Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 12

Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering

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  • 12
    Spatial Variability of Some Soil Properties in Mountain Rangelands of Northern Iran
    In this paper spatial variability of some chemical and physical soil properties were investigated in mountain rangelands of Nesho, Mazandaran province, Iran. 110 soil samples from 0-30 cm depth were taken with systematic method on grid 30×30 m2 in regions with different vegetation cover and transported to laboratory. Then soil chemical and physical parameters including Acidity (pH), Electrical conductivity, Caco3, Bulk density, Particle density, total phosphorus, total Nitrogen, available potassium, Organic matter, Saturation moisture, Soil texture (percentage of sand, silt and clay), Sodium, Calcium, magnesium were measured in laboratory. Data normalization was performed then was done statistical analysis for description of soil properties and geostatistical analysis for indication spatial correlation between these properties and were perpetrated maps of spatial distribution of soil properties using Kriging method. Results indicated that in the study area Saturation moisture and percentage of Sand had highest and lowest spatial correlation respectively.
    Optimal Conditions for Carotenoid Production and Antioxidation Characteristics by Rhodotorula rubra
    This study aims to screen out and to optimize the major nutrients for maximum carotenoid production and antioxidation characteristics by Rhodotorula rubra. It was found that supplementary of 10 g/l glucose as carbon source, 1 g/l ammonium sulfate as nitrogen source and 1 g/l yeast extract as growth factor in the medium provided the better yield of carotenoid content of 30.39 μg/g cell dry weight the amount of antioxidation of Rhodotorula rubra by DPPH, ABTS and MDA method were 1.463%, 34.21% and 34.09 μmol/l, respectively.
    Investigation on Yield and Fruit Quality of Some Cultivated Strawberry in Iran
    fifteen cultivars of Strawberries (Queen Eliza, Sequia, Paros, Mcdonance, Selva, Chandler, Mrak, Ten beauty, Aliso, Pajero, Kordestan, Camarosa, Blackmore, Gaviota and Fresno) were investigated in 2011, under hydroponic system condition. Yield and fruit Firmness was determinate. Chemical analyses of soluble solids content (SSC), titratable acidity (TA), ascorbic acid (AA) and pH were done. 4 cultivars (Aliso, Selva, Paros and Gaviota) yielded more than 250 g/plant, while cultivar Black more, Fresno and Kordestan produced less than 100g/plant. The amounts of fruit firmness indicated that 'Camarosa' fruit was firmer than others cultivars. Cultivar 'Fresno' had the highest pH (3.27). Ttitratable acidity varied from 1.03g/l00g for cultivar 'Sequia' and 'Gaviota' to 1.48g/l00g for cultivar 'Chandler'. Fresno, Kordestan, Aliso and Chandler showed the highest soluble solid concentration. Ascorbic acid averaged for most cultivars between 30.26 and 79.73 mg/100gf.w. Present results showed that different cultivars of strawberry contain highly variable in fruit quality.
    Effects of Xylanase and Cellulase Production during Composting of EFB and POME using Fungi
    Empty Fruit Bunches (EFB) and Palm Oil Mill Effluent (POME) are two main wastes from oil palm industries which contain rich lignocellulose. Degradation of EFB and POME by microorganisms will produce hydrolytic enzyme which will degrade cellulose and hemicellulose during composting process. However, normal composting takes about four to six months to reach maturity. Hence, application of fungi into compost can shorten the period of composting. This study identifies the effect of xylanase and cellulase produced by Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma virens on composting process using EFB and POME. The degradation of EFB and POME indicates the lignocellulolytic capacity of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma virens with more than 7% decrease in hemicellulose and more than 25% decrease in cellulose for both inoculated compost. Inoculation of Aspergillus niger and Trichoderma virens also increased the enzyme activities during the composting period compared to the control compost by 21% for both xylanase and cellulase. Rapid rise in the activities of cellulase and xylanase was observed by Aspergillus niger with the highest activities of 14.41 FPU/mg and 3.89 IU/mg, respectively. Increased activities of cellulase and xylanase also occurred in inoculation of Trichoderma virens with the highest activities obtained at 13.21 FPU/mg and 4.43 IU/mg, respectively. Therefore, it is evident that the inoculation of fungi can increase the enzyme activities hence effectively degrading the EFB and POME.
    Codon-optimized Carbonic Anhydrase from Dunaliella species: Expression and Characterization
    Carbonic anhydrases (CAs) has been focused as biological catalysis for CO2 sequestration process because it can catalyze the conversion of CO2 to bicarbonate. Here, codon-optimized sequence of α type-CA cloned from Duneliala species. (DsCAopt) was constructed, expressed, and characterized. The expression level in E. coli BL21(DE3) was better for codon-optimized DsCAopt than intact sequence of DsCAopt. DsCAopt enzyme shows high-stability at pH 7.6/10.0. In final, we demonstrated that in the Ca2+ solution, DsCAopt enzyme can catalyze well the conversion of CO2 to CaCO3, as the calcite form.
    Proteolytic Dedradation of Anchovy (Spolephorus spp.) Proteins by Halophilic Proteinase from Halobacillus sp. SR5-3
    The halophilic proteinase showed a maximal activity at 50°C and pH 9~10, in 20% NaCl and was highly stabilized by NaCl. It was able to hydrolyse natural actomyosin (NAM), collagen and anchovy protein. For NAM hydrolysis, the myosin heavy chain was completely digested by halophilic proteinase as evidenced by the lowest band intensity remaining, but partially hydrolysed actin. The SR5-3 proteinase was also capable hydrolyzing two major components of collagen, β- and α-compounds, effectively. The degree of hydrolysis (DH) of the halophilic proteinase and commercial proteinases (Novozyme, Neutrase, chymotrypsin and Flavourzyme) on the anchovy protein, were compared, and it was found that the proteinase showed a greater degree of hydrolysis towards anchovy protein than that from commercial proteinases. DH of halophilic proteinase was sharply enhanced according to the increase in the concentration of enzyme from 0.035 U to 0.105 U. The results warranting that the acceleration of the production of fish sauce with higher quality, may be achieved by adding of the halophilic proteinase from this bacterium.
    Characterization of Novel Atrazine-Degrading Klebsiella sp. isolated from Thai Agricultural Soil

