Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 17

Biological, Biomolecular, Agricultural, Food and Biotechnological Engineering

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  • 17
    10004764
    Comparative Analysis of Chemical Composition and Biological Activities of Ajuga genevensis L. in in vitro Culture and Intact Plants
    Abstract:

    One of the tasks in contemporary biotechnology, pharmacology and other fields of human activities is to obtain biologically active substances from plants. They are very essential in the treatment of many diseases due to their actually high therapeutic value without visible side effects. However, sometimes the possibility of obtaining the metabolites is limited due to the reduction of wild-growing plants. That is why the plant cell cultures are of great interest as alternative sources of biologically active substances. Besides, during the monitored cultivation, it is possible to obtain substances that are not synthesized by plants in nature. Isolated culture of Ajuga genevensis with high growth activity and ability of regeneration was obtained using MS nutrient medium. The agar-diffusion method showed that aqueous extracts of callus culture revealed high antimicrobial activity towards various gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis A1WT; B. mesentericus WDCM 1873; Staphylococcus aureus WDCM 5233; Staph. citreus WT) and gram-negative (Escherichia coli WKPM M-17; Salmonella typhimurium TA 100) microorganisms. The broth dilution method revealed that the minimal and half maximal inhibitory concentration values against E. coli corresponded to the 70 μg/mL and 140 μg/mL concentration of the extract respectively. According to the photochemiluminescent analysis, callus tissue extracts of leaf and root origin showed higher antioxidant activity than the same quantity of A. genevensis intact plant extract. A. genevensis intact plant and callus culture extracts showed no cytotoxic effect on K-562 suspension cell line of human chronic myeloid leukemia. The GC-MS analysis showed deep differences between the qualitative and quantitative composition of callus culture and intact plant extracts. Hexacosane (11.17%); n-hexadecanoic acid (9.33%); and 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (4.28%) were the main components of intact plant extracts. 10-Methylnonadecane (57.0%); methoxyacetic acid, 2-tetradecyl ester (17.75%) and 1-Bromopentadecane (14.55%) were the main components of A. genevensis callus culture extracts. Obtained data indicate that callus culture of A. genevensis can be used as an alternative source of biologically active substances.

    16
    10004840
    Isolation and Screening of Fungal Strains for β-Galactosidase Production
    Abstract:

    Enzymes are the biocatalysts which catalyze the biochemical processes and thus have a wide variety of applications in the industrial sector. β-Galactosidase (E.C. 3.2.1.23) also known as lactase, is one of the prime enzymes, which has significant potential in the dairy and food processing industries. It has the capability to catalyze both the hydrolytic reaction for the production of lactose hydrolyzed milk and transgalactosylation reaction for the synthesis of prebiotics such as lactulose and galactooligosaccharides. These prebiotics have various nutritional and technological benefits. Although, the enzyme is naturally present in almonds, peaches, apricots and other variety of fruits and animals, the extraction of enzyme from these sources increases the cost of enzyme. Therefore, focus has been shifted towards the production of low cost enzyme from the microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast and fungi. As compared to yeast and bacteria, fungal β-galactosidase is generally preferred as being extracellular and thermostable in nature. Keeping the above in view, the present study was carried out for the isolation of the β-galactosidase producing fungal strain from the food as well as the agricultural wastes. A total of more than 100 fungal cultures were examined for their potential in enzyme production. All the fungal strains were screened using X-gal and IPTG as inducers in the modified Czapek Dox Agar medium. Among the various isolated fungal strains, the strain exhibiting the highest enzyme activity was chosen for further phenotypic and genotypic characterization. The strain was identified as Rhizomucor pusillus on the basis of 5.8s RNA gene sequencing data.

