Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 19

Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering

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  • 19
    A Study on the Developing Method of the BIM (Building Information Modeling) Software Based On Cloud Computing Environment

    According as the Architecture, Engineering and Construction (AEC) Industry projects have grown more complex and larger, the number of utilization of BIM for 3D design and simulation is increasing significantly. Therefore, typical applications of BIM such as clash detection and alternative measures based on 3-dimenstional planning are expanded to process management, cost and quantity management, structural analysis, check for regulation, and various domains for virtual design and construction. Presently, commercial BIM software is operated on single-user environment, so initial cost is so high and the investment may be wasted frequently. Cloud computing that is a next-generation internet technology enables simple internet devices (such as PC, Tablet, Smart phone etc) to use services and resources of BIM software. In this paper, we suggested developing method of the BIM software based on cloud computing environment in order to expand utilization of BIM and reduce cost of BIM software. First, for the benchmarking, we surveyed successful case of BIM and cloud computing. And we analyzed needs and opportunities of BIM and cloud computing in AEC Industry. Finally, we suggested main functions of BIM software based on cloud computing environment and developed a simple prototype of cloud computing BIM software for basic BIM model viewing.

    Simulating Laboratory Short Term Aging to Suit Malaysian Field Conditions
    This paper characterizes the effects of artificial short term aging in the laboratory on the rheological properties of virgin 80/100 penetration grade asphalt binder. After several years in service, asphalt mixture started to deteriorate due to aging. Aging is a complex physico-chemical phenomenon that influences asphalt binder rheological properties causing a deterioration in asphalt mixture performance. To ascertain asphalt binder aging effects, the virgin, artificially aged and extracted asphalt binder were tested via the Rolling Thin film Oven (RTFO), Dynamic Shear Rheometer (DSR) and Rotational Viscometer (RV). A comparative study between laboratory and field aging conditions were also carried out. The results showed that the specimens conditioned for 85 minutes inside the RTFO was insufficient to simulate the actual short term aging caused that took place in the field under Malaysian field conditions
    Effect of Aggregate Gradation on Moisture Susceptibility and Creep in HMA
    The present study explains the effect of aggregate gradation on moisture damage in bituminous mixes. Three types of aggregate gradation and two types of binder; VG-30 and Polymer modified bitumen (PMB-40) are used. Moisture susceptibility tests like retained stability and tensile strength ratio (TSR) and static creep test are conducted on Marshall specimens. The creep test was also conducted for conditioned and unconditioned specimens to observe the effect of moisture on creep behaviour. The results indicate that Marshall stability value is higher in PMB-40 mix than VG-30 mixes. Moisture susceptibility of PMB-40 mixes is low when compared with mix using VG-30. The reduction in retained stability, and indirect tensile strength and increase in creep are evaluated for finer, coarser and normal gradation of aggregate to observe the effect of gradation on moisture susceptibility of mixes. The retained stability is least affected when compared with other moisture susceptibility parameters
    Evaluation of Shear Strength Parameters of Amended Loess through Using Common Admixtures in Gorgan, Iran
    Non-saturated soils that while saturation greatly decrease their volume, have sudden settlement due to increasing humidity, fracture and structural crack are called loess soils. Whereas importance of civil projects including: dams, canals and constructions bearing this type of soil and thereof problems, it is required for carrying out more research and study in relation to loess soils. This research studies shear strength parameters by using grading test, Atterberg limit, compression, direct shear and consolidation and then effect of using cement and lime additives on stability of loess soils is studied. In related tests, lime and cement are separately added to mixed ratios under different percentages of soil and for different times the stabilized samples are processed and effect of aforesaid additives on shear strength parameters of soil is studied. Results show that upon passing time the effect of additives and collapsible potential is greatly decreased and upon increasing percentage of cement and lime the maximum dry density is decreased; however, optimum humidity is increased. In addition, liquid limit and plastic index is decreased; however, plastic index limit is increased. It is to be noted that results of direct shear test reveal increasing shear strength of soil due to increasing cohesion parameter and soil friction angle.
    Grooving Method to Postpone Debonding of FRP Sheets Used for Shear Strengthening
