Stress Intensity Factors for Plates with Collinear and Non-Aligned Straight Cracks
Multi-site damage (MSD) has been a challenge to
aircraft, civil and power plant structures. In real life components are subjected to cracking at many vulnerable locations such as the bolt
holes. However, we do not consider for the presence of multiple cracks. Unlike components with a single crack, these components are
difficult to predict. When two cracks approach one another, their
stress fields influence each other and produce enhancing or shielding effect depending on the position of the cracks. In the present study,
numerical studies on fracture analysis have been conducted by using
the developed code based on the modified virtual crack closure integral (MVCCI) technique and finite element analysis (FEA) software ABAQUS for computing SIF of plates with multiple cracks.
Various parametric studies have been carried out and the results have
been compared with literature where ever available and also with the solution, obtained by using ABAQUS. By conducting extensive
numerical studies expressions for SIF have been obtained for collinear cracks and non-aligned cracks.
Survey on the Possibility of Post -Earthquake Quick Inspection of Damaged Building by Ordinary People Using the European Macro-Seismic Scale 1998 (EMS-98)
In recent years, the number of natural disasters in the world has occurred frequently. After a strong earthquake occurs, multiple disasters due to tsunami, strong aftershocks or heavy snow can possible to occur. To prevent a secondary disaster and to save a life, the quick inspection of the damaged building is necessary. This paper investigated on a possibility of post earthquake quick inspection of damaged building by ordinary people which used the European Macro- Seismic Scale 1998 (EMS-98).
The Effects of Bolt Spacing on Composite Shear Wall Behavior
Composite steel shear wall is a lateral load resisting system which consists of a steel plate with concrete wall attached to one or both sides to prevent it from elastic buckling. The composite behavior is ensured by utilizing high-strength bolts. This paper investigates the effect of distance between bolts, and for this purpose 14 one-story one-bay specimens with various bolts spacing were modeled by finite element code which is developed by the authors. To verify the model, numerical results were compared with a valid experiment which illustrate proper agreement. Results depict increasing the distance between bolts would improve the seismic ever, this increase must be limited, because of large distances will cause widespread buckling of the steel plate in free subpanels between bolts and would result in no improvement. By comparing the results in elastic region, it was observed initial stiffness is not affected by changing the distance.
Determination of Temperature and Velocity Fields in a Corridor at a Central Interim Spent Fuel Storage Facility Using Numerical Simulation
The presented article deals with the description of a
numerical model of a corridor at a Central Interim Spent Fuel Storage
Facility (hereinafter CISFSF). The model takes into account the
effect of air flows on the temperature of stored waste. The
computational model was implemented in the ANSYS/CFX
programming environment in the form of a CFD task solution, which
was compared with an approximate analytical calculation. The article
includes a categorization of the individual alternatives for the
ventilation of such underground systems. The aim was to evaluate a
ventilation system for a CISFSF with regard to its stability and
capacity to provide sufficient ventilation for the removal of heat
produced by stored casks with spent nuclear fuel.
Photomechanical Analysis of Wooden Testing Bodies under Flexural Loadings
Application of wood in rural construction is diffused
all around the world since remote times. However, its inclusion in
structural design deserves strong support from broad knowledge of
material properties. The pertinent literature reveals the application of
optical methods in determining the complete field displacement on
bodies exhibiting regular as well as irregular surfaces. The use of
moiré techniques in experimental mechanics consists in analyzing the
patterns generated on the body surface before and after deformation.
The objective of this research work is to study the qualitative
deformation behavior of wooden testing specimens under specific
loading situations. The experiment setup follows the literature
description of shadow moiré methods. Results indicate strong
anisotropy influence of the generated displacement field. Important
qualitative as well as quantitative stress and strain distribution were
obtained wooden members which are applicable to rural
A Numerical Modeling of Piping Phenomenon in Earth Dams
To estimate the risks of dam failure phenomenon, it is necessary to understand this phenomenon and the involved governing factors. Overtopping and piping are the two main reasons of earthdam failures. In the piping context, the piping is determined as a phenomenon which is occurred between two phases, the water liquid and the solid soil. In this investigation, the onset of piping and its development, as well as the movement of water in soil, are numerically approached. In this regard, a one-dimensional numerical model based on the mass-conserving finite-volume method is developed and applied in order to simulate the piping phenomenon in a continuous circular tunnel of given initial length and radius, located between upstream and downstream. The simulation result includes the time-variations of radius along the tunnel until the radius value reaches its critical and the piping phenomenon converts to overtopping.
