Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 9

Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering

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  • 9
    A Study of the Built Environment Design Elements Embedded into the Multiple Criteria Strategic Planning Model for an Urban Renewal

    The link between urban planning and design principles and the built environment of an urban renewal area is of interest to the field of urban studies. During the past decade, there has also been increasing interest in urban planning and design; this interest is motivated by the possibility that design policies associated with the built environment can be used to control, manage, and shape individual activity and behavior. However, direct assessments and design techniques of the links between how urban planning design policies influence individuals are still rare in the field. Recent research efforts in urban design have focused on the idea that land use and design policies can be used to increase the quality of design projects for an urban renewal area-s built environment. The development of appropriate design techniques for the built environment is an essential element of this research. Quality function deployment (QFD) is a powerful tool for improving alternative urban design and quality for urban renewal areas, and for procuring a citizen-driven quality system. In this research, we propose an integrated framework based on QFD and an Analytic Network Process (ANP) approach to determine the Alternative Technical Requirements (ATRs) to be considered in designing an urban renewal planning and design alternative. We also identify the research designs and methodologies that can be used to evaluate the performance of urban built environment projects. An application in an urban renewal built environment planning and design project evaluation is presented to illustrate the proposed framework.

    The Investigation of Green Roof and White Roof Cooling Potential on Single Storey Residential Building in the Malaysian Climate
    The phenomenon of global warming or climate change has led to many environmental issues including higher atmospheric temperatures, intense precipitation, increased greenhouse gaseous emissions and increased indoor discomfort. Studies have shown that bringing nature to the roof such as constructing green roof and implementing high-reflective roof may give positive impact in mitigating the effects of global warming and in increasing thermal comfort sensation inside buildings. However, no study has been conducted to compare both types of passive roof treatments in Malaysia in order to increase thermal comfort in buildings. Therefore, this study is conducted to investigate the effect of green roof and white painted roof as passive roof treatment in improving indoor comfort of Malaysian homes. This study uses an experimental approach in which the measurements of temperatures are conducted on the case study building. The measurements of outdoor and indoor environments were conducted on the flat roof with two different types of roof treatment that are green roof and white roof. The measurement of existing black bare roof was also conducted to act as a control for this study.
    Seismic Behavior Evaluation of Semi-Rigid Steel Frames with Knee Bracing by Modal Pushover Analysis (MPA)
    Nowadays use of a new structural bracing system called 'Knee Bracing System' have taken the specialists attention too much. On the other hand nonlinear static analysis procedures in estimate structures performance in earthquake time have taken attention too much. One of these procedure is modal pushover analysis (MPA) procedure. The accuracy of MPA procedure for simple steel moment resisting frame has been verified and considered in Chintanapakdee and Chopra-s article in 2003. Since the accuracy of MPA procedure has not verified for semi-rigid steel frames with knee bracing, we are going to get through with this matter in this study. For this purpose, the selected structures are four frames with different heights, 5 to 20 stories, will be designed according to AISC criteria. Then MPA procedure is used for the same frames with different rigidity percentiles of connections. The results of seismic responses are compared with dynamic nonlinear response history analysis as exact procedure and accuracy of MPA procedure is evaluated. It seems that MPA procedure accuracy will come down by reduction of the rigidity percentiles of semi-rigid connections.
    Analysis of Climatic Strategies in Designing the Residential Buildings in Cold Dry Climate of Tabriz Metropolis to Reduce Air Pollution in Urban Environment
    Nowadays, the earth is countered with serious problem of air pollution. This problem has been started from the industrial revolution and has been faster in recent years, so that leads the earth to ecological and environmental disaster. One of its results is the global warming problem and its related increase in global temperature. The most important factors in air pollution especially in urban environments are Automobiles and residential buildings that are the biggest consumers of the fossil energies, so that if the residential buildings as a big part of the consumers of such energies reduce their consumption rate, the air pollution will be decreased. Since Metropolises are the main centers of air pollution in the world, assessment and analysis of efficient strategies in decreasing air pollution in such cities, can lead to the desirable and suitable results and can solve the problem at least in critical level. Tabriz city is one of the most important metropolises in North west of Iran that about two million people are living there. for its situation in cold dry climate, has a high rate of fossil energies consumption that make air pollution in its urban environment. These two factors, being both metropolis and in cold dry climate, make this article try to analyze the strategies of climatic design in old districts of the city and use them in new districts of the future. These strategies can be used in this city and other similar cities and pave the way to reduce energy consumption and related air pollution to save whole world.
    Effects of Solar Absorption Coefficient of External Wall on Building Energy Consumption
    The principle concern of this paper is to determine the impact of solar absorption coefficient of external wall on building energy consumption. Simulations were carried out on a typical residential building by using the simulation Toolkit DeST-h. Results show that reducing solar absorption coefficient leads to a great reduction in building energy consumption and thus light-colored materials are suitable.
    Fenestration Effects on Cross Ventilation for a Typical Taiwanese School Building When Applying Wind Profile
    Appropriate ventilation in a classroom is helpful for enhancing air exchange rate and student concentration. This study focuses on the effects of fenestration in a four-story school building by performing numerical simulation of a building when considering indoor and outdoor environments simultaneously. The wind profile function embedded in PHOENICS code was set as the inlet boundary condition in a suburban environment. Sixteen fenestration combinations were compared in a classroom containing thirty seats. This study evaluates mean age of air (AGE) and airflow pattern of a classroom on different floors. Considering both wind profile and fenestration effects, the airflow on higher floors is channeled toward the area near ceiling in a room and causes older mean age of air in the breathing zone. The results in this study serve as a useful guide for enhancing natural ventilation in a typical school building.
    Analytical Model for Predicting Whole Building Heat Transfer
    A new analytical model is developed which provides close-formed solutions for both transient indoor and envelope temperature changes in buildings. Time-dependent boundary temperature is presented as Fourier series which can approximate real weather conditions. The final close-formed solutions are simple, concise, and comprehensive. The model was compared with numerical results and good accuracy was obtained. The model can be used as design and control guidelines in engineering applications for analysing mechanical heat transfer properties for buildings.
    Rational Structure of Cable Truss

    One of the main problems of suspended cable structures is initial shape change under the action of non uniform load. The problem can be solved by increasing of weight of construction or by using of prestressing. But this methods cause increasing of materials consumption of suspended cable structure. The cable truss usage is another way how the problem of shape change under the action of non uniform load can be fixed. The cable trusses with the vertical and inclined suspensions, cross web and single cable were analyzed as the main load-bearing structures of suspension bridge. It was shown, that usage of cable truss allows to reduce the vertical displacements up to 32% in comparison with the single cable in case of non uniformly distributed load. In case of uniformly distributed load single cable is preferable.

    Impacts of the Courtyard with Glazed Roof on House Winter Thermal Conditions
    The 'wind-rain' house has a courtyard with glazed roof, which allows more direct sunlight to come into indoor spaces during the winter. The glazed roof can be partially opened or closed and automatically controlled to provide natural ventilation in order to adjust for indoor thermal conditions and the roof area can be shaded by reflective insulation materials during the summer. Two field studies for evaluating indoor thermal conditions of the two 'windrain' houses have been carried out by author in 2009 and 2010. Indoor and outdoor air temperature and relative humidity adjacent to floor and ceiling of the two sample houses were continuously tested at 15-minute intervals, 24 hours a day during the winter months. Based on field study data, this study investigates relationships between building design and indoor thermal condition of the 'windrain' house to improve the future house design for building thermal comfort and energy efficiency