    One of the most common practices for strengthening the reinforced concrete structures is the application of FRP (Fiber Reinforce Plastic) sheets to increase the flexural and shear strengths of the member. The elastic modulus of FRP is considerably higher than that of concrete. This will result in debonding between the FRP sheets and concrete surface. With conventional surface preparation of concrete, the ultimate capacity of the FRP sheets can hardly be achieved. New methods for preparation of the bonding surface have shown improvements in reducing the premature debonding of FRP sheets from concrete surface. The present experimental study focuses on the application of grooving method to postpone debonding of the FRP sheets attached to the side faces of concrete beams for shear strengthening. Comparison has also been made with conventional surface preparation method. This study clearly shows the efficiency of grooving method compared to surface preparation method, in preventing the debonding phenomenon and in increasing the load carrying capacity of FRP.
    Nonlinear Time-History Analysis of 3-Dimensional Semi-rigid Steel Frames
    This paper presents nonlinear elastic dynamic analysis of 3-D semi-rigid steel frames including geometric and connection nonlinearities. The geometric nonlinearity is considered by using stability functions and updating geometric stiffness matrix. The nonlinear behavior of the steel beam-to-column connection is considered by using a zero-length independent connection element comprising of six translational and rotational springs. The nonlinear dynamic equilibrium equations are solved by the Newmark numerical integration method. The nonlinear time-history analysis results are compared with those of previous studies and commercial SAP2000 software to verify the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed procedure.
    Hazard Contributing Factors Classification for Petrol Fuel Station
    Petrol Fuel Station (PFS) has potential hazards to the people, asset, environment and reputation of an operating company. Fire hazards, static electricity air pollution evoked by aliphatic and aromatic organic compounds are major causes of accident/incident occurrence at fuel station. Activities such as carelessness, maintenance, housekeeping, slips trips and falls, transportation hazard, major and minor injuries, robbery and snake bites has a potential to create unsafe conditions. The level of risk of these hazards varies according to location and country. The emphasis on safety considerations by the government is variable all around the world. Developed countries safety records are much better as compared to developing countries safety statistics. There is no significant approach available to highlight the unsafe acts and unsafe conditions during operation and maintenance of fuel station. Fuel station is the most commonly available facilities that contain flammable and hazardous materials. Due to continuous operation of fuel station they pose various hazards to people, environment and assets of an organization. To control these hazards, there is a need for specific approach. PFS operation is unique as compared to other businesses. For smooth operations it demands an involvement of operating company, contractor and operator group. This study will focus to address hazard contributing factors that have a potential to make PFS operation risky. One year data collected, 902 activities analyzed, comparisons were made to highlight significant contributing factors. The study will provide help and assistance to PFS outlet marketing companies to make their fuel station operation safer. It will help health safety and environment (HSE) professionals to arrest the gap available related to safety matters at PFS.
    Identification of the Causes of Construction Delay in Malaysia
    Construction delay is unavoidable in developing countries including Malaysia. It is defined as time overrun or extension of time for completion of a project. The purpose of the study is to determine the causes of delay in Malaysian construction industries based on previous worldwide research. The field survey conducted includes the experienced developers, consultants and contractors in Malaysia. 34 causes of the construction delay have been determined and 24 have been selected using the Rasch model analysis. The analysis result will be used as the baseline for the next research to find the causes of delay in the Malaysian construction industry taking place in Malaysian higher learning institutions.
    Masonry CSEB Building Models under Shaketable Testing-An Experimental Study
    In this experimental investigation shake table tests were conducted on two reduced models that represent normal single room building constructed by Compressed Stabilized Earth Block (CSEB) from locally available soil. One model was constructed with earthquake resisting features (EQRF) having sill band, lintel band and vertical bands to control the building vibration and another one was without Earthquake Resisting Features. To examine the seismic capacity of the models particularly when it is subjected to long-period ground motion by large amplitude by many cycles of repeated loading, the test specimen was shaken repeatedly until the failure. The test results from Hi-end Data Acquisition system show that model with EQRF behave better than without EQRF. This modified masonry model with new material combined with new bands is used to improve the behavior of masonry building.
    Extent of Highway Capacity Loss Due to Rainfall