Durability of LDPE Geomembrane within Sealing System of MSW (Landfill)
Analyse of locally manufactured Low Density Polyethylene (LDPE) durability, used within lining systems at bottom of Municipal Solid Waste (landfill), is done in the present work. For this end, short and middle time creep behavior under tension of the analyzed material is carried out. The locally manufactured material is tested and compared to the European one (LDPE-CE). Both materials was tested in 03 various mediums: ambient and two aggressive (salty water and foam water), using three specimens in each case. A testing campaign is carried out using an especially designed and achieved testing bench. Moreover, characterisation tests were carried out to evaluate the medium effect on the mechanical properties of the tested material (LDPE). Furthermore, experimental results have been used to establish a law regression which can be used to predict creep behaviour of the analyzed material. As a result, the analyzed LDPE material has showed a good stability in different ambient and aggressive mediums; as well, locally manufactured LDPE seems more flexible, compared with the European one. This makes it more useful to the desired application.
Influence of Atmospheric Physical Effects on Static Behavior of Building Plate Components Made of Fiber-Cement-Based Materials
The paper presents the brief information on particular results of experimental study focused to the problems of behavior of structural plated components made of fiber-cement-based materials and used in building constructions, exposed to atmospheric physical effects given by the weather changes in the summer period. Weather changes represented namely by temperature and rain cause also the changes of the temperature and moisture of the investigated structural components. This can affect their static behavior that means stresses and deformations, which have been monitored as the main outputs of tests performed. Experimental verification is based on the simulation of the influence of temperature and rain using the defined procedure of warming and water sprinkling with respect to the corresponding weather conditions during summer period in the South Moravian region at the Czech Republic, for which the application of these structural components is mainly planned. Two types of components have been tested: (i) glass-fiber-concrete panels used for building façades and (ii) fiber-cement slabs used mainly for claddings, but also as a part of floor structures or lost shuttering, and so on.
Atmospheric physical effect
, building component
, water sprinkling
Geometric and Material Nonlinear Analysis of Reinforced Concrete Structure Considering Soil-Structure Interaction
In the present research, a finite element model is
presented to study the geometrical and material nonlinear behavior of
reinforced concrete plane frames considering soil-structure
interaction. The nonlinear behaviors of concrete and reinforcing steel
are considered both in compression and tension up to failure. The
model takes account also for the number, diameter, and distribution
of rebar along every cross section. Soil behavior is taken into
consideration using four different models; namely: linear-, nonlinear
Winkler's model, and linear-, nonlinear continuum model. A
computer program (NARC) is specially developed in order to
perform the analysis. The results achieved by the present model show
good agreement with both theoretical and experimental published
literature. The nonlinear behavior of a rectangular frame resting on
soft soil up to failure using the proposed model is introduced for
Advantages of Combining Solar Greenhouse System and Trombe Wall in Hot and Dry Climate and Housing Design: The Case of Isfahan
Nowadays over-consumption of fossil energy in
buildings especially in residential buildings and also considering the
increase in populations, the crisis of energy shortage in a near future
is predictable. The recent performance of developed countries in
construction with the aim of decreasing fossil energies shows that
these countries have understood the incoming crisis and has taken
reasonable and basic actions in this regard. However, Iranian
architecture, with several thousands years of history, has acquired
and executed invaluable experiences in designing, adapting and
coordinating with the nature.
Architectural studies during the recent decades show that imitating
modern western architecture results in high energy wastage beside
the fact that it not reasonably adaptable and corresponded with the
habits and customs of people unlike the architecture in the past which
was compatible and adaptable with the climatic conditions and this
necessitates optimal using of renewable energies more than ever. This
paper studies problems of design, execution and living in today's
houses and reviews the characteristics of climatic elements paying
special attention to the performance of trombe wall and solar
greenhouse in traditional houses and offers some suggestions for
combining these two elements and a climatic strategy.
Hygric Performance of a Sandstone Wall Retrofitted with Interior Thermal Insulation
Temperature, relative humidity and overhygroscopic
moisture fields in a sandstone wall provided with interior thermal
insulation were calculated in order to assess the hygric performance
of the retrofitted wall. Computational simulations showed that during
the time period of 10 years which was subject of investigation no
overhygroscopic moisture appeared in the analyzed building
envelope so that it performed in a satisfactory way from the hygric
point of view.
Investigation of Water Vapour Transport Properties of Gypsum Using Genetic Algorithm
Water vapour transport properties of gypsum block
are studied in dependence on relative humidity using inverse analysis
based on genetic algorithm. The computational inverse analysis is
performed for the relative humidity profiles measured along the
longitudinal axis of a rod sample. Within the performed transient
experiment, the studied sample is exposed to two environments with
different relative humidity, whereas the temperature is kept constant.
