Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 16

Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering

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  • 16
    52
    Theoretical Investigation of Steel Plated Girder Resistance
    Abstract:

    In the paper, the results of sensitivity analysis of the influence of initial imperfections on the web stress state of a thinwalled girder are presented. The results of the study corroborate a very good and effective agreement of experiments with theory. Most input random quantities were found experimentally. The change of sensitivity coefficients in dependence on working load value is analysed. The stress was analysed by means of a geometrically and materially non-linear solution by applying the program ANSYS. This research study offers important background for theoretical studies of stability problems, post-critical effects and limit states of thin-walled steel structures.

    15
    460
    Footbridge Response on Single Pedestrian Induced Vibration Analysis
    Abstract:
    Many footbridges have natural frequencies that coincide with the dominant frequencies of the pedestrian-induced load and therefore they have a potential to suffer excessive vibrations under dynamic loads induced by pedestrians. Some of the design standards introduce load models for pedestrian loads applicable for simple structures. Load modeling for more complex structures, on the other hand, is most often left to the designer. The main focus of this paper is on the human induced forces transmitted to a footbridge and on the ways these loads can be modeled to be used in the dynamic design of footbridges. Also design criteria and load models proposed by widely used standards were introduced and a comparison was made. The dynamic analysis of the suspension bridge in Kolin in the Czech Republic was performed on detailed FEM model using the ANSYS program system. An attempt to model the load imposed by a single person and a crowd of pedestrians resulted in displacements and accelerations that are compared with serviceability criteria.
    14
    1242
    Design Histories for Enhanced Concurrent Structural Design
    Abstract:

    The leisure boatbuilding industry has tight profit margins that demand that boats are created to a high quality but with low cost. This requirement means reduced design times combined with increased use of design for production can lead to large benefits. The evolutionary nature of the boatbuilding industry can lead to a large usage of previous vessels in new designs. With the increase in automated tools for concurrent engineering within structural design it is important that these tools can reuse this information while subsequently feeding this to designers. The ability to accurately gather this materials and parts data is also a key component to these tools. This paper therefore aims to develop an architecture made up of neural networks and databases to feed information effectively to the designers based on previous design experience.

    Keywords:
    13
    2064
    Mechanical Characteristics and Modeling of Multiple Trench Friction Pendulum System with Multi-intermediate Sliding Plates
    Abstract:

    In order to upgrade the seismic resistibility of structures and enhance the functionality of an isolator, a new base isolator called the multiple trench friction pendulum system (MTFPS) is proposed in this study. The proposed MTFPS isolator is composed of a trench concave surface and several intermediate sliding plates in two orthogonal directions. Mathematical formulations have been derived to examine the characteristics of the proposed MTFPS isolator possessing multiple intermediate sliding plates. By means of mathematical formulations, it can be inferred that the natural period and damping effect of the MTFPS isolator with several intermediate sliding plates can be altered continually and controllably during earthquakes. Furthermore, results obtained from shaking table tests demonstrate that the proposed isolator provides good protection to structures for prevention of damage from strong earthquakes.

    12
    2088
    Behaviour of Base-Isolated Structures with High Initial Isolator Stiffness
    Abstract:
    Analytical seismic response of multi-story building supported on base isolation system is investigated under real earthquake motion. The superstructure is idealized as a shear type flexible building with lateral degree-of-freedom at each floor. The force-deformation behaviour of the isolation system is modelled by the bi-linear behaviour which can be effectively used to model all isolation systems in practice. The governing equations of motion of the isolated structural system are derived. The response of the system is obtained numerically by step-by-method under three real recorded earthquake motions and pulse motions associated in the near-fault earthquake motion. The variation of the top floor acceleration, interstory drift, base shear and bearing displacement of the isolated building is studied under different initial stiffness of the bi-linear isolation system. It was observed that the high initial stiffness of the isolation system excites higher modes in base-isolated structure and generate floor accelerations and story drift. Such behaviour of the base-isolated building especially supported on sliding type of isolation systems can be detrimental to sensitive equipment installed in the building. On the other hand, the bearing displacement and base shear found to reduce marginally with the increase of the initial stiffness of the initial stiffness of the isolation system. Further, the above behaviour of the base-isolated building was observed for different parameters of the bearing (i.e. post-yield stiffness and characteristic strength) and earthquake motions (i.e. real time history as well as pulse type motion).
    11
    2108
    The Effects of Asymmetric Bracing on Steel Structures under Seismic Loads
    Abstract:

    Because of architectural condition and structure application, sometimes mass source and stiffness source are not coincidence, and the structure is irregular. The structure is also might be asymmetric as an asymmetric bracing in plan which leads to unbalance distribution of stiffness or because of unbalance distribution of the mass. Both condition lead to eccentricity and torsion in the structure. The deficiency of ordinary code to evaluate the performance of steel structures against earthquake has been caused designing based on performance level or capacity spectrum be used. By using the mentioned methods it is possible to design a structure that its behavior against different earthquakes be predictive. In this article 5- story buildings with different percentage of asymmetric which is because of stiffness changes have been designed. The static and dynamic nonlinear analysis under three acceleration recording has been done. Finally performance level of the structure has been evaluated.

