Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 14

Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering

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  • 14
    Synthesis of Sterile and Pyrogen Free Biogenic Magnetic Nanoparticles: Biotechnological Potential of Magnetotactic Bacteria for Production of Nanomaterials
    Today, biogenic magnetite nanoparticles among magnetic nanoparticles have unique attracted attention because of their magnetic characteristics and potential applications in various fields such as therapeutic and diagnostic. A well known example of these biogenic nanoparticles is magnetosomes of magnetotactic bacteria. In this research, we used two different types of technique for the isolation and purification of magnetosome nanoparticles from the isolated magnetotactic bacterial cells, heat-alkaline treatment and sonication. Also we evaluated pyrogen content and sterility of synthesized the isolated individual magnetosome by the Limulus Amoebocyte Lysate test and direct impedimetric method respectively.
    Relative Contribution of Livestock Species to Meat Supply in Bauchi Metropolis, Bauchi, Nigeria

    Primary and secondary data from the Bauchi abattoir were utilized to determine the relative contributions of different livestock species to meat supply in Bauchi Metropolis. Daily livestock slaughter figures for five months (June – October 2011) indicated that more goats (64.0) were slaughtered than either sheep (47.3) or cattle (41.30) each day (P<0.001) and fewer (P<0.05) animals (45.65) were slaughtered daily in June than either in August (57.07) or October (55.95). Five year (2006 – 2010) monthly slaughter records indicated that both species and year had significant (P<0.001) effects on number of animals slaughtered. More goats (2727.8) were slaughtered than either sheep (731.09) or cattle (520.06) each month and more animals were slaughtered in 2006 (1847.72/month) than in 2008, 2009 and 2010 (997.67, 1029.13 and 1273.75/month respectively). In terms of total carcass output, cattle accounted for 61-80% of the meat supply obtained from ruminant animals slaughtered at the Bauchi abattoir.

    Production of IAA by Bradyrhizobium sp.
    The objective of this research was to determine the potency of indigenous acid-aluminium tolerant Bradyrhizobium japonicum as producer of indole acetic acid (IAA) and applied it as nitrogen fixation on local soybeans viz Anjasmoro, Tanggamus (yellow soybean seeds), and Detam (black soybean seed). Three isolates of acid-aluminium tolerant Bradyrhizobium japonicum (BJ) were used in this research, i.e. BJ 11 (wt), BJ 11 (19) - BJ 11(wt) mutant, and USDA 110 as a reference isolate. All of isolates tested to produce the IAA by using Salkowsky method. Effect of IAA production by each of B. japonicum was tested on growth pouch and greenhouse using three varieties of soybean. All isolates could grow well and produce IAA on yeast mannitol broth (YMB) medium in the presence of 0.5 mM L-tryptophan. BJ 11 (19) produced the highest of IAA at 4 days incubation compared to BJ 11 (wt) and USDA 110. All tested isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum have showed effect on stimulating the formation of root nodules in soybean varieties grown on Leonard bottle. The concentration of IAA on root nodules of soybean symbiotic with B. japonicum was significantly different with control, except on the treatment using Tanggamus soybean.
    A Green Chemical Technique for the Synthesis of Magnetic Nanoparticles by Magnetotactic Bacteria
    Bacterial magnetic nanoparticles have great useful potential in biotechnological and biomedical applications. In this study, a liquid growth medium was modified for cultivation a fastidious magnetotactic bacterium that has been isolated from Anzali lagoon, Iran in our previous research. These modifications include change in vitamin, mineral, carbon sources and etcetera. In our experience, the serum bottles and designed air-tight laboratory bottles were used to create microaerobic conditions in order to development of a method for scale-up experiment. This information may serve as a guide to green chemistry based biological protocols for the synthesis of magnetic nanoparticles with control over the chemical composition, morphology and size.
    Mathematical modeling of Bi-Substrate Enzymatic Reactions with Ping-Pong Mechanism in the Presence of Competitive Inhibitors
    The mathematical modeling of different biological processes is usually used to predict or assess behavior of systems in which these processes take place. This study deals with mathematical and computer modeling of bi-substrate enzymatic reactions with ping-pong mechanism, which play an important role in different biochemical pathways. Besides that, three models of competitive inhibition were designed using different software packages. The main objective of this study is to represent the results from in silico investigation of bi-substrate enzymatic reactions with ordered pingpong mechanism in the presence of competitive inhibitors, as well as to describe in details the inhibition effects. The simulation of the models with certain kinetic parameters allowed investigating the behavior of reactions as well as determined some interesting aspects concerning influence of different cases of competitive inhibition. Simultaneous presence of two inhibitors, competitive to the S1 and S2 substrates have been studied. Moreover, we have found the pattern of simultaneous influence of both inhibitors.
    ASLT Method for Beer Accelerated Shelf-Life Determination

