Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 24

Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering

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  • 24
    Reliability Analysis of Tubular Joints of Offshore Platforms in Malaysia
    The oil and gas industry has moved towards Load and Resistance Factor Design through API RP2A - LRFD and the recently published international standard, ISO-19902, for design of fixed steel offshore structures. The ISO 19902 is intended to provide a harmonized design practice that offers a balanced structural fitness for the purpose, economy and safety. As part of an ongoing work, the reliability analysis of tubular joints of the jacket structure has been carried out to calibrate the load and resistance factors for the design of offshore platforms in Malaysia, as proposed in the ISO. Probabilistic models have been established for the load effects (wave, wind and current) and the tubular joints strengths. In this study the First Order Reliability Method (FORM), coded in MATLAB Software has been employed to evaluate the reliability index of the typical joints, designed using API RP2A - WSD and ISO 19902.
    Investigation of Undular Hydraulic Jump over Smooth Beds
    Undular hydraulic jumps are illustrated by a smooth rise of the free surface followed by a train of stationary waves. They are sometimes experienced in natural waterways and rivers. The characteristics of undular hydraulic jumps are studied here. The height, amplitude and the main characteristics of undular jump is depended on the upstream Froude number and aspect ratio. The experiments were done on the smooth bed flume. These results compared with other researches and the main characteristics of the undular hydraulic jump were studied in this article.
    Estimating Spatial Disaggregation of Urban Thermal Responsiveness on Summer Diurnal Range with a Numerical Modeling Approach in Bangkok, Thailand

    Facing the concern of the population to its environment and to climatic change, city planners are now considering the urban climate in their choices of planning. The urban climate, representing different urban morphologies across central Bangkok metropolitan area (BMA), are used to investigates the effects of both the composition and configuration of variables of urban morphology indicators on the summer diurnal range of urban climate, using correlation analyses and multiple linear regressions. Results show first indicate that approximately 92.6% of the variation in the average maximum daytime near-surface air temperature (Ta) was explained jointly by the two composition variables of urban morphology indicators including open space ratio (OSR) and floor area ratio (FAR). It has been possible to determine the membership of sample areas to the local climate zones (LCZs) using these urban morphology descriptors automatically computed with GIS and remote sensed data. Finally result found the temperature differences among zones of large separation, such as the city center could be respectively from 35.48±1.04ºC (Mean±S.D.) warmer than the outskirt of Bangkok on average for maximum daytime near surface temperature to 28.27±0.21ºC for extreme event and, can exceed as 8ºC. A spatially disaggregation of urban thermal responsiveness map would be helpful for several reasons. First, it would localize urban areas concerned by different climate behavior over summer daytime and be a good indicator of urban climate variability. Second, when overlaid with a land cover map, this map may contribute to identify possible urban management strategies to reduce heat wave effects in BMA.

    Behaviour of Masonry Wall Constructed using Interlocking Soil Cement Bricks
    According to the masonry standard the compressive strength is basically dependent on factors such as the mortar strength and the relative values of unit and mortar strength. However interlocking brick has none or less use of mortar. Therefore there is a need to investigate the behavior of masonry walls using interlocking bricks. In this study a series of tests have been conducted; physical properties and compressive strength of brick units and masonry walls were constructed from interlocking bricks and tested under constant vertical load at different eccentricities. The purpose of the experimental investigations is to obtain the force displacement curves, analyze the behavior of masonry walls. The results showed that the brick is categorized as common brick (BS 3921:1985) and severe weathering grade (ASTM C62). The maximum compressive stress of interlocking brick wall is 3.6 N/mm2 and fulfilled the requirement of standard for residential building.
    Automatic Design Algorithm for the Tower Crane Foundations
    Foundation of tower crane serves to ensure stability against vertical and horizontal forces. If foundation stress is not sufficient, tower crane may be subject to overturning, shearing or foundation settlement. Therefore, engineering review of stable support is a highly critical part of foundation design. However, there are not many professionals who can conduct engineering review of tower crane foundation and, if any, they have information only on a small number of cranes in which they have hands-on experience. It is also customary to rely on empirical knowledge and tower crane renter-s recommendations rather than designing foundation on the basis of engineering knowledge. Therefore, a foundation design automation system considering not only lifting conditions but also overturning risk, shearing and vertical force may facilitate production of foolproof foundation design for experts and enable even non-experts to utilize professional knowledge that only experts can access now. This study proposes Automatic Design Algorithm for the Tower Crane Foundations considering load and horizontal force.