    15
    10004859
    Development of Sleep Quality Index Using Heart Rate
    Abstract:
    Adequate sleep affects various parts of one’s overall physical and mental life. As one of the methods in determining the appropriate amount of sleep, this research presents a heart rate based sleep quality index. In order to evaluate sleep quality using the heart rate, sleep data from 280 subjects taken over one month are used. Their sleep data are categorized by a three-part heart rate range. After categorizing, some features are extracted, and the statistical significances are verified for these features. The results show that some features of this sleep quality index model have statistical significance. Thus, this heart rate based sleep quality index may be a useful discriminator of sleep.
    14
    10004899
    Accumulation of Heavy Metals in Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.)
    Abstract:

    Comparative research has been conducted to allow us to determine the accumulation of heavy metals (Pb, Zn and Cd) in the vegetative and reproductive organs of safflower, and to identify the possibility of its growth on soils contaminated by heavy metals and efficacy for phytoremediation. The experiment was performed on an agricultural field contaminated by the Non-Ferrous-Metal Works (MFMW) near Plovdiv, Bulgaria. The experimental plots were situated at different distances (0.1, 0.5, 2.0, and 15 km) from the source of pollution. The contents of heavy metals in plant materials (roots, stems, leaves, seeds) were determined. The quality of safflower oils (heavy metals and fatty acid composition) was also determined. The quantitative measurements were carried out with inductively-coupled plasma (ICP). Safflower is a plant that is tolerant to heavy metals and can be referred to the hyperaccumulators of lead and cadmium and the accumulators of zinc. The plant can be successfully used in the phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils. The processing of safflower seeds into oil and the use of the obtained oil will greatly reduce the cost of phytoremediation.

    13
    10004909
    Perceptions of Greenhouse Vegetable Growers Regarding Use of Biological Control Practices: A Case Study in Jiroft County, Iran
    Abstract:
    The main purpose of this study was to investigate perception of greenhouse vegetable growers regarding use of biological control practices during the growing season. The statistical population of the study included greenhouse vegetable growers in Jiroft county (N=1862). A sample of 137 vegetable growers was selected, using random sampling method. Data were collected via a questionnaire. The validity of the instrument was obtained by the faculty members of the Department of Agricultural Development and Management in the University of Tehran. Cronbach’s alpha was applied to estimate the reliability which showed a high reliability for the instrument. Data was analyzed using SPSS/Windows 13.5. The results revealed that greenhouse vegetable growers had moderate level of perception regarding biological control practices. Levels of vegetable growers’ perceptions regarding biological control practices were different on the basis of their academic qualifications as well as educational level and job. In addition, the results indicated that about 54.1% of variations in vegetable growers’ perceptions could be explained by variables such as awareness of biological control practices, knowledge on pests, annual production and age.
    12
    10004911
    Effect of Different Oils on Quality of Deep-fried Dough Stick
    Abstract:

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of oils on chemical, physical, and sensory properties of deep-fried dough stick. Five kinds of vegetable oil which were used for addition and frying consist of: palm oil, soybean oil, sunflower oil, rice bran oil, and canola oil. The results of this study showed that using different kinds of oil made significant difference in the quality of deep-fried dough stick. Deep-fried dough stick fried with the rice bran oil had the lowest moisture loss and oil absorption (p≤0.05), but it had some unsatisfactory physical properties (color, specific volume, density, and texture) and sensory characteristics. Nonetheless, deep-fried dough stick fried with the sunflower oil had moisture loss and oil absorption slightly more than the rice bran oil, but it had almost higher physical and sensory properties. Deep-fried dough sticks together with the sunflower oil did not have different sensory score from the palm oil, commonly used for production of deep-fried dough stick. These results indicated that addition and frying with the sunflower oil are appropriate for the production of deep-fried dough stick.

    11
    10004921
    The Effects of Soil Parameters on Efficiency of Essential Oil from Zingiber zerumbet (L.) Smith in Thailand
    Abstract:
    Natural products from herb have been used in different aspects of life as a result of their various biological activities. Generally, plant growth and production of secondary compounds largely depend on environmental conditions. To better understand this correlation, study on biological activity and soil parameter is necessary. This research aims to study the soil parameters which affect the efficiency of the antioxidant activity of essential oils extracted from the Zingiber zerumbet in three areas of Thailand, including Min Buri district, Bangkok province; Muang district, Chiang Mai province and Kaeng Sanam Nang district, Nakhon Ratchasima province. The soil samples in each area were collected and analyzed in the laboratory. The essential oil of Z. zerumbet in each province was extracted and tested for antioxidant activity by hydrodistillation method and DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical) assay, respectively. The results showed that, the soil parameters such as pH, nitrogen, potassium and phosphorus elements and exchange of cations of soil specimen from Nakhon Ratchasima province were the highest (P
    10
    10004961
    Ethyl Methane Sulfonate-Induced Dunaliella salina KU11 Mutants Affected for Growth Rate, Cell Accumulation and Biomass
    Abstract:

