Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 5

Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering

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  • 5
    109
    Managing Meat Safety at South African Abattoirs
    Abstract:
    The importance of ensuring safe meat handling and processing practices has been demonstrated in global reports on food safety scares and related illness and deaths. This necessitated stricter meat safety control strategies. Today, many countries have regulated towards preventative and systematic control over safe meat processing at abattoirs utilizing the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Point (HACCP) principles. HACCP systems have been reported as effective in managing food safety risks, if correctly implemented. South Africa has regulated the Hygiene Management System (HMS) based on HACCP principles applicable to abattoirs. Regulators utilise the Hygiene Assessment System (HAS) to audit compliance at abattoirs. These systems were benchmarked from the United Kingdom (UK). Little research has been done them since inception as of 2004. This paper presents a review of the two systems, its implementation and comparison with HACCP. Recommendations are made for future research to demonstrate the utility of the HMS and HAS in assuring safe meat to consumers.
    4
    314
    Effect of Process Parameters on the Proximate Composition, Functional and Sensory Properties
    Abstract:
    Flour from Mucuna beans (Mucuna pruriens) were used in producing texturized meat analogue using a single screw extruder to monitor modifications on the proximate composition and the functional properties at high moisture level. Response surface methodology based on Box Behnken design at three levels of barrel temperature (110, 120, 130°C), screw speed (100,120,140rpm) and feed moisture (44, 47, 50%) were used in 17 runs. Regression models describing the effect of variables on the product responses were obtained. Descriptive profile analyses and consumer acceptability test were carried out on optimized flavoured extruded meat analogue. Responses were mostly affected by barrel temperature and moisture level and to a lesser extent by screw speed. Optimization results based on desirability concept indicated that a barrel temperature of 120.15°C, feed moisture of 47% and screw speed of 119.19 rpm would produce meat analogue of preferable proximate composition, functional and sensory properties which reveals consumers` likeness for the product.
    3
    4969
    Production of WGHs and AFPHs using Protease Combinations at High and Ambient Pressure
    Abstract:
    Wheat gluten hydrolyzates (WGHs) and anchovy fine powder hydrolyzates (AFPHs) were produced at 300 MPa using combinations of Flavourzyme 500MG (F), Alcalase 2.4L (A), Marugoto E (M) and Protamex (P), and then were compared to those produced at ambient pressure concerning the contents of soluble solid (SS), soluble nitrogen and electrophoretic profiles. The contents of SS in the WGHs and AFPHs increased up to 87.2% according to the increase in enzyme number both at high and ambient pressure. Based on SS content, the optimum enzyme combinations for one-, two-, three- and four-enzyme hydrolysis were determined as F, FA, FAM and FAMP, respectively. Similar trends were found for the contents of total soluble nitrogen (TSN) and TCA-soluble nitrogen (TCASN). The contents of SS, TSN and TCASN in the hydrolyzates together with electrophoretic mobility maps indicates that the high-pressure treatment of this study accelerated protein hydrolysis compared to ambient-pressure treatment.
    2
    13228
    Histogenesis of Rabbit Vallate Papillae
    Abstract:
    The gustatory system allows animals to distinguish varieties of food and affects greatly the consumption of food, hence the health and growth of animals. In the current study, we investigated the histogenesis of vallate papillae (VLP) in the rabbit tongue using light and scanning electron microscopy. Samples were obtained from rabbit embryos at the embryonic days 16-30 (E16-30), and from newborns until maturity; 6 months. At E16, the first primordia of vallate papillae were observed as small pits on the surface epithelium of the tongue-s root. At E18, the caudal part was prominent with loose mesenchymal tissue core; meanwhile the rostral part of the papilla was remained as a thick mass of epithelial cells. At E20-24, the side epithelium formed the primitive annular groove. At E26, the primitive taste buds appeared only at the papillary surface and reached their maturity by E28. The annular groove started to appear at E26 became more defined at E28. The definitive vallate papillae with substantial number of apparently mature taste buds were observed by the end of the second week. We conclude that the vallate papillae develop early and mature during the early postnatal life.
    1
    14531
    Mucosal- Submucosal Changes in Rabbit Duodenum during Development
    Abstract:

    The sequential morphologic changes of rabbit duodenal mucosa-submucosa were studied from primodial stage to birth in 15 fetuses and during the early days of life in 21 rabbit newborns till maturity using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Fetal rabbit duodenum develops from a simple tube of stratified epithelium to a tube containing villus and intervillus regions of simple columnar epithelium. By day 21 of gestation, the first rudimentary villi were appeared and by day 24 the first true villi were appeared. The Crypts of Lieberkuhn did not appear until birth. By the first day of postnatal life the duodenal glands appeared. The histological maturity of the rabbit small intestine occurred one month after birth. In conclusion, at all stages, the sequential morphologic changes of the rabbit small intestine developed to meet the structural and physiological demands during the fetal stage to be prepared to extra uterine life.