|Commenced in January 1999 || Frequency: Monthly || Edition: International|| Paper Count: 19 |
Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering
Numerical Study of Cyclic Behavior of Shallow Foundations on Sand Reinforced with Geogrid and Grid-Anchor
When the foundations of structures under cyclic
loading with amplitudes less than their permissible load, the concern exists often for the amount of uniform and non-uniform settlement of
such structures. Storage tank foundations with numerous filling and discharging and railways ballast course under repeating
transportation loads are examples of such conditions. This paper
deals with the effects of using the new generation of reinforcements,
Grid-Anchor, for the purpose of reducing the permanent settlement
of these foundations under the influence of different proportions of
the ultimate load. Other items such as the type and the number of
reinforcements as well as the number of loading cycles are studied numerically. Numerical models were made using the Plaxis3D
Tunnel finite element code. The results show that by using gridanchor
and increasing the number of their layers in the same
proportion as that of the cyclic load being applied, the amount of
permanent settlement decreases up to 42% relative to unreinforced
condition depends on the number of reinforcement layers and percent
of applied load and the number of loading cycles to reach a constant
value of dimensionless settlement decreases up to 20% relative to
An Investigation of the Effect of the Different Mix Constituents on Concrete Electric Resistivity
Steel corrosion in concrete is considered as a main
engineering problems for many countries and lots of expenses has been paid for their repair and maintenance annually. This problem
may occur in all engineering structures whether in coastal and offshore or other areas. Hence, concrete structures should be able to
withstand corrosion factors existing in water or soil. Reinforcing
steel corrosion enhancement can be measured by use of concrete
electrical resistance; and maintaining high electric resistivity in concrete is necessary for steel corrosion prevention. Lots of studies
devoted to different aspects of the subjects worldwide. In this paper, an evaluation of the effects of W/C ratio, cementitious materials, and
percent increase in silica fume were investigated on electric resistivity of high strength concrete. To do that, sixteen mix design
with one aggregate grading was planned. Five of them had varying amount of W/C ratio and other eleven mixes was prepared with
constant W/C ratio but different amount of cementitious materials.
Silica fume and super plasticizer were used with different proportions
in all specimens. Specimens were tested after moist curing for 28 days. A total of 80 cube specimens (50 mm) were tested for concrete
electrical resistance. Results show that concrete electric resistivity can be increased with increasing amount of cementitious materials
and silica fume.
Study and Evaluation of Added Stresses under Foundation due to Adjacent Structure
Added stresses due to adjacent structure should be
considered in foundation design and stress control in soil under the structure. This case is considered less than other cases in design and
calculation whereas stresses in implementation are greater than analytical stress.
Structure load are transmitted to earth by foundation and role of foundation is propagation of load on the continuous and half extreme
soil. This act cause that, present stresses lessen to allowable strength
of soil. Some researchers such as Boussinesq and westergaurd by
using of some assumption studied on this issue, theorically. Target of
this paper is study and evaluation of added stresses under structure
due to adjacent structure. For this purpose, by using of assumption, theoric relation and numeral methods, effects of adjacent structure
with 4 to 10 storeys on the main structure with 4 storeys are studied
and effect of parameters and sensitivity of them are evaluated.
Concrete Gravity Dams and Traveling Wave Effect along Reservoir Bottom
In the present article, effect of non-uniform excitation
of reservoir bottom on nonlinear response of concrete gravity dams is
considered. Anisotropic damage mechanics approach is used to model nonlinear behavior of mass concrete in 2D space. The tallest
monolith of Pine Flat dam is selected as a case study. The horizontal
and vertical components of 1967 Koyna earthquake is used to excite
the system. It is found that crest response and stresses within the dam body decrease significantly when the reservoir is excited nonuniformly. In addition, the crack profiles within the dam body and in vicinity of the neck decreases.
The Applicability of the Zipper Strut to Seismic Rehabilitation of Steel Structures
Chevron frames (Inverted-V-braced frames or Vbraced
frames) have seismic disadvantages, such as not good exhibit force redistribution capability and compression brace buckles
immediately. Researchers developed new design provisions on
increasing both the ductility and lateral resistance of these structures
in seismic areas. One of these new methods is adding zipper columns, as proposed by Khatib et al. (1988) . Zipper columns are
vertical members connecting the intersection points of the braces
above the first floor. In this paper applicability of the suspended
zipper system to Seismic Rehabilitation of Steel Structures is investigated.
The models are 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-story Inverted-V-braced frames.
