional maximum likelihood estimation, to estimate the model parameters. The results show that both probit and logistic models fit the data sets well but the former is much better in terms of small least squares (numerical) errors. Meanwhile, the generalized inverse matrix technique achieved similar accuracy results to those from the maximum likelihood estimation, but is less time consuming and computationally demanding.

    Active Packaging Influence on the Shelf Life of Milk Pomade Sweet – Sherbet
    The objective of the research was to evaluate the quality of milk pomade sweet – sherbet packed in different packaging materials (Multibarrier 60, met.BOPET/PE, Aluthen), by several packaging technologies – active and modified atmosphere (MAP) (consisting of 100% CO2), and control – in air ambiance. Experiments were carried out at the Faculty of Food Technology of Latvia University of Agriculture. Samples were stored at the room temperature +21±1 °C. The physiochemical properties – weight losses, moisture, hardening, colour and changes in headspace atmosphere concentration (CO2 and O2) of packs were analysed before packaging and after 2, 4, 6, 8, 10 and 12 storage weeks.
    Carotenoids and Colour Before and After Storage of Organically and Conventionally Cultivated Potato Genotypes in Latvia

    Potatoes are a good source of carotenoids, which are lipophilic compounds synthesized in plastids from isoprenoids. The aim of this research was to determine the content of carotenoids in relationship with the colour of organically and conventionally cultivated potato genotypes before and after period of storage. In cooperation with the State Priekuli Plant Breeding Institute (Latvia), six potato genotypes were studied: 'Agrie dzeltenie', 'Prelma', 'Imanta', 'S-03135-10', 'S-99108-8' and 'S-01063-5'. All the genotypes were cultivated under three different conditions: organically and conventionally (two conditions). The content of carotenoids was determined by using spectrophotometer and the colour – L*a*b* system. The results of current research show that after the period of storage, carotenoid amount has increased and in conventionally cultivated potatoes it varies from 228.514 to 552.434 μg 100 g-1 while in organically cultivated potato genotypes – from 45.485 to 662.699 μg 100 g-1 FW. Colour of potato flesh was changing during storage.

    Influence of Sire Breed, Protein Supplementation and Gender on Wool Spinning Fineness in First-Cross Merino Lambs
    Our objectives were to evaluate the effects of sire breed, type of protein supplement, level of supplementation and sex on wool spinning fineness (SF), its correlations with other wool characteristics and prediction accuracy in F1 Merino crossbred lambs. Texel, Coopworth, White Suffolk, East Friesian and Dorset rams were mated with 500 purebred Merino dams at a ratio of 1:100 in separate paddocks within a single management system. The F1 progeny were raised on ryegrass pasture until weaning, before forty lambs were randomly allocated to treatments in a 5 x 2 x 2 x 2 factorial experimental design representing 5 sire breeds, 2 supplementary feeds (canola or lupins), 2 levels of supplementation (1% or 2% of liveweight) and sex (wethers or ewes). Lambs were supplemented for six weeks after an initial three weeks of adjustment, wool sampled at the commencement and conclusion of the feeding trial and analyzed for SF, mean fibre diameter (FD), coefficient of variation (CV), standard deviation, comfort factor (CF), fibre curvature (CURV), and clean fleece yield. Data were analyzed using mixed linear model procedures with sire fitted as a random effect, and sire breed, sex, supplementary feed type, level of supplementation and their second-order interactions as fixed effects. Sire breed (P
    Thermal Treatment Influence on the Quality of Rye Bread Packaged in Different Polymer Films
    this study was carried out to investigate the changes in quality parameters of rye bread packaged in different polymer films during convection air-flow thermal treatment process. Whole loafs of bread were placed in polymer pouches, which were sealed in reduced pressure air ambiance, bread was thermally treated in at temperature +(130; 140; and 150) ± 5 ºC within 40min, as long as the core temperature of the samples have reached accordingly +80±1 ºC. For bread packaging pouches were used: anti-fog Mylar®OL12AF and thermo resistant combined polymer material. Main quality parameters was analysed using standard methods: temperature in bread core, bread crumb and crust firmness value, starch granules volume and microflora. In the current research it was proved, that polymer films significantly influence rye bread quality parameters changes during thermal treatment. Thermo resistant combined polymer material film could be recommendable for packaged rye bread pasteurization, for maximal bread quality parameter keeping.
    Effect of Transplant Preparation Method on Yield and Agronomic Traits of True Potato Seed (TPS) Progenies in Sahneh Region
    To study the effect of suitable methods for propagation of True Potato Seed (TPS) progenies, transplant and selection of the best progenies, a factorial experiment base on a randomized complete block design was carried out in the research field of Sahneh region, Kermanshah, Iran during 2009-2010. Five selective progenies from CIP (International Potato Center) including CIP.994013, CIP.994002, CIP.994014, CIP.888006, and CIP.994001 and two transplant preparation methods (Paper pot preparation for mechanical cultivation and preparation in transplant trays for manual cultivation) were studied in three replications. Results showed that different progenies had no significant effect on plant height (cm) and tuber yield (t ha-1), whereas had a significant effect on number of tubers per unit area (m2). There was significant difference between transplant preparation methods for plant height and tuber yield. The interaction effect of progenies and transplant preparation method was not significant for these traits. CIP.888006 progeny and paper pot preparation method produced the highest tuber yields. Also CIP.994002 and CIP.994014 progenies considered as the best progenies under paper pot preparation method due to high yields.
    Effect of Passive Modified Atmosphere in Different Packaging Materials on Fresh-Cut Mixed Fruit Salad Quality during Storage
    Experiments were carried out at the Latvia State Institute of Fruit-Growing in 2011. Fresh-cut minimally processed apple and pear mixed salad were packed by passive modified atmosphere (MAP) in PP containers, which were hermetically sealed by breathable conventional BOPP PropafreshTM P2GAF, and Amcor Agrifresh films. Biodegradable NatureFlexTM NVS INNOVIA Films and VC999 BioPack PLA films coated with a barrier of pure silicon oxide (SiOx) were used to compare the fresh-cut produce quality with this packed in conventional packaging films. Samples were cold stored at temperature +4.0±0.5 °C up to 10 days. The quality of salad was evaluated by physicochemical properties – weight losses, moisture, firmness, the effect of packaging modes on the colour, dynamics in headspace atmosphere concentration (CO2 and O2), titratable acidity values, as well as by microbiological contamination (yeasts, moulds and total bacteria count) of salads, analyzing before packaging and after 2, 4, 6, 8, and 10 storage days.
    Hydrolytic Properties of Ellagic Acid in Commercial Pomegranate Juices
    Pomegranate and pomegranate juices (PJs) have taken great attention for their health benefits in the last years. As there is an increasing concern about potential health benefits of ellagic acid, it is of great interest to evaluate alterations in ellagic acid concentration of commercial PJs. The purpose of this study is to analyze total phenolic, free and total ellagic acid content of six commercial PJs sold in Turkish markets using HPLC. The results showed that some commercial PJs had markedly high total phenolic and ellagic acid content. Total phenolic substances of commercial PJs range from 796.71 to 4608.91 mg GAE/l. Free amount of ellagic acid in commercial PJs range from 27.64 to 111.78 mg/l. Samples are hydrolyzed with concentrated HCl at 93oC for 2 and 24 hour and influences of temperature and time parameters on hydrolization were investigated. Thermal processing for pasteurization increased ellagic acid via ellagitannins hydrolysis.