Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 56

Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering

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  • 56
    Performance of Bio-Composite Carbonized Materials in Probiotic Applications

    A new composite sorbent based on carbonized rice husk (CRH) and immobilized on it living cells and inactivated cultural liquid containing antimicrobials metabolites of Bacillus subtilis CK-245 is developed. The sorption and antimicrobic activity of CRH concerning five species of Enterobacteriaceae is studied. Prospects of use of developed sorbent in medicine and veterinary science is shown.

    Gene Selection Guided by Feature Interdependence

    Cancers could normally be marked by a number of differentially expressed genes which show enormous potential as biomarkers for a certain disease. Recent years, cancer classification based on the investigation of gene expression profiles derived by high-throughput microarrays has widely been used. The selection of discriminative genes is, therefore, an essential preprocess step in carcinogenesis studies. In this paper, we have proposed a novel gene selector using information-theoretic measures for biological discovery. This multivariate filter is a four-stage framework through the analyses of feature relevance, feature interdependence, feature redundancy-dependence and subset rankings, and having been examined on the colon cancer data set. Our experimental result show that the proposed method outperformed other information theorem based filters in all aspect of classification errors and classification performance.

    Novel Dual Stage Membrane Bioreactor for the Continuous Remediation of Electroplating Wastewater

    In this study, the designed dual stage membrane bioreactor (MBR) system was conceptualized for the treatment of cyanide and heavy metals in electroplating wastewater. The design consisted of a primary treatment stage to reduce the impact of fluctuations and the secondary treatment stage to remove the residual cyanide and heavy metal contaminants in the wastewater under alkaline pH conditions. The primary treatment stage contained hydrolyzed Citrus sinensis (C. sinensis) pomace and the secondary treatment stage contained active Aspergillus awamori (A. awamori) biomass, supplemented solely with C. sinensis pomace extract from the hydrolysis process. An average of 76.37%, 95.37%, 93.26 and 94.76% and 99.55%, 99.91%, 99.92% and 99.92% degradation efficiency for total cyanide (T-CN), including the sorption of nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) were observed after the first and second treatment stages, respectively. Furthermore, cyanide conversion by-products degradation was 99.81% and 99.75 for both formate (CHOO-) and ammonium (NH4 +) after the second treatment stage. After the first, second and third regeneration cycles of the C. sinensis pomace in the first treatment stage, Ni, Zn and Cu removal achieved was 99.13%, 99.12% and 99.04% (first regeneration cycle), 98.94%, 98.92% and 98.41% (second regeneration cycle) and 98.46 %, 98.44% and 97.91% (third regeneration cycle), respectively. There was relatively insignificant standard deviation detected in all the measured parameters in the system which indicated reproducibility of the remediation efficiency in this continuous system.

    Inhibiting Gene for a Late-Heading Gene Responsible for Photoperiod Sensitivity in Rice (Oryza sativa)

    Two indica varieties, IR36 and ‘Suweon 258’ (“S”) are middle-heading in southern Japan. 36U, also middle-heading, is an isogenic line of IR36 carrying Ur1 (Undulate rachis-1) gene. However, late-heading plants segregated in the F2 population from the F1 of S × 36U, and so did in the following generations. The concerning lateness gene is designated as Ex. From the F8 generation, isogenic-line pair of early-heading and late-heading lines, denoted by “E” (ex/ex) and “L” (Ex/Ex), were developed. Genetic analyses of heading time were conducted, using F1s and F2s among L, E, S and 36U. The following inferences were drawn from the experimental results: 1) L, and both of E and 36U harbor Ex and ex, respectively; 2) Besides Ex, S harbors an inhibitor gene to it, i.e. I-Ex which is a novel finding of the present study. 3) Ex is a dominant allele at the E1 locus.

    Screening and Identification of Microorganisms – Potential Producers of Arachidonic Acid

    Microorganisms isolated from water and soil of Kazakhstan to identify potential high-effective producers of the arachidonic acid, exhibiting a wide range of physiological activity and having practical applications were screened. Based on the results of two independent tests (the test on the sensitivity of the growth processes of microorganisms to acetylsalicylic acid - an irreversible inhibitor of PGH-synthase involved in the metabolism of arachidonic acid and its derivatives, the test for inhibition of peroxidase activity of membrane-bounding fraction of PGH - synthase by acetylsalicylic acid) were selected microbial cultures which are potential highproducer of arachidonic acid. They are characterized by a stable strong growth in the laboratory conditions. Identification of microorganism cultures based on morphological, physiological, biochemical and molecular genetic characteristics was performed.

    Magnetic Properties Govern the Processes of DNA Replication and the Shortening of the Telomere

    This hypothesis shows that the induction and the remanent of magnetic properties govern the mechanism processes of DNA replication and the shortening of the telomere. The solenoid–like formation of each parental DNA strand, which exists at the initial stage of the replication process, enables an electric charge transformation through the strand to produce a magnetic field. The magnetic field, in turn, induces the surrounding medium to form a new (replicated) strand by a remanent magnetisation. Through the remanent [residual] magnetisation process, the replicated strand possesses a similar information pattern to that of the parental strand. In the same process, the remanent amount of magnetisation forms the medium in which it has less of both repetitive and pattern magnetisation than that of the parental strand, therefore the replicated strand shows a shortening in the length of its telomeres.

    A Comparison of Fuel Usage and Harvest Capacity in Self-Propelled Forage Harvesters

    Self-propelled forage harvesters in the 850 horsepower range were tested over three years for fuel consumption, throughput and quality of chop for corn silage. Cut length had a significant effect on fuel consumption, throughput and some aspects of chop quality. Measure cut length was often different than theoretical length of cut. Where cut length was equivalent fuel consumption and throughput were equivalent across brands. Shortening cut length from 17 to 11mm increases fuel consumption 53 percent measured as Mg of silage harvested per gallon of fuel used and a 42 percent decrease in capacity as tons of fresh material per hour run time.

    Cyanide and Heavy Metal Concentration of Fermented Cassava Flour (Lafun) Available in the Markets of Ogun and Oyo States of Nigeria

    Fermented cassava flours (lafun) sold in Ogun and Oyo States of Nigeria were collected from 10 markets for a period of two months and analysed to determine their safety status. The presence of trace metals was due to high vehicular movement around the drying sites and markets. Cyanide and moisture contents of samples were also determined to assess the adequacy of fermentation and drying. The result showed that sample OWO was found to have the highest amount of 16.02±0.12mg/kg cyanide while the lowest was found in sample OJO with 10.51±0.10mg/kg. The results also indicated that sample TVE had the highest moisture content of 18.50±0.20% while sample OWO had the lowest amount of 12.46±0.47%. Copper and lead levels were found to be highest in TVE with values 28.10mg/kg and 1.1mg/kg respectively, while sample BTS had the lowest values of 20.6mg/kg and 0.05mg/kg respectively. High value of cyanide indicated inadequate fermentation.