In this case, it is assumed that the structures must be rehabilitated. For rehabilitation of structures, zipper column is used. The result of
researches showed that the suspended zipper system is effective in
case of 3-, 6-, and 9-story Inverted-V-braced frames and it would
increase lateral resistance of structure up to life safety level. But in
case of high-rise buildings (such as 12 story frame), it doesn-t show
good performance. For solving this problem, the braced bay can
consist of small “units" over the height of the entire structure, which each of them is a zipper-braced bay with a few stories. By using this
method the lateral resistance of 12 story Inverted-V-braced frames is increased up to safety life level.
Influence of Silica Fume on High Strength Lightweight Concrete
The main objective of this paper is to determine the
isolated effect of silica fume on tensile, compressive and flexure strengths on high strength lightweight concrete. Many experiments
were carried out by replacing cement with different percentages of silica fume at different constant water-binder ratio keeping other mix
design variables constant. The silica fume was replaced by 0%, 5%,
10%, 15%, 20% and 25% for a water-binder ratios ranging from 0.26
to 0.42. For all mixes, split tensile, compressive and flexure strengths
were determined at 28 days. The results showed that the tensile, compressive and flexure strengths increased with silica fume incorporation but the optimum replacement percentage is not
constant because it depends on the water–cementitious material (w/cm) ratio of the mix. Based on the results, a relationship between
split tensile, compressive and flexure strengths of silica fume concrete was developed using statistical methods.
Nonlinear Analysis of Shear Wall Using Finite Element Model
In the analysis of structures, the nonlinear effects due to large displacement, large rotation and materially-nonlinear are very important and must be considered for the reliable analysis. The non-linear fmite element analysis has potential as usable and reliable means for analyzing of civil structures with the availability of computer technology. In this research the large displacements and materially nonlinear behavior of shear wall is presented with developing of fmite element code using the standard Galerkin weighted residual formulation. Two-dimensional plane stress model was carried out to present the shear wall response. Total Lagangian formulation, which is computationally more effective, is used in the formulation of stiffness matrices and the Newton-Raphson method is applied for the solution of nonlinear transient equations. The details of the program formulation are highlighted and the results of the analyses are presented, along with a comparison of the response of the structure with Ansys software results. The presented model in this paper can be developed for nonlinear analysis of civil engineering structures with different material behavior and complicated geometry.
Evaluation of Eulerian and Lagrangian Method in Analysis of Concrete Gravity Dam Including Dam Water Foundation Interaction
Because of the reservoir effect, dynamic analysis of concrete dams is more involved than other common structures. This problem is mostly sourced by the differences between reservoir water, dam body and foundation material behaviors. To account for the reservoir effect in dynamic analysis of concrete gravity dams, two methods are generally employed. Eulerian method in reservoir modeling gives rise to a set of coupled equations, whereas in Lagrangian method, the same equations for dam and foundation structure are used. The Purpose of this paper is to evaluate and study possible advantages and disadvantages of both methods. Specifically, application of the above methods in the analysis of dam-foundationreservoir systems is leveraged to calculate the hydrodynamic pressure on dam faces. Within the frame work of dam- foundationreservoir systems, dam displacement under earthquake for various dimensions and characteristics are also studied. The results of both Lagrangian and Eulerian methods in effects of loading frequency, boundary condition and foundation elasticity modulus are quantitatively evaluated and compared. Our analyses show that each method has individual advantages and disadvantages. As such, in any particular case, one of the two methods may prove more suitable as presented in the results section of this study.
Redundancy in Steel Frames with Masonry Infill Walls
Structural redundancy is an interesting point in
seismic design of structures. Initially, the structural redundancy is
described as indeterminate degree of a system. Although many definitions are presented for redundancy in structures, recently the
definition of structural redundancy has been related to the configuration of structural system and the number of lateral load
transferring directions in the structure. The steel frames with infill walls are general systems in the constructing of usual residential buildings in some countries. It is
obviously declared that the performance of structures will be affected by adding masonry infill walls. In order to investigate the effect of
infill walls on the redundancy of the steel frame which constructed
with masonry walls, the components of redundancy including redundancy variation index, redundancy strength index and
redundancy response modification factor were extracted for the
frames with masonry infills. Several steel frames with typical storey number and various numbers of bays were designed and considered.
The redundancy of frames with and without infill walls was evaluated by proposed method. The results showed the presence of infill causes increase of redundancy.