    Analysis of Road Repairs in Undermined Areas
    The article presents analysis results of maps of expected subsidence in undermined areas for road repair management. The analysis was done in the area of Karvina district in the Czech Republic, including undermined areas with ongoing deep mining activities or finished deep mining in years 2003 - 2009. The article discusses the possibilities of local road maintenance authorities to determine areas that will need most repairs in the future with limited data available. Using the expected subsidence maps new map of surface curvature was calculated. Combined with road maps and historical data about repairs the result came for five main categories of undermined areas, proving very simple tool for management.
    Investigation of the Neutral Axis in the Positive Moment Region of Composite Beams
    Researchers investigate arious strategies to develop composite beams and maximize the structural advantages. This study attempted to conduct experiments and analysis of changes in the neutral axis of positive moments of a Green Beam. Strain compatibility analysis was used, and its efficiency was demonstrated by comparing experimental and analytical values. In the comparison of neutral axis, the difference between experimental and analytical values was found to range from 8.8~26.2%. It was determined that strain compatibility analysis can be useful for predicting the behaviors of composite beams, with the ability to predict the behavior of not only the elastic location of the composite member, but also of the plastic location
    Adaptive Climate Responsive Vernacular Construction in High Altitude
    In the traditional architecture, buildings were designed to achieve human comfort by using locally available building materials and construction technology which were more responsive to their climatic and geographic condition. This paper will try to bring out the wisdom of the local masons and builders, often the inhabitants themselves, about their way of living, and shaping their built environment, indoor and outdoor spaces, as a response to the local climatic conditions, from the findings of a field settlement.
    Optimum Shape and Design of Cooling Towers
    The aim of the current study is to develop a numerical tool that is capable of achieving an optimum shape and design of hyperbolic cooling towers based on coupling a non-linear finite element model developed in-house and a genetic algorithm optimization technique. The objective function is set to be the minimum weight of the tower. The geometric modeling of the tower is represented by means of B-spline curves. The finite element method is applied to model the elastic buckling behaviour of a tower subjected to wind pressure and dead load. The study is divided into two main parts. The first part investigates the optimum shape of the tower corresponding to minimum weight assuming constant thickness. The study is extended in the second part by introducing the shell thickness as one of the design variables in order to achieve an optimum shape and design. Design, functionality and practicality constraints are applied.
    Measuring Relative Efficiency of Korean Construction Company using DEA/Window
    Sub-prime mortgage crisis which began in the US is regarded as the most economic crisis since the Great Depression in the early 20th century. Especially, hidden problems on efficient operation of a business were disclosed at a time and many financial institutions went bankrupt and filed for court receivership. The collapses of physical market lead to bankruptcy of manufacturing and construction businesses. This study is to analyze dynamic efficiency of construction businesses during the five years at the turn of the global financial crisis. By discovering the trend and stability of efficiency of a construction business, this study-s objective is to improve management efficiency of a construction business in the ever-changing construction market. Variables were selected by analyzing corporate information on top 20 construction businesses in Korea and analyzed for static efficiency in 2008 and dynamic efficiency between 2006 and 2010. Unlike other studies, this study succeeded in deducing efficiency trend and stability of a construction business for five years by using the DEA/Window model. Using the analysis result, efficient and inefficient companies could be figured out. In addition, relative efficiency among DMU was measured by comparing the relationship between input and output variables of construction businesses. This study can be used as a literature to improve management efficiency for companies with low efficiency based on efficiency analysis of construction businesses.