    Dunaliella salina has great potential as a system for generating commercially valuable products, including beta-carotene, pharmaceuticals, and biofuels. Our goal is to improve this potential by enhancing growth rate and other properties of D. salina under optimal growth conditions. We used ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) to generate random mutants in D. salina KU11, a strain classified in Thailand. In a preliminary experiment, we first treated D. salina cells with 0%, 0.8%, 1.0%, 1.2%, 1.44% and 1.66% EMS to generate a killing curve. After that, we randomly picked 30 candidates from approximately 300 isolated survivor colonies from the 1.44% EMS treatment (which permitted 30% survival) as an initial test of the mutant screen. Among the 30 survivor lines, we found that 2 strains (mutant #17 and #24) had significantly improved growth rates and cell number accumulation at stationary phase approximately up to 1.8 and 1.45 fold, respectively, 2 strains (mutant #6 and #23) had significantly decreased growth rates and cell number accumulation at stationary phase approximately down to 1.4 and 1.35 fold, respectively, while 26 of 30 lines had similar growth rates compared with the wild type control. We also analyzed cell size for each strain and found there was no significant difference comparing all mutants with the wild type. In addition, mutant #24 had shown an increase of biomass accumulation approximately 1.65 fold compared with the wild type strain on day 5 that was entering early stationary phase. From these preliminary results, it could be feasible to identify D. salina mutants with significant improved growth rate, cell accumulation and biomass production compared to the wild type for the further study; this makes it possible to improve this microorganism as a platform for biotechnology application.

    9
    10004991
    Antimicrobial, Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Cleoma viscosa Linn. Crude Extracts
    Abstract:
    The bioactivity studies from the weed ethanolic crude extracts from leaf, stem, pod and root of wild spider flower; Cleoma viscosa Linn. were analyzed for the growth inhibition of 6 bacterial species; Salmonella typhimurium TISTR 5562, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Staphylococcus aureus TISTR 1466, Streptococcus epidermidis ATCC 1228, Escherichia coli DMST 4212 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 with initial concentration crude extract of 50 mg/ml. The agar well diffusion results found that the extracts inhibit only gram positive bacteria species; S. aureus, S. epidermidis and B. subtilis. The minimum inhibition concentration study with gram positive strains revealed that leaf crude extract give the best result of the lowest concentration compared with other plant parts to inhibit the growth of S. aureus, S. epidermidis and B. subtilis at 0.78, 0.39 and lower than 0.39 mg/ml, respectively. The determination of total phenolic compounds in the crude extracts exhibited the highest phenolic content was 10.41 mg GAE/g dry weight in leaf crude extract. Analyzed the efficacy of free radical scavenging by using DPPH radical scavenging assay with all crude extracts showed value of IC50 of leaf, stem, pod and root crude extracts were 8.32, 12.26, 21.62 and 35.99 mg/ml, respectively. Studied cytotoxicity of crude extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line by MTT assay found that pod extract had the most cytotoxicity CC50 value, 32.41 µg/ml. Antioxidant activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts exhibited that the more increase of extract concentration, the more activities indicated. According to the bioactivities results, the leaf crude extract of Cleoma viscosa Linn. is the most interesting plant part for further work to search the beneficial of this weed.
    8
    10005025
    Infestations of Olive Fruit Fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae), in Different Olive Cultivars in Çanakkale, Turkey
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is an economically important and endemic pest in olive (Oleae europae) orchards in Turkey. The aim of this study was to determine olive fruit fly infestation in different olive cultivars in the laboratory. Olive fly infested fruits were collected in Çanakkale province to establish wild fly population. After having reproductive olive fly colonies, 14 olive cultivars were tested in the controlled laboratory conditions, at 23±2 °C, 65% RH and 16:8 h (light: dark) photoperiod. The olive samples from 14 different olive cultivars were collected in October 2015, in Campus of Dardanos, Çanakkale Onsekiz Mart University. Observations were carried out detecting some biological parameters such as the number of oviposition stings, active infestation, total infestation, the number of pupae and the adult emergence. The results indicated that oviposition stings were not associated with pupal yield. A few pupae were found within olive fruits which were not able to exit. Screening of the varieties suggested that less susceptible cultivar to olive fruit fly attacks was Arbequin while Gemlik-2M 2/3 showed significant susceptibility. Ovipositional preference of olive fly females and the success of larval development in different olive varieties are crucial for establishing new olive orchards to prevent high olive fruit fly infestation.