    10
    2383
    Response of the Residential Building Structureon Load Technical Seismicity due to Mining Activities
    Abstract:
    In the territories where high-intensity earthquakes are frequent is paid attention to the solving of the seismic problems. In the paper are described two computational model variants based on finite element method of the construction with different subsoil simulation (rigid or elastic subsoil) is used. For simulation and calculations program system based on method final elements ANSYS was used. Seismic responses calculations of residential building structure were effected on loading characterized by accelerogram for comparing with the responses spectra method.
    9
    2755
    Seismic Analysis of a S-Curved Viaduct using Stick and Finite Element Models
    Abstract:
    Stick models are widely used in studying the behaviour of straight as well as skew bridges and viaducts subjected to earthquakes while carrying out preliminary studies. The application of such models to highly curved bridges continues to pose challenging problems. A viaduct proposed in the foothills of the Himalayas in Northern India is chosen for the study. It is having 8 simply supported spans @ 30 m c/c. It is doubly curved in horizontal plane with 20 m radius. It is inclined in vertical plane as well. The superstructure consists of a box section. Three models have been used: a conventional stick model, an improved stick model and a 3D finite element model. The improved stick model is employed by making use of body constraints in order to study its capabilities. The first 8 frequencies are about 9.71% away in the latter two models. Later the difference increases to 80% in 50th mode. The viaduct was subjected to all three components of the El Centro earthquake of May 1940. The numerical integration was carried out using the Hilber- Hughes-Taylor method as implemented in SAP2000. Axial forces and moments in the bridge piers as well as lateral displacements at the bearing levels are compared for the three models. The maximum difference in the axial forces and bending moments and displacements vary by 25% between the improved and finite element model. Whereas, the maximum difference in the axial forces, moments, and displacements in various sections vary by 35% between the improved stick model and equivalent straight stick model. The difference for torsional moment was as high as 75%. It is concluded that the stick model with body constraints to model the bearings and expansion joints is not desirable in very sharp S curved viaducts even for preliminary analysis. This model can be used only to determine first 10 frequency and mode shapes but not for member forces. A 3D finite element analysis must be carried out for meaningful results.
    8
    8561
    Calculation of Heating Load for an Apartment Complex with Unit Building Method
    Abstract:
    As a simple to method estimate the plant heating energy capacity of an apartment complex, a new load calculation method has been proposed. The method which can be called as unit building method, predicts the heating load of the entire complex instead of summing up that of each apartment belonging to complex. Comparison of the unit heating load for various floor sizes between the present method and conventional approach shows a close agreement with dynamic load calculation code. Some additional calculations are performed to demonstrate it-s application examples.
    7
    9462
    Experimental Investigation on Excess Pore Water Pressure in Soft Soil-Foundations under Minor Shocks
    Abstract:

    In this study, shaking table tests are performed to investigate the behavior of excess pore water pressure in different soft soil-foundations of soil-structure interaction (SSI) system. The variation of the behaviors under cycled minor shock is observed. Moreover, The generation and variation mechanism of excess pore water pressure under earthquake excitation in different soft soilfoundations are analyzed and discussed.

    6
    10600
    Earthquake Analysis of Reinforce Concrete Framed Structures with Added Viscous Dampers
    Abstract:

    This paper describes the development of a numerical finite element algorithm used for the analysis of reinforced concrete structure equipped with shakes energy absorbing device subjected to earthquake excitation. For this purpose a finite element program code for analysis of reinforced concrete frame buildings is developed. The performance of developed program code is evaluated by analyzing of a reinforced concrete frame buildings model. The results are show that using damper device as seismic energy dissipation system effectively can reduce the structural response of framed structure during earthquake occurrence.

