Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 21

Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering

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  • 21
    Effects of Ultrasonic Treatment on Germination of Synthetic Sunflower Seeds
    One problem of synthetic sunflower cultivation is an erratic germination of the seeds. To improve the germination, presowing seed treatment with an ultrasound was tested. All treatments were carried out at 40 kHz frequency with the intensities of 40, 60, 80 and 100% of the ultrasonic generator total power (250 W) for the durations of 5, 10, 15 and 20 minutes. Data on seed germination percentage, seed vigor index (SVI), root and shoot lengths of seedlings were collected. The results showed that germination, SVI, root and shoot lengths of ultrasonic treated seedlings were different from the control, depending on intensity of the ultrasound. The effects of ultrasonic treatment were significant on germination, resulting in a maximum increase of 43% at 40 and 60% intensities compared to that of the control seeds. In addition, seedlings of these 2 treatments had higher SVI and longer root and shoot lengths than that of the control seedlings. All treatment durations resulted in higher germination and SVI, longer root and higher shoot lenghts of seedlings than the control. Among the duration treatments, only SVI and seedling root length were significantly different.
    Molecular Mechanism of Amino Acid Discrimination for the Editing Reaction of E.coli Leucyl-tRNA Synthetase

    Certain tRNA synthetases have developed highly accurate molecular machinery to discriminate their cognate amino acids. Those aaRSs achieve their goal via editing reaction in the Connective Polypeptide 1 (CP1). Recently mutagenesis studies have revealed the critical importance of residues in the CP1 domain for editing activity and X-ray structures have shown binding mode of noncognate amino acids in the editing domain. To pursue molecular mechanism for amino acid discrimination, molecular modeling studies were performed. Our results suggest that aaRS bind the noncognate amino acid more tightly than the cognate one. Finally, by comparing binding conformations of the amino acids in three systems, the amino acid binding mode was elucidated and a discrimination mechanism proposed. The results strongly reveal that the conserved threonines are responsible for amino acid discrimination. This is achieved through side chain interactions between T252 and T247/T248 as well as between those threonines and the incoming amino acids.