    Quality Evaluation of Cookies Produced from Blends of Sweet Potato and Fermented Soybean Flour

    The study was conducted to evaluate the quality characteristics of cookies produced from sweet potato-fermented soybean flour. Cookies were subjected to proximate and sensory analysis to determine the acceptability of the product. Protein, fat and ash increased as the proportion of soybean flour increased, ranging from 13.8-21.7, 1.22-5.25 and 2.20-2.57 respectively. The crude fibre content was within the range of 3.08-4.83%. The moisture content of the cookies decreased with increase in soybean flour from 3.42- 2.13%. Cookies produced from whole sweet potato flour had the highest moisture content of 3.42% while 30% substitution had the lowest moisture content 2.13%. A nine point hedonic scale was used to evaluate the organoleptic characteristics of the cookies. The sensory analysis indicated that there was no significant difference between the cookies produced even when compared to the control 100% sweet potato cookies. The overall acceptance of the cookies was ranked to 20% soybean flour substitute.

    Aureobasidium pullulans Used as a Biological Control Agent under Field Conditions Affects the Microbial Quality of Winter Wheat Grain

    The biological activity of A. pullulans isolates against species of the genus Fusarium, bacteria of the genus Azotobacter and pseudomonads colonizing wheat kernels was evaluated. A field experiment was carried out in 2009-2011, in north-eastern Poland. Winter wheat (cv. Bogatka) plants were sprayed with a cell suspension of A. pullulans at a density of 106 - 108 per cm3 water at the stem elongation stage and the heading stage. Untreated plants served as control. The abundance of epiphytic yeasts, bacteria of the genus Azotobacter, pseudomonads and Fusarium pathogens on wheat grain was estimated at harvest and after six months’ storage. The average size of yeast communities was significantly greater on wheat kernels treated with a cell suspension of A. pullulans, compared with control samples. In 2010-2011, biological control reduced the abundance of some species of the genus Fusarium.

    The Effect of Simulated Acid Rain on Glycine max

    Acid rain occurs when sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (Nox) gases react in the atmosphere with water, oxygen, and other chemicals to form various acidic compounds. The result is a mild solution of sulfuric acid and nitric acid. Soil has a greater buffering capacity than aquatic systems. However excessive amount of acids introduced by acid rains may disturb the entire soil chemistry. Acidity and harmful action of toxic elements damage vegetation while susceptible microbial species are eliminated. In present study, the effects of simulated sulphuric acid and nitric acid rains were investigated on crop Glycine max. The effect of acid rain on change in soil fertility was detected in which pH of control sample was 6.5 and pH of 1%H2SO4 and 1%HNO3 were 3.5. Nitrogen nitrate in soil was high in 1% HNO3 treated soil & Control sample. Ammonium nitrogen in soil was low in 1% HNO3 & H2SO4 treated soil. Ammonium nitrogen was medium in control and other samples. The effect of acid rain on seed germination on 3rd day of germination control sample growth was 7 cm, 0.1% HNO3 was 8cm, and 0.001% HNO3 & 0.001% H2SO4 was 6cm each. On 10th day fungal growth was observed in 1% and 0.1%H2SO4 concentrations, when all plants were dead. The effect of acid rain on crop productivity was investigated on 3rd day roots were developed in plants. On12th day Glycine max showed more growth in 0.1% HNO3, 0.001% HNO3 and 0.001% H2SO4 treated plants growth were same as compare to control plants. On 20th day development of discoloration of plant pigments were observed on acid treated plants leaves. On 38th day, 0.1, 0.001% HNO3 and 0.1, 0.001% H2SO4 treated plants and control plants were showing flower growth. On 42th day, acid treated Glycine max variety and control plants were showed seeds on plants. In Glycine max variety 0.1, 0.001% H2SO4, 0.1, 0.001% HNO3 treated plants were dead on 46th day and fungal growth was observed. The toxicological study was carried out on Glycine max plants exposed to 1% HNO3 cells were damaged more than 1% H2SO4. Leaf sections exposed to 0.001% HNO3 & H2SO4 showed less damaged of cells and pigmentation observed in entire slide when compare with control plant. The soil analysis was done to find microorganisms in HNO3 & H2SO4 treated Glycine max and control plants. No microorganism growth was observed in 1% HNO3 & H2SO4 but control plant showed microbial growth.

    Tuberculin, Tetanus Immunoglobulin and DPT Vaccine as an Avian in vivo T- Lymphocyte Mitogens

    The avian phytohaemagglutinin skin test is being proved as an in vivo system for the evaluation an avian in vivo T cell mitogenicity. The test system was one week old Gallus domesticus broiler Chickens. Five replicates were done for each of the whole, 1:10 dilutions of each of 0.05 IU tuberculin, tetanus immunoglobulin and DPT vaccine as test materials. The evaluation parameters were the skin indurations and lymphoblast percentages in bone marrow lymphocytes. Tuberculin indurations were 2.06 and 1.26mm for 0.05 IU respectively while lymphoblast percent were 0.234 and 0.1 accordingly. The skin indurations of 135mg/ml and 1.35mg/ml tetanus immunoglobulin were 4.86 and 3.96mm while lymphoblast percentages were 0.3 and 0.14 respectively. The whole DPT and 1:10 concentration were with 4.5 and 3.2mm while their lymphoblast percentages were 0.28 and 0.12 accordingly. Thus the mitogenicity of the test materials was of dependant type.

    The Effectiveness of Tebuconazole and Chitosan in Inhibiting the Growth of Fusarium Species on Winter Wheat Grain under Field Conditions

    A three-year field experiment (2010-2012) was conducted to determine the abundance of epiphytic and endophytic filamentous fungi colonizing the grain of winter wheat cv. Bogatka. Wheat spikes were protected with tebuconazole or chitosan at the watery ripe stage. Untreated plants served as control. Tebuconazole exerted an inhibitory effect primarily on F. culmorum and F. graminearum, and its effectiveness was determined by the pressure from pathogens that infected wheat spikes during the growing season. Chitosan did not suppress the growth of Fusarium species and Alternaria alternata.

    Biodegradable Surfactants for Advanced Drug Delivery Strategies

    Oxidative stress makes up common incidents in eukaryotic metabolism. The presence of diverse components disturbing the equilibrium during oxygen metabolism increases oxidative damage unspecifically in living cells. Body´s own ubiquinone (Q10) seems to be a promising drug in defending the heightened appearance of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Though, its lipophilic properties require a new strategy in drug formulation to overcome their low bioavailability. Consequently, the manufacture of heterogeneous nanodispersions is in focus for medical applications. The composition of conventional nanodispersions is made up of a drug-consisting core and a surfactive agent, also named as surfactant. Long-termed encapsulation of the surfactive components into tissues might be the consequence of the use during medical therapeutics. The potential of provoking side-effects is given by their nonbiodegradable properties. Further improvements during fabrication process use the incorporation of biodegradable components such as modified γ-polyglutamic acid which decreases the potential of prospective side-effects.