    Traffic flow in adverse weather conditions have been investigated in this study for general traffic, week day and week end traffic. The empirical evidence is strong in support of the view that rainfall affects macroscopic traffic flow parameters. Data generated from a basic highway section along J5 in Johor Bahru, Malaysia was synchronized with 161 rain events over a period of three months. This revealed a 4.90%, 6.60% and 11.32% reduction in speed for light rain, moderate rain and heavy rain conditions respectively. The corresponding capacity reductions in the three rainfall regimes are 1.08% for light rain, 6.27% for moderate rain and 29.25% for heavy rain. In the week day traffic, speed drops of 8.1% and 16.05% were observed for light and heavy conditions. The moderate rain condition speed increased by 12.6%. The capacity drops for week day traffic are 4.40% for light rain, 9.77% for moderate rain and 45.90% for heavy rain. The weekend traffic indicated speed difference between the dry condition and the three rainy conditions as 6.70% for light rain, 8.90% for moderate rain and 13.10% for heavy rain. The capacity changes computed for the weekend traffic were 0.20% in light rain, 13.90% in moderate rain and 16.70% in heavy rain. No traffic instabilities were observed throughout the observation period and the capacities reported for each rain condition were below the norain condition capacity. Rainfall has tremendous impact on traffic flow and this may have implications for shock wave propagation.

    Shading Percentage Effects on Energy Consumption for Bahraini Residential Buildings
    Energy consumption is a very important topic these days especially regarding air conditioning in residential buildings, since this takes the biggest amount of energy in buildings total consumption, residential buildings constitute the biggest percentage of energy consumption in Bahrain. This research reflects on the effects of shading percentage in different solar orientations on the energy consumption inside residential buildings (domestic dwellings). The research as found that, there are different effects of shading in changing building orientation: • 0.69% for the shading percentage 25% when the building is oriented to the north (0º); • 18.59% for 75% of shading in north-west orientation (325º); • The best effect for shading is in north-west orientation (315º); • The less effect for shading was in case of the building orientation is the north (0º).
    Shear Strengthening of RC T Beam using CFRP Laminate: A Review

    This paper presents the Literature Review of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips to reinforced concrete (RC) as a strengthening solution for T-beams. Although a great deal of research has been carried out on Rectangular beams strengthened with Fibre-Reinforced Polymer composites (FRP), Fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) composites have been increasingly studied for their application in the flexural or shear strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC) members. A detailed discussion of the shearstrengthening repair with FRP is undertaken. This paper will be limited to research of CFRP material externally bonded to the tensile face of concrete beams. In particular, research studying the effect of externally applied CFRP materials on the shear performance of reinforced concrete beams will be reported.

    Hotel Design and Energy Consumption
    A hotel mainly uses its energy on water heating, space heating, refrigeration, space cooling, cooking, lighting and other building services. A number of 4-5 stars hotels in Auckland city are selected for this study. Comparing with the energy used for others, the energy used for the internal space thermal control (e.g. internal space heating) is more closely related to the hotel building itself. This study not only investigates relationship between annual energy (and winter energy) consumptions and building design data but also relationships between winter extra energy consumption and building design data. This study is to identify the major design factors that significantly impact hotel energy consumption for improving the future hotel design for energy efficient.
    Enabling Factors towards Safety Improvement for Industrialised Building System (IBS)

    The utilisation of Industrial Building System (IBS) in construction industry will lead to a safe site condition since minimum numbers of workers are required to be on-site, timely material delivery, systematic component storage, reduction of construction material and waste. These matters are being promoted in the Construction Industry Master Plan (CIMP 2006-2015). However, the enabling factors of IBS that will foster a safer working environment are indefinite; on that basis a research has been conducted. The purpose of this paper is to discuss and identify the relevant factors towards safety improvement for IBS. A quantitative research by way of questionnaire surveys have been conducted to 314 construction companies. The target group was Grade 5 to Grade 7 contractors registered with Construction Industry Development Board (CIDB) which specialise in IBS. The findings disclosed seven factors linked to the safety improvement of IBS construction site in Malaysia. The factors were historical, economic, psychological, technical, procedural, organisational and the environmental factors. From the findings, a psychological factor ranked as the highest and most crucial factor contributing to safer IBS construction site. The psychological factor included the self-awareness and influences from workmates behaviour. Followed by organisational factors, where project management style will encourage the safety efforts. From the procedural factors, it was also found that training was one of the significant factors to improve safety culture of IBS construction site. Another important finding that formed as a part of the environmental factor was storage of IBS components, in which proper planning of the layout would able to contribute to a safer site condition. To conclude, in order to improve safety of IBS construction site, a welltrained and skilled workers are required for IBS projects, thus proper training is permissible and should be emphasised.