    The Tyrosinase and Cyclooxygenase Inhibitory Activities and Cytotoxicity Screening of Tamarindus indica Seeds
    The methanolic extracts from seeds of tamarind (Tamarindus indica) was prepared by Soxhlet apparatus extraction and evaluated for total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu method. Then, methanolic extract was screened biological activities (In vitro) for anti-melanogenic activity by tyrosinase inhibition test, antiinflammation activity by cyclooxygenase 1 (COX-1) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) inhibition test, and cytotoxic screening test with Vero cells. The results showed that total phenolic content, which contained in extract, was contained 27.72 mg of gallic acid equivalent per g of dry weight. The ability to inhibit tyrosinase enzyme, which exerted by Tamarind seed extracts (1 mg/ml) was 52.13 ± 0.42 %. The extract was not possessed inhibitory effect to COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes and cytotoxic effect to Vero cells. The finding is concludes that tested seed extract was possessed antimelanogenic activity with non-toxic effects. However, there was not exhibited anti-inflammatory activity. Further studies include the use of advance biological models to confirm this biological activity, as well as, the isolation and characterization of the purified compounds that it was contained.
    Effect of Cassava Root Ensiled with Cassava Top or Legumes on Feed Intake and Digestibility of Dairy Cows
    The effect of cassava root ensiled with cassava top or legumes on voluntary feed intake and milk production were determined in 12 dairy cows using a 4×3 change-over design. Experimental period were 30 days long and consisted of 14 days of adaptation. Silage was prepared from cassava root mixed with cassava top or legumes at ratio 60:40. Cows were allotted at random to receive ad libitum one of four rations: T1) control, T2) cassava root +cassava top-silages, T3) cassava root +hamata - silages and T4) cassava root +Thapra stylo-silages. The dry matter intake (BW0.75) was higher (P< 0.05) in cow fed with silages diets compared with T1. However, the intake of T2 was higher among treatments. Milk production was lowest in cow fed with T1. Among silages based diets, milk production was not significantly different but 4%FCM was higher in cow fed T2. Milk compositions were not affected by feeding diets. It is concluded that feeding cassava root ensiled with its leaves as a supplement increased dry matter intake and significantly improved 4%FCM. The combination of cassava root and legume silages did not improve the feed intake but did increase the milk production.
    Evolutionary Distance in the Yeast Genome
    Whole genome duplication (WGD) increased the number of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae chromosomes from 8 to 16. In spite of retention the number of chromosomes in the genome of this organism after WGD to date, chromosomal rearrangement events have caused an evolutionary distance between current genome and its ancestor. Studies under evolutionary-based approaches on eukaryotic genomes have shown that the rearrangement distance is an approximable problem. In the case of S. cerevisiae, we describe that rearrangement distance is accessible by using dedoubled adjacency graph drawn for 55 large paired chromosomal regions originated from WGD. Then, we provide a program extracted from a C program database to draw a dedoubled genome adjacency graph for S. cerevisiae. From a bioinformatical perspective, using the duplicated blocks of current genome in S. cerevisiae, we infer that genomic organization of eukaryotes has the potential to provide valuable detailed information about their ancestrygenome.
    Response of Wax Apple Cultivars by Applied GA3 and 2,4-D on Fruit Growth and Fruit Quality
    The experiment was performed to evaluate the effect of GA3, 2,4-D on fruit growth and fruit quality of wax apple. The experiment consisted of Red A, Monulla, Atu, Red B cultivars. GA3 and 2,4-D were applied at the small bud and petal fall stage. Physiological, biochemical characters of fruit were recoded. The result showed application of GA3, 2,4-D greatly response in increasing fruit set for all treatment as compared to control. Fruit weight, fruit size were increased at 10 ppm 2,4-D in ‘Red A’, ‘Red B’, however it was also enhancing at 10 ppm GA3 in ‘Monulla’, ‘Atu’. For ‘Monulla’, ‘Atu’ fruit crack reduced by 10 ppm 2,4-D application, but ‘Red B’, ‘Red A’ gave least fruit crack at 10 and 30 ppm GA3, respectively. ‘Monulla’, ‘Atu’ and ‘Red B’ resulted in response well to 10 ppm GA3 on improving TSS, whereas application of 30 ppm GA3 greatly enhancing TSS in ‘Red A’. For ‘Atu’ titratable acidity markedly reduced by 10 ppm GA3 application, but spraying with 30 ppm GA3 greatly response in reducing titratable acidity in ‘Red A’, ‘Red B’ and ‘Monulla’. It was concluded that GA3, 2,4-D can be an effective tool to enhancing fruit set, fruit growth as well as improving fruit quality of wax apple.
    Effect of Tomato Pomace and Fibrolytic Enzyme on Egg Production and Egg Quality
    This study was designed to determine effect of supplemented tomato pomace and fobrolytic enzyme on egg production and egg quality. A total of 40 CP brown laying hens (95 week old) were used in completely randomized design in 2x2 factorial arrangement with or without enzyme supplementation. Four dietary treatments included: Control (C), Fibrolytic enzyme (FE), 10% Tomato pomace (TP), and Fibrolytic enzyme + 10 % Tomato pomace (FE+TP). Each of the four dietary treatments was fed up to 30 days (10 birds/treatment). Live performance, egg production, egg weight and quality were determined for whole period. Dietary treatments had no effect (P>0.05) on live performance, egg weight, yolk color, and egg production. Therefore, laying hens fed diets with fibrolytic enzyme were significantly (P
    Novel Inhibitor of E. coli DNA Adenine Methyltransferase (Ecodam)
    EcoDam is an adenine-N6 DNA methyltransferase that methylates the GATC sites in the Escherichia coli genome. DNA-adenine methylation is not present in higher eukaryotes including humans. These observations raise the possibility that dam inhibitors may be used as anti-microbial agents. Polyphosphate (Poly(P)) is an important metabolite and signaling molecule in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Here, by using gel retardation experiments to investigate the competition of DNA binding by EcoDam in the presence of polyphosphate, we found that Poly (P) strongly interferes with DNA binding by EcoDam, while same concentration of monophosphate does not. In addition, we demonstrated that Poly (P) binding inhibits the activity of EcoDam and our results suggest that Poly (P) led to strong inhibition of the EcoDam catalytic activity, while monophosphate had only moderate effect.
    The Effect of the Disc Coulters Forms on Cutting of Spring Barley Residues in No-Tillage