    The Nonlinear Dynamic Elasto-Plastic Analysis for Evaluating the Controlling Effectiveness and Failure Mechanism of the MSCSS
    This paper focuses on the Mega-Sub Controlled Structure Systems (MSCSS) performances and characteristics regarding the new control principle contained in MSCSS subjected to strong earthquake excitations. The adopted control scheme consists of modulated sub-structures where the control action is achieved by viscous dampers and sub-structure own configuration. The elastic-plastic time history analysis under severe earthquake excitation is analyzed base on the Finite Element Analysis Method (FEAM), and some comparison results are also given in this paper. The result shows that the MSCSS systems can remarkably reduce vibrations effects more than the mega-sub structure (MSS). The study illustrates that the improved MSCSS presents good seismic resistance ability even at 1.2g and can absorb seismic energy in the structure, thus imply that structural members cross section can be reduce and achieve to good economic characteristics. Furthermore, the elasto-plastic analysis demonstrates that the MSCSS is accurate enough regarding international building evaluation and design codes. This paper also shows that the elasto-plastic dynamic analysis method is a reasonable and reliable analysis method for structures subjected to strong earthquake excitations and that the computed results are more precise.
    Enhancing Landfill Gas Production by Methanogenic Sand Layer
    Landfill gas, particularly methane is one of the greenhouse gases which contributes to global warming. This paper presents the findings of a study on methane gas production from simulated landfill reactor under saturated conditions. A reactor was constructed to represent a landfill cell of 2.5 m thickness on sandy soil. The reactor was 0.2 m in diameter and 4 m in height. One meter of sand and pebble layer was packed at the bottom of the reactor followed by 2.5 m of solid waste layer and 0.4 m of sand layer as the cover soil. Degradation of waste in the solid waste layer was at acidification stage as indicated by the leachate quality with COD as high as 55,511 mg/L and pH as low as 5.1. However, methanogenic environment was established at the bottom sand layer after one year of operation indicated by pH of 7.2 and methane gas generation. Leachate degradation took place as the leachate moved through the sand layer at an infiltration of rate 0.7 cm/day. This resulted in landfill gas production of 77 mL/day/kg containing 55 to 65% methane. The application of sand layer contributed to the gas production from landfill by an in-situ degradation of leachate in the sand at the bottom of the landfill.
    Study of the Effectiveness of Outrigger System for High-Rise Composite Buildings for Cyclonic Region

    The demands of taller structures are becoming imperative almost everywhere in the world in addition to the challenges of material and labor cost, project time line etc. This paper conducted a study keeping in view the challenging nature of high-rise construction with no generic rules for deflection minimizations and frequency control. The effects of cyclonic wind and provision of outriggers on 28-storey, 42-storey and 57-storey are examined in this paper and certain conclusions are made which would pave way for researchers to conduct further study in this particular area of civil engineering. The results show that plan dimensions have vital impacts on structural heights. Increase of height while keeping the plan dimensions same, leads to the reduction in the lateral rigidity. To achieve required stiffness increase of bracings sizes as well as introduction of additional lateral resisting system such as belt truss and outriggers is required.

    School Design and Energy Efficiency
    Auckland has a temperate climate with comfortable warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters. An Auckland school normally does not need air conditioning for cooling during the summer and only need heating during the winter. The space hating energy is the major portion of winter school energy consumption and the winter energy consumption is major portion of annual school energy consumption. School building thermal design should focus on the winter thermal performance for reducing the space heating energy. A number of Auckland schools- design data and energy consumption data are used for this study. This pilot study investigates the relationships between their energy consumption data and school building design data to improve future school design for energy efficiency.
    Public Transport: Punctuality Index for Bus Operation
    Public bus service plays a significant role in our society as people movers and to facilitate travels within towns and districts. The quality of service of public bus is always being regarded as poor, or rather, underestimated as second class means of transportation. Reliability of service, or the ability to deliver service as planned, is one key element in perceiving the quality of bus service and the punctuality index is one of the performance parameters in determining the service reliability. This study concentrates on evaluating the reliability performance of bus operation using punctuality index assessment. A week data for each of six city bus routes is recorded using the on-board methodology to calculate the punctuality index for city bus service in Kota Bharu. The results revealed that the punctuality index for the whole city bus network is 94.25% (LOS B).