    7
    10005039
    Quality of Donut Supplemented with Hom Nin Rice Flour
    Abstract:
    Hom Nin rice (Oryza Sativa L.) was processed into flour and used to substitute wheat flour in donuts. The donuts were prepared with 0, 20, 40, 60, and 80% Hom Nin rice flour (HNF). The donuts were subjected to proximate, texture, color and sensory evaluations. The results of the study revealed that the ash, moisture, crude fiber contents increased while crude fat and protein contents decreased as the level of HNF increased. The hardness and chewiness of donut increased as the HNF increased but the cohesiveness, springiness, and specific volume decreased. Color of donut (L*, a*, and b* values) decreased with the addition of HNF. Overall acceptability for the 20-40% HNF additions did not differ significantly from the score of the 100% wheat flour.
    6
    10005064
    Assessment of Conditions and Experience for Plantation of Agro-Energy Crops on Degraded Agricultural Land in Serbia
    Abstract:
    The potential of biomass as a renewable energy source leads Serbia to be the top of European countries by the amount of available but unused biomass. Technologies for its use are available and ecologically acceptable. Moreover, they are not expensive high-tech solutions even for the poor investment environment of Serbia, while other options seem to be less achievable. From the other point of view, Serbia has a huge percentage of unused agriculture land. Agricultural production in Serbia languishes: a large share of agricultural land therefore remains untreated, and there is a significant proportion of degraded land. From all the above, biomass intended for energy production is becoming an increasingly important factor in the stabilization of agricultural activities. Orientation towards the growing bioenergy crops versus conventional crop cultivation becomes an interesting option. The aim of this paper is to point out the possibility of growing energy crops in accordance with the conditions and cultural practice in rural areas of Serbia. First of all, the cultivation of energy crops on lower quality land is being discussed, in order to revitalize the rural areas of crops through their inclusion into potential energy sector. Next is the theme of throwing more light on the increase in the area under this competitive agricultural production to correct land use in terms of climate change in Serbia. The goal of this paper is to point out the contribution of the share of biomass in energy production and consumption, and the effect of reducing the negative environmental impact.
    5
    10005065
    Effects of Gamma Radiation on Tomato Leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrick) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae)
    Abstract:
    In present study, it was aimed to evaluate the gamma radiation impacts on tomato leaf miner at different biological stages. The laboratory colony of tomato leaf miner was used to set up the experiments. Different biological stages of the insects (eggs, 4th instars and pupae) were irradiated using Cobalt-60 at doses of 0 (control), 100 Gray (Gy), 200 Gy, 300 Gy and 400 Gy in Cos-44HH-N source, at dose rate of 480 Gy/h. After irradiation, the eggs were incubated until hatching; the mature larvae were reared to complete their developments. Adult emergences from irradiated pupae were also evaluated. The results showed that there were no egg hatching at all tested irradiation doses. Although, the pupal percentages of irradiated mature larvae were 54%, 15% and 8% at doses of 100 Gy, 200 Gy and 300 Gy respectively, there were no adult emergences from irradiated mature larvae. On the other hand, the adult emergences were observed from irradiated pupae, decreased as radiation doses increased along with malformed adult appearance. Male and female individuals were out crossed with laboratory reared adults. Fecundity was correlated with radiation doses.
    4
    10005103
    Biosecurity Control Systems in Two Phases for Poultry Farms
    Abstract:

    In this work was developed and implemented a thermal fogging disinfection system to counteract pathogens from poultry feces in agribusiness farms, to reduce mortality rates and increase biosafety in them. The control system consists of two phases for the conditioning of the farm during the sanitary break. In the first phase, viral and bacterial inactivation was performed by treating the stool dry cleaning, along with the development of a specialized product that foster the generation of temperatures above 55 °C in less than 24 hr, for virus inactivation. In the second phase, a process for disinfection by fogging was implemented, along with the development of a specialized disinfectant that guarantee no risk for the operators’ health or birds. As a result of this process, it was possible to minimize the level of mortality of chickens on farms from 12% to 5.49%, representing a reduction of 6.51% in the death rate, through the formula applied to the treatment of poultry litter based on oxidising agents used as antiseptics, hydrogen peroxide solutions, glacial acetic acid and EDTA in order to act on bacteria, viruses, micro bacteria and spores.