    The introduction of sowing technologies into minimum- or no-tillage soil has a number of economical and environmental virtues, such as improving soil properties, decreasing soil erosion and degradation, and saving working time and fuel. However, the main disadvantage of these technologies is that plant residues on the soil surface reduce the quality of the planted crop seeds, thus requiring plant residues to be removed or cut. This paper presents a analysis of disc coulter parameters and an experimental investigation of cutting spring barley straw containing various amounts of moisture with different disc coulters (smooth and notched).

    Food Safety and Perceived Risk: A Case Study of Khao San Road, Bangkok, Thailand
    Food safety is an important concern for holiday makers in foreign and unfamiliar tourist destinations. In fact, risk from food in these tourist destinations has an influence on tourist perception. This risk can potentially affect physical health and lead to an inability to pursue planned activities. The objective of this paper was to compare foreign tourists- demographics including gender, age and education level, with the level of perceived risk towards food safety. A total of 222 foreign tourists during their stay at Khao San Road in Bangkok were used as the sample. Independent- samples ttest, analysis of variance, and Least Significant Difference or LSD post hoc test were utilized. The findings revealed that there were few demographic differences in level of perceived risk among the foreign tourists. The post hoc test indicated a significant difference among the old and the young tourists, and between the higher and lower level of education. Ranks of tourists- perceived risk towards food safety unveiled some interesting results. Tourists- perceived risk of food safety in established restaurants can be ranked as i) cleanliness of dining utensils, ii) sanitation of food preparation area, and iii) cleanliness of food seasoning and ingredients. Whereas, the tourists- perceived risk of food safety in street food and drink can be ranked as i) cleanliness of stalls and pushcarts, ii) cleanliness of food sold, and iii) personal hygiene of street food hawkers or vendors.
    Study of Optical Properties of a Glutathione Capped Gold Nanoparticles Using Linker (MHDA) by Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering

    16-Mercaptohexadecanoic acid (MHDA) and tripeptide glutathione conjugated with gold nanoparticles (Au-NPs) are characterized by Fourier Transform InfaRared (FTIR) spectroscopy combined with Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy. Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) technique based on FTIR spectroscopy has become an important tool in biophysics, which is perspective for the study of organic compounds. FTIR-spectra of MHDA shows the line at 2500 cm-1 attributed to thiol group which is modified by presence of Au-NPs, suggesting the formation of bond between thiol group and gold. We also can observe the peaks originate from characteristic chemical group. A Raman spectrum of the same sample is also promising. Our preliminary experiments confirm that SERS-effect takes place for MHDA connected with Au-NPs and enable us to detected small number (less than 106 cm-2) of MHDA molecules. Combination of spectroscopy methods: FTIR and SERS – enable to study optical properties of Au- NPs and immobilized bio-molecules in context of a bio-nano-sensors.