    Assessment of In-Situ Water Sensitive Urban Design Elements
    Water Sensitive Urban Design (WSUD) features are increasingly used to treat and manage polluted stormwater runoff in urbanised areas. It is important to monitor and evaluate the effectiveness of the infrastructure in achieving their intended performance targets after constructing and operating these features overtime. The paper presents the various methods of analysis used to assess the effectiveness of the in-situ WSUD features, such as: onsite visual inspections during operational and non operational periods, maintenance audits and periodic water quality testing. The results will contribute to a better understanding of the operational and maintenance needs of in-situ WSUD features and assist in providing recommendations to better manage life cycle performance.
    Prognostic and Diagnostic Modes of Mathematical Model for the Pre-operation of Suspended Sediment Transport model in Estuaries and Coastal areas
    Both prognostic and diagnostic modes of a 3D baroclinic model in hydrodynamic and sediment transport models of the Princeton Ocean Model (POM) were conducted to separate prognose and diagnose effects of different hydrodynamic factors on transport of suspended sediment discharged from the rivers to the Gulf of Thailand (GoT). Both transport modes of suspended sediment distribution in the GoT were numerically simulated. It could be concluded that the suspended sediment discharged from the rivers around the GoT. Most of sediments in estuaries and coastal areas are deposited outside the GoT under the condition of wind-driven current, and very small amount of the sediments of them are transported faraway. On the basis of wind forcing, sediments from the lower GoT to the upper GoT are mainly transported south-northwestward and also continuously moved north-southwestward. An obvious 3D characteristic of suspended sediment transport is produced in the wind-driven current residual circulation condition. In this study, the transport patterns at the third layer are generally consistent with the typhoon-induced strong currents in two case studies of Typhoon Linda 1997. The case studies presented the prognostic and diagnostic modes during 00UTC28OCT1997 to 12UTC06NOV1997 in a short period with the current condition for pre-operation of the suspended sediment transport model in estuaries and coastal areas.
    Influence of Differences of Heat Insulation Methods on Thermal Comfort of Apartment Buildings
    The aim of this study is to analyze influence of differences of heat insulation methods on indoor thermal environment and comfort of apartment buildings. This study analyzes indoor thermal environment and comfort on units of apartment buildings using calculation software "THERB" and compares three different kinds of heat insulation methods. Those are outside insulation on outside walls, inside insulation on outside walls and interior insulation. In terms of indoor thermal environment, outside insulation is the best to stabilize room temperature. In winter, room temperature on outside insulation after heating is higher than other and it is kept 3-5 degrees higher through all night. But the surface temperature with outside insulation did not dramatically increase when heating was used, which was 3 to 5oC lower than the temperature with other insulation. The PMV of interior insulation fall nearly range of comfort when the heating and cooling was use.
    Simulation Study on the Indoor Thermal Comfort with Insulation on Interior Structural Components of Super High-Rise Residences
    In this study, we discussed the effects on the thermal comfort of super high-rise residences that how effected by the high thermal capacity structural components. We considered different building orientations, structures, and insulation methods. We used the dynamic simulation software THERB (simulation of the thermal environment of residential buildings). It can estimate the temperature, humidity, sensible temperature, and heating/cooling load for multiple buildings. In the past studies, we examined the impact of air-conditioning loads (hereinafter referred to as AC loads) on the interior structural parts and the AC-usage patterns of super-high-rise residences. Super-high-rise residences have more structural components such as pillars and beams than do ordinary apartment buildings. The skeleton is generally made of concrete and steel, which have high thermal-storage capacities. The thermal-storage capacity of super-high-rise residences is considered to have a larger impact on the AC load and thermal comfort than that of ordinary residences. We show that the AC load of super-high-rise units would be reduced by installing insulation on the surfaces of interior walls that are not usually insulated in Japan.