    Analysis of Microalgae Lipids Isolated from Basin of Kazakhstan, to Assess the Prospects of Practical Use

    It was analyzed of fatty acid composition of 16 strains of microalgae lipid fractions isolated from different basins of Kazakhstan and characterized by stable active growth in the laboratory. Three species of green microalgae (Oocystis rhomboideus, Chlorococcum infusionum, Dictyochlorella globosa) and three species of diatoms (Synedra sp., Nitzshia sp., Pleurosigma attenuatum) are characterized by a high content of lipids and are promising for further study as a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids.

    The Suitability of Potato Cultivars in Production of Chips and Sticks by Using Microwave-Vacuum Drier

    The aim of present experiment was to evaluate the influence of cultivar to quality parameters of dried potato chips and sticks produced in microwave-vacuum drier. The potatoes before drying were blanched in oil and water at 180ºC and at 85ºC respectively. The moisture content, crispiness, the colour (CIE L*a*b*), the content of ascorbic acid, total carotenoids and total fat content of dried potato chips and sticks was determined The highest ascorbic acid content, high content of carotenoids, low total fat content, low acrylamide content and good crispiness (low breaking force) especially for sticks was determined in the samples of Gundega cultivar.

    Evaluation of Rheological Properties of Apple Mass Based Desserts

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of texturizers on the rheological properties of the apple mass and desserts made from various raw materials. The apple varieties - ‘Antonovka’, ‘Baltais Dzidrais’, and ‘Zarja Alatau’ harvested in Latvia, were used for the experiment. The apples were processed in a blender unpeeled for obtaining a homogenous mass. The apple mass was analyzed fresh and after storage at –18ºC. Both fresh and thawed apple mass samples with added gelatin, xantan gum, and sodium carboxymethylcellulose were whisked obtaining dessert. Pectin, pH and soluble dry matter of the product were determined. Apparent viscosity was measured using a rotational viscometer DV–III Ultra. Pectin content in frozen apple mass decreased significantly (p<0.05) compared to the fresh sample. The viscosity of apple desserts immediately after their preparation depends on the physico-chemical properties of apples and the texturizers used in the production.

    Sericulture for Employment Generation among the Tribal- A Study of Two Trible Block of Raigarh Dist. [C.G.] India

    Among many agro- based cottage industries in India sericulture has been promoted as an agro-based, labor intensive, rural oriented cottage industry, providing gainful employment mainly to the weaker and marginalized section of the society specially tribal. Sericulture occupies the place of pride in the rural economy can be practiced even with very low land holding, low gestation, high returns make sericulture an ideal program, requiring little capital investment. In 2010-2011 the employment in sericulture sector was 72.5 lakh persons. The involvement of landless rural people in tasar sericulture is because they understood its potential for rural and tribal upliftment. This article demonstrates that certain developmental initiatives have been playing an important role in the socio-economic progress of tribal masses in Raigarh district and explains the increased returns from sericulture as a result of development programs. The study concludes with some suggestions to improve the long term feasibility of sericulture.

    Quality Evaluation of Ready to Eat Potatoes’ Produce in Flexible Packaging

    Experiments have been carried out at the Latvia University of Agriculture Department of Food Technology. The aim of this work was to assess the effect of thermal treatment in flexible retort pouch packaging on the quality of potatoes’ produce during the storage time. Samples were evaluated immediately after retort thermal treatment; and following 1; 2; 3 and 4 storage months at the ambient temperature of +18±2ºC in vacuum packaging from polyamide/polyethylene (PA/PE) and aluminum/polyethylene (Al/PE) film pouches with barrier properties. Experimentally the quality of the potatoes’ produce in dry butter and mushroom dressings was characterized by measuring pH, hardness, color, microbiological properties and sensory evaluation. The sterilization was effective in protecting the produce from physical, chemical, and microbial quality degradation. According to the study of obtained data, it can be argued that the selected product processing technology and packaging materials could be applied to provide the safety and security during four-month storage period.

    Groundwater Quality Assessment for Irrigation Use in Vadodara District, Gujarat, India

    This study was conducted to evaluate factors regulating groundwater quality in an area with agriculture as main use. Under this study twelve groundwater samples have been collected from Padra taluka, Dabhoi taluka and Savli taluka of Vadodara district. Groundwater samples were chemically analyzed for major physicochemical parameter in order to understand the different geochemical processes affecting the groundwater quality. The analytical results shows higher concentration of total dissolved solids (16.67%), electrical conductivity (25%) and magnesium (8.33%) for pre monsoon and total dissolved solids (16.67%), electrical conductivity (33.3%) and magnesium (8.33%) for post monsoon which indicates signs of deterioration as per WHO and BIS standards. On the other hand, 50% groundwater sample is unsuitable for irrigation purposes based on irrigation quality parameters. The study revealed that application of fertilizer for agricultural contributing the higher concentration of ions in aquifer of Vadodara district.

    A Functional Beverage: Lemonade

    Fruits and vegetables are the essentials of a healthy diet, mainly because of their antioxidant properties contributing to disease blockage especially for some certain types of cancer. Being a favourite fruit, citrus are produced for economic and commercial purposes worldwide. Particularly, lemon fruit (Citrus limon L.), has an important place in export products of Turkey. Lemon has a great importance on human nutrition with regard to being a source of nutrients, flavonoids, vitamin C and minerals. It is used for food flavouring and pickling and also processed for lemonade. By processing citrus into fruit juices, consumption may increase and also become easier. Like many fruits and vegetables lemons are cheap and abundant during harvesting period, while they are quite expensive in other seasons. Lemon juice and concentrate production allows consumers to get benefits from lemon fruit in any time of the year. Lemonade is getting in to the focus of consumers’ attention preferring non-carbonated drinks. The demand of healthy, convenient functional foods affects consumer trends through innovative products. For this reason, lemonade could be enriched with different natural herb extracts such as ginger (Zingiber officinale), linden (Tilia cordata), and mint (Mentha piperita).

    The Influence of Thermic Plastic Films on Vegetative and Reproductive Growth of Iceberg Lettuce ‘Dublin’

    Photoselective plastic films with thermic properties are now available so that greenhouses clad with such plastics exhibit a higher degree of “Greenhouse Effect” with a consequent increase in night time temperature. In this study, we investigate the potential benefits of a range of thermic plastic films used as greenhouse cover materials on the vegetative and reproductive growth and development of Iceberg lettuce (Lactuca sativa L). Transplants were grown under thermic films and destructively harvested 4, 5, and 6 weeks after transplanting. Thermic films can increase night temperatures up to 2 ⁰C reducing the wide fluctuation in greenhouse temperature during winter compared to the standard commercial film and consequently increased the yield (leaf number, fresh weight, and dry weight) of lettuce plants. Lettuce plants grown under Clear film respond to cold stress by the accumulation of secondary products (phenolics, and flavonoids).