    3
    10005150
    Rice Area Determination Using Landsat-Based Indices and Land Surface Temperature Values
    Abstract:
    In this study, it was aimed to determine a route for identification of rice cultivation areas within Thrace and Marmara regions of Turkey using remote sensing and GIS. Landsat 8 (OLI-TIRS) imageries acquired in production season of 2013 with 181/32 Path/Row number were used. Four different seasonal images were generated utilizing original bands and different transformation techniques. All images were classified individually using supervised classification techniques and Land Use Land Cover Maps (LULC) were generated with 8 classes. Areas (ha, %) of each classes were calculated. In addition, district-based rice distribution maps were developed and results of these maps were compared with Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkSTAT; TSI)’s actual rice cultivation area records. Accuracy assessments were conducted, and most accurate map was selected depending on accuracy assessment and coherency with TSI results. Additionally, rice areas on over 4° slope values were considered as mis-classified pixels and they eliminated using slope map and GIS tools. Finally, randomized rice zones were selected to obtain maximum-minimum value ranges of each date (May, June, July, August, September images separately) NDVI, LSWI, and LST images to test whether they may be used for rice area determination via raster calculator tool of ArcGIS. The most accurate classification for rice determination was obtained from seasonal LSWI LULC map, and considering TSI data and accuracy assessment results and mis-classified pixels were eliminated from this map. According to results, 83151.5 ha of rice areas exist within study area. However, this result is higher than TSI records with an area of 12702.3 ha. Use of maximum-minimum range of rice area NDVI, LSWI, and LST was tested in Meric district. It was seen that using the value ranges obtained from July imagery, gave the closest results to TSI records, and the difference was only 206.4 ha. This difference is normal due to relatively low resolution of images. Thus, employment of images with higher spectral, spatial, temporal and radiometric resolutions may provide more reliable results.
    2
    10005352
    Application of Tocopherol as Antioxidant to Reduce Decomposition Process on Palm Oil Biodiesel
    Abstract:
    Biodiesel is one of the alternative fuels promising for substituting petrodiesel as energy source which has an advantage as it is sustainable and eco-friendly. Due to the raw material that tends to decompose during storage, biodiesel also has the same characteristic that tends to decompose during storage. Biodiesel decomposition will form higher acid value as the result of oxidation to double bond on a fatty acid compound on biodiesel. Thus, free fatty acid value could be used to evaluate degradation of biodiesel due to the oxidation process. High free fatty acid on biodiesel could impact on the engine performance. Decomposition of biodiesel due to oxidation reaction could prevent by introducing a small amount of antioxidant. The origin of raw materials and the process for producing biodiesel will determine the effectiveness of antioxidant. Biodiesel made from high free fatty acid (FFA) crude palm oil (CPO) by using two steps esterification is vulnerable to oxidation process which is resulted in increasing on the FFA value. Tocopherol also known as vitamin E is one of the antioxidant that could improve the stability of biodiesel due to decomposition by the oxidation process. Tocopherol 0.5% concentration on palm oil biodiesel could reduce 13% of increasing FFA under temperature 80 °C and exposing time 180 minute.
    1
    10007322
    Anaplasmosis among Camels in Iran and Observation of Abnormalities in Infected Blood Films
    Abstract:

    Anaplasma organisms are obligatory intracellular bacteria belonging to the order Rickettsiales, family Anaplasmataceae. This disease is distributed around the globe and infected ticks are the most important vectors in anaplasmosis transmission. There is a little information about anaplasmosis in camels. This research investigated the blood films of 35 (20 male, 15 female) camels randomly selected from a flock of 150 camels. Samples were stained with Giemsa and Anaplasma sp. organisms were observed in six out of 35 (17.14 %) blood films. There were also some changes in Diff-Quick and morphology of leukocytes. No significant difference between male and female camels was observed (P>0.05). According to the results anaplasmosis is presented among camels in Iran.