    Atrazine, a herbicide widely used in sugarcane and corn production, is a frequently detected groundwater contaminant. An atrazine-degrading bacterium, strain KB02, was obtained from long-term atrazine-treated sugarcane field soils in Kanchanaburi province of Thailand. Strain KB02 had a rod-to-coccus morphological cycle during growth. Sequence analysis of the PCR product indicated that the 16S rRNA gene in strain KB02 was ranging from 97-98% identical to the same region in Klebsiella sp. Based on biochemical, physiological analysis and 16S rDNA sequence analysis of one representative isolate, strain KB02, the isolates belong to the genus Klebsiella in the family Enterobacteriaceae. Interestingly that the various primers for atzA, B and C failed to amplify genomic DNA of strain KB02. Whereas the expected PCR product of atzA, B and C were obtained from the reference strain, Arthrobacter sp. strain KU001.

    Effect of Strain and Storage Period on Some Qualitative and Quantitative Traits of Table Eggs
    This study include the effect of strain and storage period and their interaction on some quantitative and qualitative traits and percentages of the egg components in the eggs collected at the start of production (at age 24 weeks). Eggs were divided into three storage periods (1, 7 and 14) days under refrigerator temperature (5- 7)0C. Fifty seven eggs obtained randomly from each strain including Isa Brown and Lohman White. General Linear Model within SAS programme was used to analyze the collected data and correlations between the studied traits were calculated for each strain.Average egg weight (EW), Haugh Unit (HU), yolk index (YI), yolk % (HP), albumin % (AP) and yolk to albumin ratio (YAR) was 56.629 gm, 87.968 %, 0.493, 22.13%, 67.74% and 32.76 respectively. Egg produced from ISA Brown surpassed those produced by Lohman White significantly (P
    In Vitro and Experimental Screening of Mangrove Herbal Extract against Vibrio Alginolyticus in Marine Ornamental Fish
    Present study summarizes the control of Vibrio alginolyticus infection in hatchery reared Clownfish, Amphiprion sebae with the extract of the mangrove plant, Avicennia marina. Fishes with visible symptoms of hemorrhagic spots were chosen and the genomic DNA of the causative bacterium was isolated and sequenced based on 16S rDNA gene. The in vitro assay revealed that a fraction of A. marina leaf extract elucidated with ethyl acetate: methanol (6:4) showed a high activity (28 mm) at 125 μg/ml concentrations. About 4 % of the fraction fed along with live V. alginolyticus was significantly decreased the cumulative mortality (P
    Activation of Prophenoloxidase during Bacterial Injection into the Desert Locust, Schistocerca Gregaria
    The present study has been conducted to characterize the prophenoloxidase (PPO) system of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria following injection of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki (Bt). The bulk of PPO system was associated with haemocytes and a little amount was found in plasma. This system was activated by different activators such as laminarin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and trypsin suggesting that the stimulatory mechanism may involve an enzyme cascade of one or more associated molecules. These activators did not activate all the molecules of the cascade. Presence of phenoloxidase activity (PO) coincides with the appearance of protein band with molecular weight (MW) 70.154 KD (Kilo Dalton).
    The Antioxidant Capacity of Beverage Blends Made from Cocoa, Zobo and Ginger

    The antioxidant capability of beverage blends made from cocoa, zobo and ginger with standard antioxidant assay procedures was investigated. The DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazyl) scavenging capacity ranged from 21.2-25.8% in comparison with GSH of 37.1%. The ferric reducing ability was highest in the zobo drink and lowest in ginger. The superoxide scavenging capacity was also highest in the zobo drink followed by the drink with alkalized cocoa. The metal chelating power decreased as the level of zobo in the blends decreases. The chelating power of zobo and ginger were significantly lower than the natural and alkalized cocoa. The 100% zobo drink inhibited linoleic acid till the fifth day while natural and alkalized cocoa as well as the blend with 50% alkalized cocoa inhibited linoleic acid greatly till the sixth day. The finding describes the potential health benefit of the phytochemical antioxidants of cocoa:zobo:ginger beverage blends.

    Evaluation of Chlorophyll Content and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters and Relationships between Chlorophyll a, b and Chlorophyll Content Index under Water Stress in Olea europaea cv. Dezful

    This study was conducted to determine effect of water stress on chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameter in young `Dezful- olive trees. Three irrigation regimes (40% ETcrop, 65% ETcrop and 100% ETcrop) were used. After irrigation treatments were applied, some of biochemical parameters including chlorophyll a, b, total chlorophyll, chlorophyll fluorescence and also chlorophyll content index (C.C.I) were measured. Results of Analysis of variance showed that irrigation treatments had significant effect on chlorophylla, total chlorophyll (chl a+b), C.C.I and Fv/Fm ratio. The amount of decreased chlorophyll a and total chlorophyll in plants were received 40% ETcrop were 51.55% and 46.86%, respectively, compared with 100% ETcrop.