    Matching-Based Cercospora Leaf Spot Detection in Sugar Beet

    In this paper, we propose a robust disease detection method, called adaptive orientation code matching (Adaptive OCM), which is developed from a robust image registration algorithm: orientation code matching (OCM), to achieve continuous and site-specific detection of changes in plant disease. We use two-stage framework for realizing our research purpose; in the first stage, adaptive OCM was employed which could not only realize the continuous and site-specific observation of disease development, but also shows its excellent robustness for non-rigid plant object searching in scene illumination, translation, small rotation and occlusion changes and then in the second stage, a machine learning method of support vector machine (SVM) based on a feature of two dimensional (2D) xy-color histogram is further utilized for pixel-wise disease classification and quantification. The indoor experiment results demonstrate the feasibility and potential of our proposed algorithm, which could be implemented in real field situation for better observation of plant disease development.

    Wheat Bran Carbohydrates as Substrate for Bifidobacterium lactis Development

    The present study addresses problems and solutions related to new functional food production. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) bran obtained from industrial mill company “Dobeles dzirnavieks”, was used to investigate them as raw material like nutrients for Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12. Enzymatic hydrolysis of wheat bran starch was carried out by α-amylase from Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (Sigma Aldrich). The Viscozyme L purchased from (Sigma Aldrich) were used for reducing released sugar. Bifidibacterium lactis Bb-12 purchased from (Probio-Tec® CHR Hansen) was cultivated in enzymatically hydrolysed wheat bran mash. All procedures ensured the number of active Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12 in the final product reached 105 CFUg-1. After enzymatic and bacterial fermentations sample were freeze dried for analysis of chemical compounds. All experiments were performed at Faculty of Food Technology of Latvia University of Agriculture in January- March 2013. The obtained results show that both types of wheat bran (enzymatically treated and non-treated) influenced the fermentative activity and number of Bifidibacterium lactis Bb-12 viable in wheat bran mash. Amount of acidity strongly increase during the wheat bran mash fermentation. The main objective of this work was to create low-energy functional enzymatically and bacterially treated food from wheat bran using enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates and following cultivation of Bifidobacterium lactis Bb-12.

    Tomato Fruit Quality of Different Cultivars Growth in Lithuania

    Two cultivars ('Rutuliai', 'Saint Perrie') and five hybrids ('Tolstoi', 'Brooklyn', 'Tocayo', 'Benito', 'Tourist') of edible tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) were investigated at the LRCAF Institute of Horticulture. The following fruit quality parameters were evaluated: the amount of lycopene, β-carotene, ascorbic acid, total and inverted sugar, sucrose, dry matter soluble solids in fresh tomato matter, also were determined fruit skin and flesh firmness, color indexes (CIE L*a*b*) and calculated hue angle (h°) with chroma (C).

    Frozen Fish: Control of Glazing Operation

    Glazing is a process used to reduce undesirable drying or dehydration of fish during frozen or cold storage. To evaluate the effect of the time/ temperature binomial of the cryogenic frozen tunnel in the amount of glazing watera Central Composite Rotatable Design was used, with application of the Response Surface Methodology. The results reveal that the time/ temperature obtained for pink cusk-eel in experimental conditions for glazing water are similar to the industrial process, but for red fish and merluza the industrial process needs some adjustments. Control charts were established and implementedto control the amount of glazing water on sardine and merluza. They show that the freezing process was statistically controlled but there were some tendencies that must be analyzed, since the trend of sample mean values approached either of the limits, mainly in merluza. Thus, appropriate actions must be taken, in order to improve the process.

    Mix Goat and Sheep Yogurt: Development and Product Characterization

    Yogurts are prepared by fermenting milk with bacterial cultures consisting of a mixture of Streptococcus ssp. thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus. The main aim of this investigation was to develop a majority goat yogurt, with the addition of sheep milk in order to have a final product with good physicochemical quality properties and sensorial attributes. Four types of yogurts were prepared presenting the following proportion of goat and sheep milk respectively: C100 – 100%; C80 – 80%/20%; C60 – 60%/40%; C50 – 50%/50%. The goat milk was from the Serrana Jarmelista breed and the sheep milk from the Serra da Estrela breed. The inclusion of sheep milk improved attractiveness to consumers, and it also improved the nutritional value of the product, mainly the fatty acid and mineral contents. The C50 yogurt was preferred by 28% of the panellists, followed by the C100 with 16%  and the commercial cow yogurt was 40% of preferences.

    Changes to Oxidative Stress Levels Following Exposure to Formaldehyde in Lymphocytes

    Formaldehyde is the illegal chemical substance used for food preservation in fish and vegetable. It can promote carcinogenesis. Superoxide dismutases are the important antioxidative enzymes that catalyze the dismutation of superoxide anion into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The resultant level of oxidative stress in formaldehyde-treated lymphocytes was investigated. The formaldehyde concentrations of 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 120μmol/L were treated in human lymphocytes for 12 hours. After 12 treated hours, the superoxide dismutase activity change was measured in formaldehyde-treated lymphocytes. The results showed that the formaldehyde concentrations of 60, 80 and 120μmol/L significantly decreased superoxide dismutase activities in lymphocytes (P < 0.05). The change of superoxide dismutase activity in formaldehyde-treated lymphocytes may be the biomarker for detect cellular injury, such as damage to DNA, due to formaldehyde exposure.

    Extend of Self-Life of Potato Round Slices with Edible Coating, Green Tea and Ascorbic Acid

    The effects of coatings based on sodium alginate (S.A) and carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC) on the color and moisture characteristics of potato round slices were investigated. It is the first time that this combination of polysaccharides is used as edible coating which alone had the best performance as inhibitor of potato color discoloration during the storage of 15 days at 4oC. When ascorbic acid (AA) and green tea (GT) were added in the above edible coating its effects on potato round slices changed. The mixtures of sodium alginate and carboxyl methyl cellulose with ascorbic acid or with green tea behave as a potential moisture barrier, resulting to the extent of potato samples self–life. These data suggests that both GT and AA are potential inhibitors of dehydration in potatoes and not only natural antioxidants.

    Immobilization of Aspergillus awamori 1-8 for Subsequent Pectinase Production

    The overall objective of this research is a strain improvement technology for efficient pectinase production. A novel cells cultivation technology by immobilization of fungal cells has been studied in long time continuous fermentations. Immobilization was achieved by using of new material for absorption of stores of immobilized cultures which was for the first time used for immobilization of microorganisms. Effects of various conditions of nitrogen and carbon nutrition on the biosynthesis of pectolytic enzymes in Aspergillus awamori 1-8 strain were studied. Proposed cultivation technology along with optimization of media components for pectinase overproduction led to increased pectinase productivity in Aspergillus awamori 1-8 from 7 to 8 times. Proposed technology can be applied successfully for production of major industrial enzymes such as α-amylase, protease, collagenase etc.