    Effect of Oral Administration of “Gadagi“ Tea on Liver Function in Rats
    Effect of oral administration of “Gadagi" tea on liver function was assessed on 50 healthy male albino rats which were grouped and administered with different doses(mg/kg) i.e low dose (380mg/kg, 415mg/kg, 365mg/kg, 315mg/kg for “sak", “sada" and “magani" respectively), standard dose ( 760mg/kg, 830mg/kg, 730mg/kg for “sak-, “sada" and “magani" respectively) and high dose (1500mg/kg, 1700mg/kg and 1460mg/kg for “sak--,"sada" and “magani" groups respectively) for a period of four weeks. Animals that were not administered with the tea constituted the control group. At the end of fourth week, the animals were sacrificed and their serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), and globulins (GLO) were determined. Mean serum ALT and ALP activities were significantly higher (P
    Effect of Castration on CLA in Meat Goats
    Twenty four male Thai native × Anglo-Nubian crossbred goats were randomly allocated to receive four treatments. The experiment was conducted for four months and slaughtered that the Longissimus dorsi muscle was collected for fatty acid analysis. The results conclude that either castrated method or ages had no significantly different on monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) (P>0.05) except erucic acid (C22:1n9). Interaction between castrated method and ages had significantly different in MUFA (P
    Investigation of Pre-Treatment Parameters of Rye and Triticale for Bioethanol Production
    This paper presents the new results of energy plant – rye and triticale at yellow ripeness and ripe, pre-treatment in high pressure steam reactor and monosaccharide extraction. There were investigated the influence of steam pressure (20 to 22 bar), retention duration (180 to 240 s) and catalytic sulphuric acid concentration strength (0 to 0.5 %) on the pre-treatment process, contents of monosaccharides (glucose, arabinose, xylose, mannose) and undesirable by-compounds (furfural and HMF) in the reactor. The study has determined that the largest amount of monosaccharides (37.2 % of glucose, 2.7 % of arabinose, 8.4 % of xylose, and 1.3 % of mannose) was received in the rye at ripe, the samples of which were mixed with 0.5 % concentration of catalytic sulphuric acid, and hydrolysed in the reactor, where the pressure was 20 bar, whereas the reaction time – 240 s.
    Comparative Analysis of Farm Enterprises Performance in Two Agro-Ecological Feuding Zone of Nigeria
    The two agro-ecological zones became the focus of the study because of violent nature of the incessant conflict in the zones. The available register of farmers association was the sampling frame work where ten percent (61) farmers per state were randomly sampled. Data were collected and analysed using z-test. The research findings revealed tree crops and grains production enterprises ranked higher in Osun (rain fed zones) and Taraba states (savannah zones) respectively. Osun state entrepreneur felt the effect of the conflict on their enterprises more than Tarba state. The reasons adduced for severity of the conflict on enterprises are majority (77.0%) migrated and (75.5%) of them were not allowed to enter their farms during and when conflict deescalated unlike situation in Taraba state. The different in enterprises production level between the two agroecological zone was statistically significant at p
    Intragenic MicroRNAs Binding Sites in MRNAs of Genes Involved in Carcinogenesis
    MiRNAs participate in gene regulation of translation. Some studies have investigated the interactions between genes and intragenic miRNAs. It is important to study the miRNA binding sites of genes involved in carcinogenesis. RNAHybrid 2.1 and ERNAhybrid programmes were used to compute the hybridization free energy of miRNA binding sites. Of these 54 mRNAs, 22.6%, 37.7%, and 39.7% of miRNA binding sites were present in the 5'UTRs, CDSs, and 3'UTRs, respectively. The density of the binding sites for miRNAs in the 5'UTR ranged from 1.6 to 43.2 times and from 1.8 to 8.0 times greater than in the CDS and 3'UTR, respectively. Three types of miRNA interactions with mRNAs have been revealed: 5'- dominant canonical, 3'-compensatory, and complementary binding sites. MiRNAs regulate gene expression, and information on the interactions between miRNAs and mRNAs could be useful in molecular medicine. We recommend that newly described sites undergo validation by experimental investigation.
    Food and Beverage Safety and Satisfaction: A Gender Effect
    There has been considerable growth in the issue of food & beverage safety in Thailand. This is important because the level of satisfaction in food & beverage safety has impacts on travel decision made by foreign tourists. Therefore, this paper was aimed to test if there is any significant gender effect in the level of satisfaction of food & beverage safety made by foreign tourists in Thailand. In addition, this paper utilized the Chi Square test of independent to test if there was an association between gender and sickness because of food and if there was an association between gender and the perception of food safety standard. During January to June, 2012, a total of 400 foreign tourist respondents, 200 male as well as 200 female foreign tourists, were interviewed at the departure lounge at Suvarnabhumi airport, Thailand. The findings revealed the astonishing result that there was no significant effect of gender. Also, there was no significant difference in the association between gender and being sick because of food as well as the association between gender and the perception on the standard of food safety during their trip in Thailand.
    The Induction of Antioxidant Enzyme Activities in Cabbage Seedlings by Heavy Metal Stress
    Cabbage seedlings grown in vitro were exposed to excess levels of heavy metals, including Cd, Mo, and Zn. High metal levels affected plant growth at cotyledonary stage. Seedlings under Cd, Mo, and Zn treatments could not produce root hairs and true leaves. Under stress conditions, seedlings accumulated a higher amount of anthocyanins in their cotyledons than those in the control. The pigments isolated from Cd and Zn stressed seedling cotyledons appeared as pink, while under Mo stress, was dark pink or purple. Moreover, excess Mo stress increased antioxidant enzyme activities of APX, CAT, SOD. These results suggest that, under excess Mo stress, the induced antioxidant enzyme activity of cabbage seedlings may function as a protective mechanism to shield the plants from toxicity and exacerbated growth.
    Structure Based Computational Analysis and Molecular Phylogeny of C- Phycocyanin Gene from the Selected Cyanobacteria