For the basic gypsum characterisation and for the assessment of input
material parameters necessary for computational application of
genetic algorithm, the basic material properties of gypsum are
measured as well as its thermal and water vapour storage parameters.
On the basis of application of genetic algorithm, the relative
humidity dependent water vapour diffusion coefficient and water
vapour diffusion resistance factor are calculated.
Bridge Analysis Structure under Human Induced Dynamic Load
The paper deals with the analysis of the dynamic
response of footbridges under human - induced dynamic loads.
This is a frequently occurring and often dominant load for
footbridges as it stems from the very purpose of a footbridge - to
convey pedestrian. Due to the emergence of new materials and
advanced engineering technology, slender footbridges are
increasingly becoming popular to satisfy the modern transportation
needs and the aesthetical requirements of the society. These
structures however are always lively with low stiffness, low mass,
low damping and low natural frequencies. As a consequence, they are
prone to vibration induced by human activities and can suffer severe
vibration serviceability problems, particularly in the lateral direction.
Pedestrian bridges are designed according to first and second limit
states, these are the criteria involved in response to static design load.
However, it is necessary to assess the dynamic response of bridge
design load on pedestrians and assess it impact on the comfort of the
user movement. Usually the load is considered a person or a small
group which can be assumed in perfect motion synchronization.
Already one person or small group can excite significant vibration of
the deck. In order to calculate the dynamic response to the movement
of people, designer needs available and suitable computational model
and criteria. For the calculation program ANSYS based on finite
element method was used.
, dynamic analysis
serviceability of footbridges
, lateral vibration
, walking force
, slender suspension footbridges
frequencies and vibration modes
, rhythm jumping
, normal walking.
Flowability and Strength Development Characteristics of Bottom Ash Based Geopolymer
Despite of the preponderant role played by cement among the construction materials, it is today considered as a material destructing the environment due to the large quantities of carbon dioxide exhausted during its manufacture. Besides, global warming is now recognized worldwide as the new threat to the humankind against which advanced countries are investigating measures to reduce the current amount of exhausted gases to the half by 2050. Accordingly, efforts to reduce green gases are exerted in all industrial fields. Especially, the cement industry strives to reduce the consumption of cement through the development of alkali-activated geopolymer mortars using industrial byproducts like bottom ash. This study intends to gather basic data on the flowability and strength development characteristics of alkali-activated geopolymer mortar by examining its FT-IT features with respect to the effects and strength of the alkali-activator in order to develop bottom ash-based alkali-activated geopolymer mortar. The results show that the 35:65 mass ratio of sodium hydroxide to sodium silicate is appropriate and that a molarity of 9M for sodium hydroxide is advantageous. The ratio of the alkali-activators to bottom ash is seen to have poor effect on the strength. Moreover, the FT-IR analysis reveals that larger improvement of the strength shifts the peak from 1060 cm–1 (T-O, T=Si or Al) toward shorter wavenumber.
Optimization of Parametric Studies Using Strategies of Sampling Techniques
To improve the efficiency of parametric studies or
tests planning the method is proposed, that takes into account all input parameters, but only a few simulation runs are performed to
assess the relative importance of each input parameter. For K input
parameters with N input values the total number of possible combinations of input values equals NK. To limit the number of runs,
only some (totally N) of possible combinations are taken into account. The sampling procedure Updated Latin Hypercube
Sampling is used to choose the optimal combinations. To measure the
relative importance of each input parameter, the Spearman rank
correlation coefficient is proposed. The sensitivity and the influence
of all parameters are analyzed within one procedure and the key
parameters with the largest influence are immediately identified.
The Effects of Aggregate Sizes and Fiber Volume Fraction on Bending Toughness and Direct Tension of Steel Fiber Reinforced Concrete
In order to supplement the brittle property of concrete,
fibers are added into concrete mixtures. Compared to general concrete,
various characteristics such as tensile strength, bending strength,
bending toughness, and resistance to crack are superior, and even
when cracks occur, improvements on toughness as well as resistance
to shock are excellent due to the growth of fracture energy. Increased
function of steel fiber reinforced concrete can be differentiated
depending on the fiber dispersion, and sand percentage can be an
important influence on the fiber dispersion. Therefore, in this research,
experiments were planned on sand percentage in order to apprehend
the influence of sand percentage on the bending properties and direct
tension of SFRC and basic experiments were conducted on bending
and direct tension in order to recognize the properties of bending
properties and direct tension following the size of the aggregates and
Numerical Analysis of Concrete Crash Barriers
Reinforced concrete crash barriers used in road traffic
must meet a number of criteria. Crash barriers are laid lengthwise,
one behind another, and joined using specially designed steel locks.