    5
    12094
    Determining the Maximum Lateral Displacement Due to Sever Earthquakes without Using Nonlinear Analysis
    Abstract:
    For Seismic design, it is important to estimate, maximum lateral displacement (inelastic displacement) of the structures due to sever earthquakes for several reasons. Seismic design provisions estimate the maximum roof and storey drifts occurring in major earthquakes by amplifying the drifts of the structures obtained by elastic analysis subjected to seismic design load, with a coefficient named “displacement amplification factor" which is greater than one. Here, this coefficient depends on various parameters, such as ductility and overstrength factors. The present research aims to evaluate the value of the displacement amplification factor in seismic design codes and then tries to propose a value to estimate the maximum lateral structural displacement from sever earthquakes, without using non-linear analysis. In seismic codes, since the displacement amplification is related to “force reduction factor" hence; this aspect has been accepted in the current study. Meanwhile, two methodologies are applied to evaluate the value of displacement amplification factor and its relation with the force reduction factor. In the first methodology, which is applied for all structures, the ratio of displacement amplification and force reduction factors is determined directly. Whereas, in the second methodology that is applicable just for R/C moment resisting frame, the ratio is obtained by calculating both factors, separately. The acquired results of these methodologies are alike and estimate the ratio of two factors from 1 to 1.2. The results indicate that the ratio of the displacement amplification factor and the force reduction factor differs to those proposed by seismic provisions such as NEHRP, IBC and Iranian seismic code (standard no. 2800).
    4
    12377
    Asymmetric and Kind of Bracing Effects on Steel Frames Under Earthquake Loads
    Abstract:

    Because of architectural condition and structure application, sometimes mass source and stiffness source are not coincidence, and the structure is irregular. The structure is also might be asymmetric as an asymmetric bracing in plan which leads to unbalance distribution of stiffness or because of unbalance distribution of the mass. Both condition lead to eccentricity and torsion in the structure. The deficiency of ordinary code to evaluate the performance of steel structures against earthquake has been caused designing based on performance level or capacity spectrum be used. By using the mentioned methods it is possible to design a structure that its behavior against different earthquakes be predictive. In this article 5- story buildings with different percentage of asymmetric which is because of stiffness changes and kind of bracing (x and chevron bracing) have been designed. The static and dynamic nonlinear analysis under three acceleration recording has been done. Finally performance level of the structure has been evaluated.

    3
    12482
    Seismic Behaviour of Steel Frames Investigation with Knee Brace Based on Pushover Analysis
    Abstract:

    The knee bracing steel frame (KBF) is a new kind of energy dissipating frame, which combines excellent ductility and lateral stiffness. In this framing system, a special form of diagonal brace connected to a knee element instead of beam-column joint, is investigated. Recently, a similar system was proposed and named as chevron knee bracing system (CKB) which in comparison with the former system has a better energy absorption characteristic and at the same time retains the elastic nature of the structures. Knee bracing can provide a stiffer bracing system but reduces the ductility of the steel frame. Chevron knee bracing can be employed to provide the desired ductility level for a design. In this article, relation between seismic performance and structural parameters of the two above mentioned systems are investigated and compared. Frames with similar dimensions but various heights in both systems are designed according to Iranian code of practice for seismic resistant design of building, and then based on a non-linear push over static analysis; the seismic parameters such as behavior factor and performance levels are compared.

    2
    14276
    Effect of Interior Brick-infill Partitions on the Progressive Collapse Potential of a RC Building: Linear Static Analysis Results
    Abstract:
    Interior brick-infill partitions are usually considered as non-structural components, and only their weight is accounted for in practical structural design. In this study, the brick-infill panels are simulated by compression struts to clarify their effect on the progressive collapse potential of an earthquake-resistant RC building. Three-dimensional finite element models are constructed for the RC building subjected to sudden column loss. Linear static analyses are conducted to investigate the variation of demand-to-capacity ratio (DCR) of beam-end moment and the axial force variation of the beams adjacent to the removed column. Study results indicate that the brick-infill effect depends on their location with respect to the removed column. As they are filled in a structural bay with a shorter span adjacent to the column-removed line, more significant reduction of DCR may be achieved. However, under certain conditions, the brick infill may increase the axial tension of the two-span beam bridging the removed column.
    1
    15698
    Panel Zone Rigidity Effects on Special Steel Moment-Resisting Frames According to the Performance Based Design
    Abstract:

    The unanticipated destruct of more of the steel moment frames in Northridge earthquake, altered class of regard to the beamto- column connections in moment frames. Panel zone is one the significant part of joints which, it-s stiffness and rigidity has an important effect on the behavior and ductility of the frame. Specifically that behavior of panel zone has a very significant effect on the special moment frames. In this paper , meanwhile the relations for modeling of panel zone in frames are expressed , special moment frames with different spans and stories were studied in the way of performance-based design. The frames designed in according with Iranian steel building code. The effect of panel zone is also considered and in the case of non-existence of performance level, by changing in intimacies and parameter of panel zone, performance level is considered.