    Cereals' Products with Red Grape and Walnut Extracts as Functional Foods for Prevention of Kidney Dysfunction

    In the present research, two nutraceuticals made from red grape and walnut that showed previously to improve kidney dysfunction were incorporated separately into functional foods' bread made from barley and rice bran. The functional foods were evaluated in rats in which chronic renal failure was induced through feeding diet rich in adenine and phosphate (APD). The evaluation based on assessing kidney function, oxidative stress, inflammatory biomarkers and body weight gain. Results showed induction of chronic kidney failure reflected in significant increase in plasma urea, creatinine, malondialdehyde, tumor necrosis factor- α and low density lipoprotein cholesterol along with significant reduction of plasma albumin, and total antioxidant and creatinine clearance and body weight gain on feeding APD compared to control healthy group. Feeding the functional foods produced amelioration in the different biochemical parameters and body weight gain indicating improvement in kidney function.

    Effect of Bio-Nitrogen as a Partial Alternative to Mineral-Nitrogen Fertiliser on Growth, Nitrate and Nitrite Contents, and Yield Quality in Brassica oleracea L.

    Effects of bio-nitrogen fertilizer (bio-N), as a partial alternative to mineral-nitrogen fertilizer (mineral-N), on growth, yield and yield quality of broccoli plants were investigated. Bio-N was applied at 1, 2 or 3 doses in combination with 65% of the recommended dose of mineral-N (bio-N1, bio-N2 or bio-N3 + ⅔mineral-N). However, 100% of the recommended dose of mineral- N was applied as a control. Significant positive influences of the bio- N3 + ⅔mineral-N treatment were observed on growth traits, leaf contents of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, nitrate and nitrite, and yield quality when compared to the other two combined treatments. In contrast, there were no significant differences in these parameters between the bio-N3 + ⅔mineral-N and the control treatments, except for leaf contents of nitrate and nitrite. They showed lower contents in the bio-N3 + ⅔mineral-N treatment than the control. Therefore, we recommend using bio-N as a partial alternative to mineral-N for healthy nutrition.

    Ameliorative Effect of Calocybe indica, a Tropical Indian Edible Mushroom on Hyperglycemia Induced Oxidative Stress

    Mushrooms are a group of fleshy macroscopic fungi. They have been valued throughout the world as both edible and medicine. They are highly nutritious with good amount of quality proteins, vitamins and minerals. An edible mushroom, Calocybe indica was selected to validate its nutritional and medicinal properties. Since tissue damage in hyperglycemia has been related to oxidative stress, we evaluated the enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidant status in the serum, liver and kidney since they are the target organs in diabetic complications. From the results, increased oxidative stress and decreased antioxidants might be related to the causation of diabetes mellitus. The treatment in the diabetic rats with the Calocybe indica showed an increase in the antioxidant system and decrease in the production of free radicals. The mushrooms which contain antioxidant phytochemicals has potential free radical scavenging capacity and hence can induce the antioxidant system in the body significantly reduces the generated free radicals thereby maintaining the normal levels of the antioxidants

    Evaluation of Texture of Packhams Pears

    The textural parameters, together with appearance and flavor, are sensory attributes of great importance for the product to be accepted by the consumer. The objective of the present study was the evaluation of the textural attributes of Packhams pears in the fresh state, after drying in a chamber with forced convection at 50ºC, lyophilized and re-hydrated. In texture analysis it was used the method of Texture Profile Analysis (TPA). The parameters analyzed were hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, elasticity and chewiness. From the results obtained is possible to see that the drying operation greatly affected some textural properties of the pears, so that the hardness diminished very much with drying, for both drying methods.

    The Effects of Four Organic Cropping Sequences on Soil Phosphorous Cycling and Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi

    Organic farmers across Saskatchewan face soil phosphorus (P) shortages. Due to the restriction on inputs in organic systems, farmers rely on crop rotation and naturally-occurring arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) for plant P supply. Crop rotation is important for disease, pest, and weed management. Crops that are not colonized by AMF (non-mycorrhizal) can decrease colonization of a following crop. An experiment was performed to quantify soil P cycling in four cropping sequences under organic management and determine if mustard (non-mycorrhizal) was delaying the colonization of subsequent wheat. Soils from the four cropping sequences were measured for inorganic soil P (Pi), AMF spore density (SD), phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA, for AMF biomarker counts), and alkaline phosphatase activity (ALPase, related to AMF metabolic activity). Plants were measured for AMF colonization and P content and uptake of above-ground biomass. A lack of difference in AMF activity indicated that mustard was not depressing colonization. Instead, AMF colonization was largely determined by crop type and crop rotation.

    Crude Protein and Ash Content in Different Coloured Phaseolus coccineus L.

    Phaseolus coccineus L. is the third most important cultivated Phaseolus species in the world. It is widely grown in Latvia due to its earliness, good taste and uniform and qualitative yield. Experiments were carried out in the laboratories of Department of Food Technology and Agronomical Analysis Scientific Laboratory at Latvia Universityof Agriculture. Beans (Phaseolus coccineus L.) crude protein, crude ash content as well as colour measurements were analyzed. Results show, that brown coloured beans have less crude protein content than others, and ash content have significant differences.

    Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity Determination in Broccoli and Lamb’s Lettuce

    Broccoli has been widely recognized as a wealthy vegetable which contains multiple nutrients with potent anti-cancer properties. Lamb’s lettuce has been used as food for many centuries but only recently became commercially available and literature is therefore exiguous concerning these vegetables. The aim of this work was to evaluate the influence of the extraction conditions on the yield of phenolic compounds and the corresponding antioxidant capacity of broccoli and lamb’s lettuce. The results indicate that lamb’s lettuce, compared to broccoli, contains simultaneously a large amount of total polyphenols as well as high antioxidant activity. It is clearly demonstrated that extraction solvent significantly influences the antioxidant activity. Methanol is the solvent that can globally maximize the antioxidant extraction yield. The results presented herein prove lamb’s lettuce as a very interesting source of polyphenols, and thus a potential health-promoting food.

    Biodiversity of Micromycetes Isolated from Soils of Different Agricultures in Kazakhstan and Their Plant Growth Promoting Potential

    The comparative analysis of different taxonomic groups of microorganisms isolated from dark chernozem soils under different agricultures (alfalfa, melilot, sainfoin, soybean, rapeseed) at Almaty region of Kazakhstan was conducted. It was shown that the greatest number of micromycetes was typical to the soil planted with alfalfa and canola. Species diversity of micromycetes markedly decreases as it approaches the surface of the root, so that the species composition in the rhizosphere is much more uniform than in the virgin soil. Promising strains of microscopic fungi and yeast with plant growth-promoting activity to agricultures were selected. Among the selected fungi there are representatives of Penicillium bilaiae, Trichoderma koningii, Fusarium equiseti, Aspergillus ustus. The highest rates of growth and development of seedlings of plants observed under the influence of yeasts Aureobasidium pullulans, Rhodotorula mucilaginosa, Metschnikovia pulcherrima. Using molecular - genetic techniques confirmation of the identification results of selected micromycetes was conducted.