    Probabilistic Modelling of Marine Bridge Deterioration
    Chloride induced corrosion of steel reinforcement is the main cause of deterioration of reinforced concrete marine structures. This paper investigates the relative performance of alternative repair options with respect to the deterioration of reinforced concrete bridge elements in marine environments. Focus is placed on the initiation phase of reinforcement corrosion. A laboratory study is described which involved exposing concrete samples to accelerated chloride-ion ingress. The study examined the relative efficiencies of two repair methods, namely Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) concrete and a concrete which utilised Ground Granulated Blastfurnace Cement (GGBS) as a partial cement replacement. The mix designs and materials utilised were identical to those implemented in the repair of a marine bridge on the South East coast of Ireland in 2007. The results of this testing regime serve to inform input variables employed in probabilistic modelling of deterioration for subsequent reliability based analysis to compare the relative performance of the studied repair options.
    Efficient Numerical Model for Studying Bridge Pier Collapse in Floods
    High level and high velocity flood flows are potentially harmful to bridge piers as evidenced in many toppled piers, and among them the single-column piers were considered as the most vulnerable. The flood flow characteristic parameters including drag coefficient, scouring and vortex shedding are built into a pier-flood interaction model to investigate structural safety against flood hazards considering the effects of local scouring, hydrodynamic forces, and vortex induced resonance vibrations. By extracting the pier-flood simulation results embedded in a neural networks code, two cases of pier toppling occurred in typhoon days were reexamined: (1) a bridge overcome by flash flood near a mountain side; (2) a bridge washed off in flood across a wide channel near the estuary. The modeling procedures and simulations are capable of identifying the probable causes for the tumbled bridge piers during heavy floods, which include the excessive pier bending moments and resonance in structural vibrations.
    Determination of Stress-Strain Characteristics of Railhead Steel using Image Analysis
    True stress-strain curve of railhead steel is required to investigate the behaviour of railhead under wheel loading through elasto-plastic Finite Element (FE) analysis. To reduce the rate of wear, the railhead material is hardened through annealing and quenching. The Australian standard rail sections are not fully hardened and hence suffer from non-uniform distribution of the material property; usage of average properties in the FE modelling can potentially induce error in the predicted plastic strains. Coupons obtained at varying depths of the railhead were, therefore, tested under axial tension and the strains were measured using strain gauges as well as an image analysis technique, known as the Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The head hardened steel exhibit existence of three distinct zones of yield strength; the yield strength as the ratio of the average yield strength provided in the standard (σyr=780MPa) and the corresponding depth as the ratio of the head hardened zone along the axis of symmetry are as follows: (1.17 σyr, 20%), (1.06 σyr, 20%-80%) and (0.71 σyr, > 80%). The stress-strain curves exhibit limited plastic zone with fracture occurring at strain less than 0.1.
    Effect of Incorporating Silica Fume in Fly Ash Geopolymers

    This paper presents results of an experimental study performed to investigate effect of incorporating silica fume on physico-mechanical properties and durability of resulting fly ash geopolymers. Geopolymer specimens were prepared by activating fly ash incorporated with additional silica fume in the range of 2.5% to 5%, with a mixture of sodium hydroxide and sodium silicate solution having Na2O content of 8%. For studying durability, 10% magnesium sulphate solution was used to immerse the specimens up to a period of 15 weeks during which visual observation, weight changes and strength changes were monitored regularly. Addition of silica fume lowers performance of geopolymer pastes. However, in mortars, addition of silica fume significantly enhanced physico-mechanical properties and durability.

    Strengthening of RC Beams Containing Large Opening at Flexure with CFRP laminates
    This paper presents the study of strengthening R/C beams with large circular and square opening located at flexure zone by Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) laminates. A total of five beams were tested to failure under four point loading to investigate the structural behavior including crack patterns, failure mode, ultimate load and load deflection behaviour. Test results show that large opening at flexure reduces the beam capacity and stiffness; and increases cracking and deflection. A strengthening configuration was designed for each un-strengthened beams based on their respective crack patterns. CFRP laminates remarkably restore the beam capacity of beam with large circular opening at flexure location while 10% re-gain of beam capacity with square opening. The use of CFRP laminates with the designed strengthening configuration could significantly reduce excessive cracking and deflection and increase the ultimate capacity and stiffness of beam.