    Cyanobacteria play a vital role in the production of phycobiliproteins that includes phycocyanin and phycoerythrin pigments. Phycocyanin and related phycobiliproteins have wide variety of application that is used in the food, biotechnology and cosmetic industry because of their color, fluorescent and antioxidant properties. The present study is focused to understand the pigment at molecular level in the Cyanobacteria Oscillatoria terebriformis NTRI05 and Oscillatoria foreaui NTRI06. After extraction of genomic DNA, the amplification of C-Phycocyanin gene was done with the suitable primer PCβF and PCαR and the sequencing was performed. Structural and Phylogenetic analysis was attained using the sequence to develop a molecular model.

    Inheritance of Primary Yield Component Traits of Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.): Number of Seeds per Pod and 1000 Seed Weight in an 8X8 Diallel Cross Population

    Thirty six genotypes (8 parents and 28 F1 diallel crosses) were grown in randomized complete block design during 2006 at Mandura, North western Ethiopia. The experiment was executed to study the inheritance of two primary yield component traits: number of seeds per pod and 1000 seed weight. Statistical significant difference was observed between genotypes, parents, and crosses for these traits. The mean square due to GCA was significant for the two traits. However, SCA mean square was significant only for number of seeds per pod. Thus both additive and non-additive types of gene actions were important in the inheritance of number of seeds per pod. Significant b1 component was obtained for this trait. The b2 and b3 components, however, were not significant, suggesting the absence of gene asymmetry. From Wr/Vr graph, inheritance of seeds per pod was governed by partial dominance with additive gene action.

    Relative Suitability Evaluation of Two Methods of Particle-Size Analysis for Selected Soils of Sudan Savanna of Nigeria

    The two widely used methods base on the sedimentation principle (Bouyoucos hydrometer and International pipette) for particle-size analysis were comparatively evaluated on soils collected from various locations in Sudan savanna of Nigeria particularly from Sokoto and Zamfara States. The hydrometer method under-estimated the silt and over-estimated the clay content. Also, the hydrometer reading proved difficult and tended to submerge when floated for clay reading in the suspension of very sandy soils (900g kg-1 sand). Furthermore, the results from the two methods were validated by subjecting the data to USDA soil textural triangle to determine their textural class names. The outcome was that 91.67 % of the experimental soils retained the same textural class names irrespective of the method. Thus, Bouyoucos hydrometer method may conveniently find a place in routine work in view of its simplicity, rapidity, and strong correlation with the pipette method.