    Fish Marketing: A Panacea towards Sustainable Agriculture in Ogun State, Nigeria

    This study assessed fish marketing as panacea towards sustainable agriculture in Ogun State, Nigeria. Multi-stage sampling technique was used in the selection of 150 fish marketers for this study. Descriptive statistics were used for the objectives while Product Pearson Moment Correlation was used to test the hypothesis. Result of the findings revealed that the mean age of the respondents was 38.60 years. Majority (93.33%) of the respondents had acceptable levels of formal education. Many (44.00%) of the respondents had spent 1-5 years in fish marketing. The average quantity of fish sold in a day was 94.10kg. However, efficient fish marketing were hindered by inadequate processing equipment, storage rooms and ice holding facilities (86.67%). There was a significant relationship between socio-economic characteristics and profit realized from fish marketing (p < 0.05). It was recommended that storage and warehousing facilities should be provided to the fish marketers in the study area.

    Effect of Acid Rain on Vigna radiata

    The acid rain causes change in pH level of soil it is directly influence on root and leaf growth. Yield of the crop was reduced if acidity of soil is more. Acid rain seeps into the earth and poisons plants and trees by dissolving toxic substances in the soil, such as aluminum, which get absorbed by the roots. In present investigation, effect of acid rain on crop Vigna radiata was studied. The effect of acid rain on change in soil fertility was detected in which pH of control sample was 6.5 and pH of 1% H2SO4 and 1% HNO3 were 3.5. Nitrogen nitrate in soil was high in 1% HNO3 treated soil & Control sample. Ammonium nitrogen in soil was low in 1% HNO3 & H2SO4 treated soil. Ammonium nitrogen was medium in control and other samples. The effect of acid rain on seed germination on 3rd day of germination control sample growth was 6.1cm with plumule 0.001% HNO3 & 0.001% H2SO4 was 5.5cm with plumule and 8cm with plumule. On 10th day fungal growth was observed in 1% and 0.1% H2SO4 concentrations when all plants were dead. The effect of acid rain on crop productivity was investigated on 3rd day roots were developed in plants. On 12th day Vigna radiata showed more growth in 0.1% HNO3 and 0.1% H2SO4 treated plants as compare to control plants. On 20th day development of discoloration of plant pigments were observed on acid treated plants leaves. On 34th day Vigna radiata showed flower in 0.1% HNO3, 0.01% HNO3 and 0.01% H2SO4treated plants and no flowers were observed on control plants. On 42th day 0.1% HNO3, 0.01% HNO and 0.01% H2SO4 treated Vigna radiata variety and control plants were showed seeds on plants. In Vigna radiate variety 0.1%, 0.01% HNO3, 0.01% H2SO4treated plants were dead on 46th day and fungal growth was observed. The toxicological study was carried out on Vigna radiata plants exposed to 1% HNO3 cells were damaged more than 1% H2SO4. Leaf sections exposed to 0.001% HNO3 & H2SO4 showed less damaged of cells and pigmentation observed in entire slide when compare with control plant.

    Sensory, Microbiological and Chemical Assessment of Cod (Gadus morhua) Fillets during Chilled Storage as Influenced by Bleeding Methods

    The effects of seawater and slurry ice bleeding methods on the sensory, microbiological and chemical quality changes of cod fillets during chilled storage were examined in this study. The results from sensory evaluation showed that slurry ice bleeding method prolonged the shelf life of cod fillets up to 13-14 days compared to 10-11 days for fish bled in seawater. Slurry ice bleeding method also led to a slower microbial growth and biochemical developments, resulting lower total plate count (TPC), H2S-producing bacteria count, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), trimethylamine (TMA), free fatty acid (FFA) content and higher phospholipid content (PL) compared to those of samples bled in seawater. The results of principle component analysis revealed that TPC, H2S-producing bacteria, TVB-N, TMA and FFA were in significant correlation. They were also in negative correlation with sensory evaluation (Torry score), PL and water holding capacity (WHC).

    The Effect of Carboxymethyl Cellulose on the Stability of Emulsions Stabilized by Whey Proteins under Digestion in vitro and in vivo

    In vitro gastro-duodenal digestion model was used to investigate the changes of emulsions under digestion conditions. Oil in water emulsions stabilized by whey proteins (2%) and stabilized by whey proteins (2%) with addition of carboxymethyl cellulose (0.75%) as gelling agent of continuous phase were prepared at pH7. Both emulsions were destabilized under gastric conditions; however the protective role of carboxymethyl cellulose was indicated by recording delay of fat digestibility of this emulsion. In the presence of carboxymethyl cellulose whey proteins on the interfacial surface of droplets were more resistant to gastric degradation causing limited hydrolysis of fat due to the poor acceptability of lipids for the enzymes. Studies of emulsions using in vivo model supported results from in vitro studies. Lower content of triglycerides in blood serum and higher amount of fecal fat of rats were determined when rats were fed by diet containing emulsion made with whey proteins and carboxymethyl cellulose. 

    Response of BGA-Urea Fertigation as N2 Source on Growth Parameters and Yield of Paddy (Oryza sativa L.) in Agra (India)

    Paddy being cultivated since about 10,000 years B.C in Ganga Valley in India, its production reached up to 99 million tons in the year 2012. BGA are of much ecological importance for maintaining the soil fertility and reclaiming the alkalinity. In present investigation attempts were made to identify the local cyanobacterial genera from the paddy fields, BGA application for green farming enabling the paddy to utilize more amount of nitrogen released and to examine its impact along with Urea upon growth and yield responses of the Paddy crop. It was observed that combined treatment of BGA with Urea proved better response in almost all growth parameters and yield attributes except number of tillers/ Plant and grains/ panicle as compared to application of either Urea or BGA alone. The Paddy growers should be encouraged to adopt BGA along with Urea as source of Nitrogen for Paddy cultivation.

    Sustainable Production of Oyster Mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in Chiapas, Mexico

    Pleurotus ostreatus is a common edible mushroom with a number of properties that can help to solve the nutritional and economical problems of people in Chiapas, Mexico. The objective of this project was to produce the mushroom under a sustainable management in which only regional products were allowed as a way to promote the cultivation and consumption of Pleurotus ostreatus; 5 different substrates were tested as well as 2 sanitation methods. The obtained results showed that the highest yields were obtained using corn husk and a thermal sanitation method. Pests and diseases were not a problem during the project but they appeared more in the substrates sanitized with calcium hydroxide.