Dynamic Analysis of Porous Media Using Finite Element Method
The mechanical behavior of porous media is governed by the interaction between its solid skeleton and the fluid existing inside its pores. The interaction occurs through the interface of gains and fluid. The traditional analysis methods of porous media, based on the effective stress and Darcy's law, are unable to account for these interactions. For an accurate analysis, the porous media is represented in a fluid-filled porous solid on the basis of the Biot theory of wave propagation in poroelastic media. In Biot formulation, the equations of motion of the soil mixture are coupled with the global mass balance equations to describe the realistic behavior of porous media. Because of irregular geometry, the domain is generally treated as an assemblage of fmite elements. In this investigation, the numerical formulation for the field equations governing the dynamic response of fluid-saturated porous media is analyzed and employed for the study of transient wave motion. A finite element model is developed and implemented into a computer code called DYNAPM for dynamic analysis of porous media. The weighted residual method with 8-node elements is used for developing of a finite element model and the analysis is carried out in the time domain considering the dynamic excitation and gravity loading. Newmark time integration scheme is developed to solve the time-discretized equations which are an unconditionally stable implicit method Finally, some numerical examples are presented to show the accuracy and capability of developed model for a wide variety of behaviors of porous media.
Structural Integrity Management for Fixed Offshore Platforms in Malaysia
Structural Integrity Management (SIM) is
important for the protection of offshore crew, environment, business assets and company and industry reputation. API RP 2A contained guidelines for assessment of existing platforms mostly for the Gulf
of Mexico (GOM). ISO 19902 SIM framework also does not
specifically cater for Malaysia. There are about 200 platforms in
Malaysia with 90 exceeding their design life. The Petronas Carigali
Sdn Bhd (PCSB) uses the Asset Integrity Management System and
the very subjective Risk based Inspection Program for these
platforms. Petronas currently doesn-t have a standalone Petronas
Technical Standard PTS-SIM. This study proposes a recommended
practice for the SIM process for offshore structures in Malaysia,
including studies by API and ISO and local elements such as the
number of platforms, types of facilities, age and risk ranking. Case
study on SMG-A platform in Sabah shows missing or scattered
platform data and a gap in inspection history. It is to undergo a level
3 underwater inspection in year 2015.
Simulation of Thermal Storage Phase Change Material in Buildings
One of the potential and effective ways of
storing thermal energy in buildings is the integration of brick with phase change materials (PCMs). This paper presents a two-dimensional model for simulating and analyzing of PCM
in order to minimize energy consumption in the buildings. The numerical approach has been used with the real weather data of a selected city of Iran (Tehran). Two kinds of brick integrated PCM are investigated and compared base on
outdoor weather conditions and the amount of energy
consumption. The results show a significant reduction in
maximum entering heat flux to building about 32.8%
depending on PCM quantity. The results are analyzed by
various temperature contour plots. The contour plots
illustrated the time dependent mechanism of entering heat flux for a brick integrated with PCM. Further analysis is developed to investigate the effect of PCM location on the inlet heat flux. The results demonstrated that to achieve maximum performance of PCM it is better to locate PCM near the outdoor.
Replacing Fibre Reinforced Concrete with Bitumen Asphalt in Airports
Concrete pavement has superior durability and longer
structural life than asphalt pavement. Concrete pavement requires
less maintenance compared to asphalt pavement which requires maintenance and major rehabilitation. Use of the concrete pavement
has been grown over the past decade in developing countries. Fibre reinforced concrete (FRC) has been successfully used in design of concrete pavement in past decade. In this research, the effect of fibre
volume fraction in modulus of rupture, load-deflection, equivalent flexural strength (fe,3) and the equivalent flexural strength ratio (Re,3)
has been used in different fibre volume fraction. Crimped-type flat
steel fibre of size 50 x 2.0 x 0.6 mm was used with 1.0%, 1.5% and 2.0% volume fraction. Beam specimens of size 500 x 100 x 100 mm were used for flexural as well as with JCI method for analysis flexural toughness, equivalent flexural strength. It was obtained as the 2% fibre volume fractions; reduce 45% of the concrete pavement
3D Numerical Simulation of Scouring around Bridge Piers (Case Study: Bridge 524 Crosses the Tanana River)
Due to the three- dimensional flow pattern interacting with bed material, the process of local scour around bridge piers is complex. Modeling 3D flow field and scour hole evolution around a bridge pier is more feasible nowadays because the computational cost and computational time have significantly decreased. In order to evaluate local flow and scouring around a bridge pier, a completely three-dimensional numerical model, SSIIM program, was used. The model solves 3-D Navier-Stokes equations and a bed load conservation equation. The model was applied to simulate local flow and scouring around a bridge pier in a large natural river with four piers. Computation for 1 day of flood condition was carried out to predict the maximum local scour depth. The results show that the SSIIM program can be used efficiently for simulating the scouring in natural rivers. The results also showed that among the various turbulence models, the k-ω model gives more reasonable results.