    The aim of current research was to investigate ASLT method suitability for accelerated beer shelf-life determination. The research was accomplished on popular Latvian beer: light filtrated and unfiltered pasteurized beer with alcohol content 5.2%; dark filtrated pasteurized beer with alcohol content 4.2% with shelf-life five months. Bottled in dark glass bottles beer samples were storage during 20 weeks at several temperature regimes: +10±1 °C, +20±1 °C, +30±1 °C, +40±1 °C. Samples quality parameters as physically-chemical and microbiological was tested every two weeks using standard methods. It is possible to determine beer shelf-life rapidly during storage at +30±1 °C for filtered pasteurized light beer by 2.5 times, unfiltered pasteurized light beer by 1.4 times and for filtered pasteurized dark beer by 1.7 times. During preset experiments it was proved, that it is possible to determine beer shelf-life rapidly using ASLT method if beer storage temperature could be increased by +10±1 °C.

    Implementation of Response Surface Methodology using in Small Brown Rice Peeling Machine: Part I

    Implementation of response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to study the effects of two factor (rubber clearance and round per minute) in brown rice peeling machine of The optimal BROKENS yield (19.02, average of three repeats),.The optimized composition derived from RSM regression was analyzed using Regression analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). At a significant level α = 0.05, the values of Regression coefficient, R 2 (adj)were 97.35 % and standard deviation were 1.09513. The independent variables are initial rubber clearance, and round per minute parameters namely. The investigating responses are final rubber clearance, and round per minute (RPM). The restriction of the optimization is the designated.

    Pleurotus Ostreatus for Durability Test of Rubber and Sengon Woods using Indonesian National Standard and Japanese Standard Methods

    This study aims to determine the level of resistance of Hevea brasiliensis and Paraserianthes falcataria (synonym: Falcataria molucana) against wood rot fungi Pleurotus ostreatus based on Indonesian standard SNI 01.7207-2006 and Japanese standard JIS K 1571-2004. The variables measured were visual appearance and weight loss percentage of wood based on longitudinal and cross section fiber directions of rubber wood and sengon wood. Measurement of oven dry weight loss of wood samples performed after 12 weeks incubation. Replication performed was 10 times at each treatment combination. The results based on SNI 01.7207-2006, weight loss value of H. brasiliensis and P. falcataria wood with fiber direction longitudinal were 23,12 and 22,25% respectively and cross section were 20,77 and 18,76% respectively, and all were classified to resistance class IV (no resistance). The results based on JIS K 1571-2004, weight loss value of both woods with fiber direction cross section were 10,95 and 14,20% respectively.

    Evaluation of Factors Affecting Freezing Point of Milk
    The freezing point of milk is in important indicator of the milk quality. The freezing point of milk is determined primarily to prove milk adulteration with water and to determine the amount of water in it. Chemical composition and properties of milk, thermal treatment and presence of any substance can influence freezing point of product. There are different substances, which can be added to milk with main purpose to prolong shelf-life of raw milk. There are detergent, preservatives, formaldehyde, hydrogen peroxide, antibiotics, sodium carbonate, and hydrogen peroxide. Therefore the aim of the present study was to determine freezing point of milk, skimmed milk, pasteurized milk and milk with different substances (formaldehyde, antibiotics, sodium carbonate, hydrogen peroxide, disinfectant, and detergent) in different concentrations. The thermal treatment and different undesirable substances presence in milk have significant influence on freezing point of it.
    Effects of Ice and Seawater Storing Conditions on the Sensory, Chemical and Microbiological Quality of the Mediterranean Hake (Merluccius merluccius) During Post-Catch Handling and Distribution

    Changes in the sensory, chemical and microbiological quality of the Mediterranean hake during post-catch handling and distribution were investigated. 115 fish samples were seasonally received during three stages of the transfer route from the sea to the consumer and two storage methods were recorded, seawater and ice storage. Microbiological evaluation revealed higher status for the ice stored samples regarding heterotrophic bacteria (2.68 log cfu/g and 1.92 log cfu/g at 22oC and 37°C respectively) and psychrotrophic counts (3.20 log cfu/g), with statistically significant differences among storage methods. Sensory evaluation also revealed higher status for the ice stored samples with a mean quality index of 0.17 and a spoilage time estimated at 30 hours, in contrast to seawater storage, which varied from 0.28 to 0.3, and a 14-hour estimated spoilage. Detected pathogens were identified mainly in the seawater stored samples, posing questions on the quality of the product reaching the seafood markets.