    Production of the Protein-Vitamin Complex from Wheat Germ

    Wheat germ has a balanced amino acid composition of the protein, which is well digested by enzymes in the gastrointestinal tract of humans, a high content of vitamins, minerals and unsaturated acids. Introduction components grain food products will enrich their biologically important substances, giving these products a number of valuable properties and reducing their caloric. A complex natural system of substances in foods will help replenish the body's need of essential nutrients, increasing its resistance to the harmful effects of the environment, prolong life. In this regard, there was a need for the development of production technology of protein complexes from wheat germ and then applying them in food, particularly in the dairy industry. Experimental studies were conducted to determine the number of herbal supplements on the sensory characteristics of the product. Studies have been conducted to determine the optimal process parameters of water activity and moisture content of the investigational product. 

    Effects of Entomopathogenic Nematodes on Suppressing Hairy Rose Beetle, Tropinota squalida Scop. (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) Population in Cauliflower Field in Egypt

    The potential of entomopathogenic nematodes in suppressing T. squalida population on cauliflower from transplanting to harvest was evaluated. Significant reductions in plant infestation percentage and population density (/m2) were recorded throughout the plantation seasons, 2011 and 2012 before and after spraying the plants. The percent reduction in numbers/m2 was the highest in March for the treatments with Heterorhabditis indica Behera and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Giza during the plantation season 2011, while at the plantation season 2012, the reduction in population density was the highest in January for Heterorhabditis Indica Behera and in February for H . bacteriophora Giza treatments. In a comparison test with conventional insecticides Hostathion and Lannate, there were no significant differences in control measures resulting from treatments with H. indica Behera, H. bacteriophora Giza and Lannate. At the plantation season is 2012. Also, the treatments reduced the economic threshold of T. squalida on cauliflower in this experiment as compared with before and after spraying with both the two entomopathogenic nematodes at both seasons 2011 and 2012. This means an increase in the marketability of heads harvested as a consequence of monthly treatments. 

    Characterization of Antioxidant Peptides of Soybean Protein Hydrolysate

    In order to characterize the soy protein hydrolysate obtained in this study, gel chromatography on Sephadex G-25 was used to perform the separation of the peptide mixture and electrophoresis in SDS-polyacrylamide gel has been employed. Protein hydrolysate gave high antioxidant activities, but didn't give any antimicrobial activities. The antioxidant activities of protein hydrolysate was in the same trend of peptide content which gave high antioxidant activities and high peptide content between fractions 15 to 50. With increasing peptide concentrations, the scavenging effect on DPPH radical increased until about 70%, thereafter reaching a plateau. In compare to different concentrations of BHA, which exhibited higher activity (90%), soybean protein hydrolysate exhibited high antioxidant activities (70%) at a concentration of 1.45 mg/ml at fraction 25. Electrophoresis analysis indicated that, low- MW hydrolysate fractions (F1) appeared, on average, to have higher DPPH scavenging activities than high-MW fractions. These results revealed that soybean peptides probably contain substances that were proton donors and could react with free radicals to convert them to stable diamagnetic molecules. 

    Biochemical and Multiplex PCR Analysis of Toxic Crystal Proteins to Determine Genes in Bacillus thuringiensis Mutants

    The Egyptian Bacillus thuringiensis isolate (M5) produce crystal proteins that is toxic against insects was irradiated with UV light to induce mutants. Upon testing 10 of the resulting mutants for their toxicity against cotton leafworm larvae, the three mutants 62, 64 and 85 proved to be the most toxic ones. Upon testing these mutants along with their parental isolate by SDS-PAGE analysis of spores-crystals proteins as well as vegetative cells proteins, new induced bands appeared in the three mutants by UV radiation and also they showed disappearance of some other bands as compared with the wild type isolate. Multiplex PCR technique, with five sets of specific primers, was used to detect the three types of cryI genes cryIAa, cryIAb and cryIAc. Results showed that these three genes exist, as distinctive bands, in the wild type isolate (M5) as well as in mutants 62 and 85, while the mutant 64 had two distinctive bands of cryIAb and cryIAc genes, and a faint band of cryI Aa gene. Finally, these results revealed that mutant 62 is considered as the promising mutant since it is UV resistant, highly toxic against Spodoptera littoralis and active against a wide range of Lepidopteran insects.

    Chemical, Pasting and Sensory Properties of Whole Fermented Maize (Ogi) Fortified with Pigeon Pea Flour

    Pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan) blanched for 20min was dehulled and milled into flour. The flour was incorporated into dried whole fermented maize (Ogi) at five levels. The resultant products were analyzed for chemical and pasting properties. The fortified Ogi samples were also assessed for sensory attributes: appearance, color, flavor, mouth feel and overall acceptability. The protein content in the whole Ogi fortified samples was in the range of 11.2-16.6% and crude fibre 3.22-3.46%. Fortified whole Ogi with pigeon pea at 30%, 40% and 50% of inclusion with pigeon pea flour has higher protein, crude fibre and ash content. Varying range of pasting quality was recorded for the blends, pasting temperature for fortified Obi was in the range of 45.3-49.50C and peak time 5.05-5.210C. The sensory acceptability of the whole Ogi fortified blends prepared into gruel has higher acceptability for various qualities in comparison with the traditional Ogi gruel.

    The Effect of Buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench) Groats Addition to the Lard Diet on Antioxidant Parameters of Plasma and Selected Tissues in Wistar Rats

    Recent studies demonstrated that high-fat diet increases oxidative stress in plasma and in a variety of tissues. Many researchers have been looking for natural products, which can reverse the effect of high fat diet. Recently, buckwheat is becoming common ingredient in functional food because of it properties. In study on buckwheat, it is known that, this plant plays roles as anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-hypertensive. Nevertheless still little is known about buckwheat groats. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of addition of buckwheat groats to the fat diet (30% lard), on some antioxidant and oxidant stress parameters in plasma and selected tissues in Wistar rats. The experiment was carried out with three months old male Wistar rats ca. 250g of body weight fed for 5 weeks with either a high-fat (30% of lard) diet or control diet, with or without addition of buckwheat groats. In plasma biochemistry and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes were measured selected tissues: glutathione peroxidase (GPX), catalase (CAT) and the levels of total and reduced glutathione (GSH), free thiol groups (pSH), antioxidant potential of plasma (FRAP) and oxidant stress indices - proteins carbonyl groups (CO) and malonyldialdehyde concentration (MDA). Activity of catalase (CAT) in plasma of rats was significantly increased in buckwheat groats groups and activity of GPx3 in plasma of rats was decreased in buckwheat groups as compared to control group. The reduced glutathione (GSH) in plasma of rats was significantly increased and protein CO was significantly decreased in buckwheat groups as compared to controls. The lowered concentration of GSH was found in serum of rats fed buckwheat groats addition but it accompanied in 7-fold increase in reduced-to-oxidized glutatione ratio, significant increase in HDL and decrease in nonHDL concentration. Conclusions: Buckwheat groats indicate a beneficial effect in inhibiting protein and lipid peroxidation in rats and improved lipid profile. These results suggest that buckwheat groats exert a significant antioxidant potential and may be used as normal food constituent to ameliorate the oxidant-induced damage in organism. 