    Performance Evaluation of the Post-Installed Anchor for Sign Structure

    Numerous experimental tests for post-installed anchor systems drilled in hardened concrete were conducted in order to estimate pull-out and shear strength accounting for uncertainties such as torque ratios, embedment depths and different diameters in demands. In this study, the strength of the systems was significantly changed by the effect of those three uncertainties during pull-out experimental tests, whereas the shear strength of the systems was not affected by torque ratios. It was also shown that concrete cone failure or damage mechanism was generally investigated during and after pull-out tests and in shear strength tests, mostly the anchor systems were failed prior to failure of primary structural system. Furthermore, 3D finite element model for the anchor systems was created by ABAQUS for the numerical analysis. The verification of finite element model was identical till the failure points to the load-displacement relationship specified by the experimental tests.

    Identifying Significant Factors of Brick Laying Process through Design of Experiment and Computer Simulation: A Case Study
    Improving performance measures in the construction processes has been a major concern for managers and decision makers in the industry. They seek for ways to recognize the key factors which have the largest effect on the process. Identifying such factors can guide them to focus on the right parts of the process in order to gain the best possible result. In the present study design of experiment (DOE) has been applied to a computer simulation model of brick laying process to determine significant factors while productivity has been chosen as the response of the experiment. To this end, four controllable factors and their interaction have been experimented and the best factor level has been calculated for each one. The results indicate that three factors, namely, labor of brick, labor of mortar and inter arrival time of mortar along with interaction of labor of brick and labor of mortar are significant.
    Numerical Study on the Response of Reinforced Concrete Wall Resisting the Impact Loading

    A numerical analysis of a reinforced concrete (RC) wall under missile impact loading is presented in this study. The model created by Technical Research Center of Finland was used. The commercial finite element code, LS-DYNA was used to analyze. The structural components of the reinforced concrete wall, missile and their contacts are fully modeled. The material nonlinearity with strain rate effects considering damage and failure is included in the analysis. The results of analysis were verified with other research results. The case-studies with different reinforcement ratios were conducted to investigate the influence of reinforcement on the punching behavior of walls under missile impact.

    Measuring Perceived Service Quality for Intelligent Living Space Showroom – Living 3.0 in Taiwan
    This research explores visitor-s expectations of service quality in intelligent living space showroom – Living 3.0 in Taiwan. Based on the five dimensions of PZB service quality, a specialist questionnaire is utilized to establish a complete service quality evaluation framework for Living 3.0. In this research, analysis hierarchy process (AHP) is applied to find the relative weights among the criteria. Finally, the service quality evaluation framework and evaluation results can be used as a guide for Living 3.0 proprietors to review, improve, and enhance service planning and service qualities in the future.
    The Effect of Saturates on Rheological and Aging Characteristics of Bitumen

    According to Rostler method (ASTM D 2006), saturates content of bitumen is determined based on its reactivity to sulphuric acid. While Corbett method (ASTM D 4124) based on its polarity level. This paper presents results from the study on the effect of saturates content determined by two different fractionation methods on the rheological and aging characteristics of bitumen. The result indicated that the increment of saturates content tended to reduce all the rheological characteristics concerned. Bitumen became less elastic, less viscous, and less resistant to plastic deformation, but became more resistant to fatigue cracking. After short and long term aging process, the treatment effect coefficients of saturates decreased, saturates became thicker due to aging process. This study concludes that saturates is not really stable or reactive in aging process. Therefore, the reactivity of saturates should be considered in bitumen aging index