    Effect of Various Pollen Sources to Ability Fruit Set and Quality in ‘Long Red B’ Wax Apple

    By hand pollination was conducted to evaluated different pollen sources and their affects on fruit set and quality of wax apple. The following parameters were recorded: fruit set, seed set, fruit characteristics. Results showed that fruit set percentage with seed were significantly high in ‘Long Red B’ when ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’ were used as pollen parents. Pollen of ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’ resulted in high fruit weight, fruit diameter, fruit length, bigger flesh thickness, better total soluble solids as compared with other pollens. The observation of pollen-growth in vitro revealed that pollen germination at 15% sucrose concentration are required for optimum pollen germination with the high pollen germination were found in ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’. From the result, we concluded that ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’ were proved to be good pollinizers in ‘Long Red B’. Therefore, artificial cross-pollination using ‘Black’, ‘Thyto’ as pollinizers were strongly recommended for ‘Long Red B’ cultivar in wax apple orchard.

    Biomass and Productivity Studies of Up-Land and Low-Land Vegetation in the Neglected Margin of a Tropical Lake

    Present paper deals with an evaluation of magnitude of changes in biomass and net primary productivity at ‘Gujar Tal’ sloppy lake margin at Jaunpur in tropical semi-arid region of eastern U.P. (India). The study site abandoned or neglected lands (50 ×125 m) was divided into two zones, i.e. upper zone (up-land) and lower zone (low-land). Maximum biomass in the upper zone of dominant weed Desmostachya bipinnata (L.) Stapf. was 207.47 g m-2 and ‘rest weeds’ was 457.45 g m-2 both in the month of September. In contrast, the peak biomass value in the lower zone of dominant weed Oryza rufipogon Griff. was 1571.44 g m-2 in October and ‘rest weeds’ 270.65 g m-2 in February. Among the two zones, the peak total community biomass was observed 1655.62 g m-2 (October) in the lower zone while its peak value for the upper zone 457.45 g m-2 (September) was comparatively low. Maximum percentage contribution of dominant weeds (D. bipinnata and O. rufipogon) in the respective upper and lower zones and ‘rest weeds’ in both the zones varied in different months in the total community biomass. The peak net primary productivity of dominant weed (D. bipinnata) was 2.09g m-2 day-1 (September) and ‘rest weeds’ was 2.37 g m-2 day-1 (August) in the upper zone, while the lower zone for O. rufipogon was 5.25 g m-2 day-1 (June) as this zone was inundated later and ‘rest weeds’ was 2.08 g m-2 day-1 (January, 2009). The annual net production of total community at site I was highest, 409.58 g m-2 yr-1 in the upper zone followed by 395.58 g m-2 per eight month in the lower zone as this zone was flooded with water during rainy season. The site significance of variations in biomass in relation to plant species was tested by analysis of variance. It was significant between months in all the two zones (p<0.01 and p<0.05).

    Cloning and Functional Characterization of Promoter Elements of the D Hordein Gene from the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by Bioinformatic Tools

    The low level of foreign genes expression in transgenic plants is a key factor that limits plant genetic engineering. Because of the critical regulatory activity of the promoters on gene transcription, they are studied extensively to improve the efficiency of the plant transgenic system. The strong constitutive promoters, such as CaMV 35S promoter and Ubiqutin 1 maize are usually used in plant biotechnology research. However the expression level of the foreign genes in all tissues is often undesirable. But using a strong seed-specific promoter to limit gene expression in the seed solves such problems. The purpose of this study is to isolate one of the seed specific promoters of Hordeum vulgare. So one of the common varieties of Hordeum vulgare in Iran was selected and their genomes extracted then the D-Hordein promoter amplified using the specific designed primers. Then the amplified fragment of the insert cloned in an appropriate vector and then transformed to E. coli. At last for the final admission of accuracy the cloned fragments sent for sequencing. Sequencing analysis showed that the cloned fragment DHPcontained motifs; like TATA box, CAAT-box, CCGTCC-box, AMYBOX1 and E-box etc., which constituted the seed-specific promoter activity. The results were compared with sequences existing in data banks. D-Hordein promoters of Alger has 99% similarity at 100 % coverage. The results also showed that D-Hordein promoter of barley and HMW promoter of wheat are too similar.

    Evaluating and Measuring the Performance Parameters of Agricultural Wheels

    Evaluating and measuring the performance parameters of wheels and tillage equipments under controlled conditions obligates the use of soil bin facility. In this research designing, constructing and evaluating a single-wheel tester has been studied inside a soil bin. The tested wheel was directly driven by the electric motor. Vertical load was applied by a power bolt on wheel. This tester can measure required draft force, the depth of tire sinkage, contact area between wheel and soil, and soil stress at different depths and in the both alongside and perpendicular to the direction of traversing. In order to evaluate the system preparation, traction force was measured by the connected S-shaped load cell as arms between the wheel-tester and carriage. Treatments of forward speed, slip, and vertical load at a constant pressure were investigated in a complete randomized block design. The results indicated that the traction force increased at constant wheel load. The results revealed that the maximum traction force was observed within the %15 of slip.