Finite Element Analysis of Thin Steel Plate Shear Walls
Steel plate shear walls (SPSWs) in buildings are
known to be an effective means for resisting lateral forces. By using
un-stiffened walls and allowing them to buckle, their energy
absorption capacity will increase significantly due to the postbuckling
capacity. The post-buckling tension field action of SPSWs
can provide substantial strength, stiffness and ductility. This paper
presents the Finite Element Analysis of low yield point (LYP) steel
shear walls. In this shear wall system, the LYP steel plate is used for
the steel panel and conventional structural steel is used for boundary
frames. A series of nonlinear cyclic analyses were carried out to
obtain the stiffness, strength, deformation capacity, and energy
dissipation capacity of the LYP steel shear wall. The effect of widthto-
thickness ratio of steel plate on buckling behavior, and energy
dissipation capacities were studied. Good energy dissipation and
deformation capacities were obtained for all models.
Bending Gradient Coefficient Correction for I-Beams
Without uncertainty by applying external loads on
beams, bending is created. The created bending in I-beams, puts one
of the flanges in tension and the other one in compression. With increasing of bending, compression flange buckled and beam in out
of its plane direction twisted, this twisting well-known as Lateral Torsional Buckling. Providing bending moment varieties along the
beam, the critical moment is greater than the case its under pure bending. In other words, the value of bending gradient coefficient is
always greater than unite. In this article by the use of " ANSYS 10.0" software near 80 3-D finite element models developed for the
propose of analyzing beams` lateral torsional buckling and surveying influence of slenderness on beams' bending gradient coefficient.
Results show that, presented Cb coefficient via AISC is not correct for some of beams and value of this coefficient is smaller than what proposed by AISC. Therefore instead of using a constant Cb for each
case of loading , a function with two criterion for calculation of Cb coefficient for some cases is proposed.
A Closed Form Solution for Hydrodynamic Pressure of Gravity Dams Reservoir with Effect of Viscosity under Dynamic Loading
Hydrodynamic pressures acting on upstream of concrete dams during an earthquake are an important factor in designing and assessing the safety of these structures in Earthquake regions. Due to inherent complexities, assessing exact hydrodynamic pressure is only feasible for problems with simple geometry. In this research, the governing equation of concrete gravity dam reservoirs with effect of fluid viscosity in frequency domain is solved and then compared with that in which viscosity is assumed zero. The results show that viscosity influences the reservoir-s natural frequency. In excitation frequencies near the reservoir's natural frequencies, hydrodynamic pressure has a considerable difference in compare to the results of non-viscose fluid.
A Parametric Assessment of Friction Damper in Eccentric Braced Frame
In This paper, the behavior of eccentric braced frame
(EBF) is studied with replacing friction damper (FD) in confluence of these braces, in 5 and 10-storey steel frames. For FD system, the main step is to determine the slip load. For this reason, the performance indexes include roof displacement, base shear, dissipated energy and relative performance should be investigated. In
nonlinear dynamic analysis, the response of structure to three
earthquake records has been obtained and the values of roof
displacement, base shear and column axial force for FD and EBF
frames have been compared. The results demonstrate that use of the FD in frames, in comparison with the EBF, substantially reduces the roof displacement, column axial force and base shear. The obtained results show suitable performance of FD in higher storey structure in
comparison with the EBF.
Stochastic Subspace Modelling of Turbulence
Turbulence of the incoming wind field is of paramount
importance to the dynamic response of civil engineering structures. Hence reliable stochastic models of the turbulence should be available from which time series can be generated for dynamic response and
structural safety analysis. In the paper an empirical cross spectral
density function for the along-wind turbulence component over the wind field area is taken as the starting point. The spectrum is spatially
discretized in terms of a Hermitian cross-spectral density matrix for the turbulence state vector which turns out not to be positive
definite. Since the succeeding state space and ARMA modelling of
the turbulence rely on the positive definiteness of the cross-spectral
density matrix, the problem with the non-positive definiteness of such
matrices is at first addressed and suitable treatments regarding it are proposed. From the adjusted positive definite cross-spectral density
matrix a frequency response matrix is constructed which determines the turbulence vector as a linear filtration of Gaussian white noise.
Finally, an accurate state space modelling method is proposed which allows selection of an appropriate model order, and estimation of a state space model for the vector turbulence process incorporating its phase spectrum in one stage, and its results are compared with a conventional ARMA modelling method.