While developing BSV reinforced concrete crash barriers (type
ŽPSV), experiments and calculations aimed to optimize the shape of
a newly designed lock and the reinforcement quantity and
distribution in a crash barrier were carried out. The tension carrying
capacity of two parallelly joined locks was solved experimentally.
Based on the performed experiments, adjustments of nonlinear
properties of steel were performed in the calculations. The obtained
results served as a basis to optimize the lock design using a
computational model that takes into account the plastic behaviour of
steel and the influence of the surrounding concrete . The response
to the vehicle impact has been analyzed using a specially elaborated
complex computational model, comprising both the nonlinear model
of the damping wall or crash barrier and the detailed model of the
Designing an Irregular Tensegrity as a Monumental Object
A novel and versatile numerical technique to solve a self-stress equilibrium state is adopted herein as a form-finding procedure for an irregular tensegrity structure. The numerical form-finding scheme of a tensegrity structure uses only the connectivity matrix and prototype tension coefficient vector as the initial guess solution. Any information on the symmetrical geometry or other predefined initial structural conditions is not necessary to get the solution in the form-finding process. An eight-node initial condition example is presented to demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed method in the form-finding of an irregular tensegrity structure. Based on the conception from the form-finding of an eight-node irregular tensegrity structure, a monumental object is designed by considering the real world situation such as self-weight, wind and earthquake loadings.
Design Methodology through Risk Assessment of Massive Water Retaining Structures
In the present paper the results of a numerical study are presented, numerical models were developed to simulate the behaviour of vertical massive dikes. The proposed models were developed according to the geometry, boundary conditions, loading conditions and initial conditions of a physical model taken as reference. The results obtained were compared to the experimental data. As far as the overall behaviour, the displacements and the failure mechanisms of the dikes is concerned, the numerical results were in good agreement with the experimental results, which clearly indicates a good quality of numerical modelling. The validated numerical models were used in a parametric study were the displacements and failure mechanisms were fully investigated. Out of the results obtained, some conclusions and recommendations related to the design of massive dikes are proposed.
Study on Various Measures for Flood in Specific Region: A Case Study of the 2008 Lao Flood
In recent years, the number of natural disasters in Laos has a trend to increase, especially the disaster of flood. To make a flood plan risk management in the future, it is necessary to understand and analyze the characteristics of the rainfall and Mekong River level data. To reduce the damage, this paper presents the flood risk analysis in Luangprabang and Vientiane, the prefecture of Laos. In detail, the relationship between the rainfall and the Mekong River level has evaluated and appropriate countermeasure for flood was discussed.
Effect of Addition the Dune Sand Powder on Development of Compressive Strength and Hydration of Cement Pastes
In this paper, the effect of addition the dune sand powder (DSP) on development of compressive strength and hydration of cement pastes was investigated as a function of water/binder ratio, was varied, on the one hand, the percentage of DSP and on the other, the fineness of DSP. In order to understand better the pozzolanic effect of dune sand powder in cement pastes, we followed the mixtures hydration (50% Pure Lime + 50% DSP) by X-ray diffraction. These mixtures the pastes present a hydraulic setting which is due to the formation of a C-S-H phase (calcium silicate hydrate). The latter is semi-crystallized. This study is a simplified approach to that of the mixtures (80% ordinary Portland cement + 20% DSP), in which the main reaction is the fixing of the lime coming from the cement hydration in the presence of DSP, to form calcium silicate hydrate semi-crystallized of second generation. The results proved that up to (20% DSP) as Portland cement replacement could be used with a fineness of 4000 cm²/g without affecting adversely the compressive strength. After 28 days, the compressive strength at 5, 10 and 15% DSP is superior to Portland cement, with an optimum effect for a percentage of the order of 5% to 10% irrespective of the w/b ratio and fineness of DSP.
Dynamic Action Induced By Walking Pedestrian
The main focus of this paper is on the human induced
forces. Almost all existing force models for this type of load (defined
either in the time or frequency domain) are developed from the
assumption of perfect periodicity of the force and are based on force
measurements conducted on rigid (i.e. high frequency) surfaces. To
verify the different authors conclusions the vertical pressure
measurements invoked during the walking was performed, using
pressure gauges in various configurations. The obtained forces are
analyzed using Fourier transformation. This load is often decisive in
the design of footbridges. Design criteria and load models proposed
by widely used standards and other researchers were introduced and a
comparison was made.