    Comparative Study of Pasting Properties of High Fibre Plantain Based Flour Intended for Diabetic Food (Fufu)

    A comparative study on the feasibility of producing instant high fibre plantain flour for diabetic fufu by blending soy residence with different plantain (Musa spp) varieties (Horn, false Horn and French), all sieved at 60 mesh, mixed in ratio of 60:40 was analyzed for their passing properties using standard analytical method. Results show that VIIIS60 had the highest peak viscosity (303.75 RVU), Trough value (182.08 RVU), final viscosity (284.50 RVU), and lowest in breakdown viscosity (79.58 RVU), set back value (88.17 RVU), peak time (4.36min), pasting temperature (81.18°C) and differed significantly (p <0.05) from other samples. VIS60 had the lowest in peak viscosity (192.25 RVU), Trough value (112.67 RVU), final viscosity (211.92 RVU), but highest in breakdown viscosity (121.61 RVU), peak time (4.66min) pasting temperature (82.35°C), and differed significantly (p <0.05), from other samples. VIIS60 had the medium peak viscosity (236.67 RVU), Trough value (116.58 RVU), Break down viscosity (120:08 RVU), set back viscosity (167.92 RVU), peak time (4.39min), pasting temp (81.44°C) and differed significantly (p <0.05) from other samples. High final viscosity and low set back values of the French variety with soy residue blended at 60 mesh particle size recommends this french variety and fibre composition as optimum for production of instant plantain soy residue flour blend for production of diabetic fufu. 

    Enriching Egg Yolk with Carotenoids and Phenols

    Dried tomato peel (DTP) was tested in vivo (n=10) in 42 week-old laying hens at rates of 0, 40, 70, 100 and 130g/kg DM feed. Laying hens were fed in group 120 g DM/day/animal for 26 days. After 21 days, feed intake was not affected after DTP incorporation (97% of the offered feed in the five groups). Laying rate was not significantly different after DTP incorporation at 4 and 10% from the control group. Egg yolk resulting from DTP-enriched diets, contained lower amounts of cholesterol (14 to 17mg/g) and triglyceride (188mg/g) compared to the control group (22 and 241 mg/g, respectively) (P<0.0001). After DTP-enriched diets, content in total phenol was 2.0 to 3.6-fold higher, β-carotene 1.7 to 2.7-fold higher, and lycopene increased between 26.5 and 42.8μg/g compared to the control (P<0.0001). The optimal incorporation rate was 7% DTP.

    Effects of Tillage and Oil Palm Bunch Ash Plus Poultry Manure on Soil Chemical Properties, Growth and Ginger Yield

    Field experiments were carried out at Owo, southwest Nigeria to evaluate the effect of different tillage practices (zero tillage with mulch (ZTM), row tillage (RT) and conventional tillage (CT), and with or without oil palm bunch ash plus poultry manure (OBA+PM) on soil chemical properties, growth and yield of ginger. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete plot design with three replications. Soil chemical properties, growth and fresh rhizome yield reduced with frequency/intensity of tillage imposed while application of OBA+PM increased them. Among the tillage practices, the highest fresh rhizome yield (15.0t ha-1) was produced by ZTM which was significantly different from other tillage practices. Among the tillage – OBA+PM combinations, the  most satisfactorily yield (20.1t ha-1) was produced by ZTM+OBA+PM while the lowest yield (15.7t ha-1) was in CT+OBA+PM.

    Plate Waste as an Indicator of Portions Inadequacy at School Lunch

    Quality of school meals is one of the major concerns of governments and international organizations worldwide. This study aims to evaluate nutritional compliance of meals served at a Portuguese primary school considering the portions stated by Portuguese Education Ministry. To evaluate adequacy of portions served, weighing of all meal components offered to students and leftovers was performed during ten consecutive days at two different moments. Plate waste (%) was calculated by the ratio of food discarded and food served to the children. Nutritional evaluation of menus was made using the Portuguese Food Composition Table. Meals evaluated showed a percent contribution to energetic daily intake higher than recommendations. Meals served to children were considered high energy and protein dense. No significant waste of soup was accounted and the main meal components wasted were fish and vegetables. It will be necessary to adjust portions indicated by Ministry of Education in order to comply with recommendations and reduce food waste. 

    Acceptance of Consumer on Various Tempeh and Protein Content Comparison

    This research aims to study consumer acceptance of Tempeh from various raw materials (type of bean) and determine protein contents for comparison. Tempeh made from soybean, peanut, white kidney bean and sesame in the ratio: - soybean:sesame =1:0.1, soybean:white kidney:sesame =1:1:0.1, soybean:peanut:sesame =1:1:0.1 and peanut:white kidney bean: sesame =1:1:0.1. The study found that consumer is most satisfied with appearances on soybean mixed with white kidney and black sesame tempeh (3.98). The most satisfied tempeh with textures is soybean mixed with peanut and black sesame tempeh (4.00). The most satisfied tempeh with odor is peanut mixed with white kidney bean and black sesame tempeh (4.04). And the most satisfied tempeh with flavor is peanut mixed with white kidney bean and black sesame tempeh (4.2). The amount of protein in production, soybean tempeh has the highest protein. When we add sesame seeds, it made the protein content slightly decreased (1.86 and 0.6 %). When we use peanut as raw material, the protein content decreased 15.3%. And when we use white kidney bean as raw material, the protein content decreased (22.77- 26.11%). 

    Binding of miR398 to mRNA of Chaperone and Superoxide Dismutase Genes in Plants

    Among all microRNAs (miRNAs) in 12 plant species investigated in this study, only miR398 targeted the copper chaperone for superoxide dismutase (CCS). The nucleotide sequences of miRNA binding sites were located in the mRNA protein-coding sequence (CDS) and were highly homologous. These binding sites in CCS mRNA encoded a conservative GDLGTL hexapeptide. The binding sites for miR398 in the CDS of superoxide dismutase 1 mRNA encoded GDLGN pentapeptide. The conservative miR398 binding site located in the CDS of superoxide dismutase 2 mRNA encoded the GDLGNI hexapeptide. The miR398 binding site in the CDS of superoxide dismutase 3 mRNA encoded the GDLGNI or GDLGNV hexapeptide. Gene expression of the entire superoxide dismutase family in the studied plant species was regulated only by miR398. All members of the miR398 family, i.e. miR398a,b,c were connected to one site for each CuZnSOD and chaperone mRNA.