Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 11

Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering

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  • 11
    Evaluation on Bearing Capacity of Ring Foundations on two-Layered Soil
    This paper utilizes a finite element analysis to study the bearing capacity of ring footings on a two-layered soil. The upper layer, that the footing is placed on it, is soft clay and the underneath layer is a cohesionless sand. For modeling soils, Mohr–Coulomb plastic yield criterion is employed. The effects of two factors, the clay layer thickness and the ratio of internal radius of the ring footing to external radius of the ring, have been analyzed. It is found that the bearing capacity decreases as the value of ri / ro increases. Although, as the clay layer thickness increases the bearing capacity was alleviated gradually.
    Threshold Submergence of Flow over PK Weirs
    In this study an extensive experimental research is carried out to develop a better understanding of the effects of Piano Key (PK) weir geometry on weir flow threshold submergence. Experiments were conducted in a 12 m long, 0.4 m wide and 0.7 m deep rectangular glass wall flume. The main objectives were to investigate the effect of the PK weir geometries including the weir length, weir height, inlet-outlet key widths, upstream and downstream apex overhangs, and slopped floors on threshold submergence and study the hydraulic flow characteristics. From the experimental results, a practical formula is proposed to evaluate the flow threshold submergence over PK weirs.
    Effect of Greywater Irrigation on Air-Water Interfacial area in Porous Medium

    In this study, the effect of greywater irrigation on airwater interfacial area is investigated. Several soil column experiments were conducted for different greywater irrigation to develop the pressure-saturation curves. Surface tension was measured for different greywater concentration and fitted for Gibbs adsorption equation. Pressure-saturation curves show that the reduction of capillary rise stops when it reaches its critical micelle concentration (CMC). A simple theory is derived from pressure-saturation curves for calculating air-water interfacial area in porous medium during greywater irrigation by introducing a term 'hydraulic radius' for the pores. This term diminishes any effect of pore shapes on the air-water interfacial area. The air-water interfacial area was calculated using the pressure-saturation curves and found that it decreases with increasing moisture content. But no significant effect was observed on air-water interfacial area for different greywater irrigation. A maximum of 10% variation in interfacial area was observed at the residual saturation zone.

    Determination of Required Ion Exchange Solution for Stabilizing Clayey Soils with Various PI
    Soil stabilization has been widely used to improve soil strength and durability or to prevent erosion and dust generation. Generally to reduce problems of clayey soils in engineering work and to stabilize these soils additional materials are used. The most common materials are lime, fly ash and cement. Using this materials, although improve soil property , but in some cases due to financial problems and the need to use special equipment are limited .One of the best methods for stabilization clayey soils is neutralization the clay particles. For this purpose we can use ion exchange materials. Ion exchange solution like CBR plus can be used for soil stabilization. One of the most important things in using CBR plus is determination the amount of this solution for various soils with different properties. In this study a laboratory experiment is conduct to evaluate the ion exchange capacity of three soils with various plasticity index (PI) to determine amount or required CBR plus solution for soil stabilization.
    Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Buildings in Algiers Area

    Several models of vulnerability assessment have been proposed. The selection of one of these models depends on the objectives of the study. The classical methodologies for seismic vulnerability analysis, as a part of seismic risk analysis, have been formulated with statistical criteria based on a rapid observation. The information relating to the buildings performance is statistically elaborated. In this paper, we use the European Macroseismic Scale EMS-98 to define the relationship between damage and macroseismic intensity to assess the seismic vulnerability. Applying to Algiers area, the first step is to identify building typologies and to assign vulnerability classes. In the second step, damages are investigated according to EMS-98.

    Numerical Modeling of Direct Shear Tests on Sandy Clay
    Investigation of sandy clay behavior is important since urban development demands mean that sandy clay areas are increasingly encountered, especially for transportation infrastructures. This paper presents the results of the finite element analysis of the direct shear test (under three vertical loading 44, 96 and 192 kPa) and discusses the effects of different parameters such as cohesion, friction angle and Young's modulus on the shear strength of sandy clay. The numerical model was calibrated against the experimental results of large-scale direct shear tests. The results have shown that the shear strength was increased with increase in friction angle and cohesion. However, the shear strength was not influenced by raising the friction angle at normal stress of 44 kPa. Also, the effect of different young's modulus factors on stress-strain curve was investigated.
    Establishing a New Simple Formula for Buckling Length Factor (K) of Rigid Frames Columns
    The calculation of buckling length factor (K) for steel frames columns is a major and governing processes to determine the dimensions steel frame columns cross sections during design. The buckling length of steel frames columns has a direct effect on the cost (weight) of using cross section. A new formula is required to determine buckling length factor (K) by simplified way. In this research a new formula for buckling length factor (K) was established to determine by accurate method for a limited interval of columns ends rigidity (GA, GB). The new formula can be used ease to evaluate the buckling length factor without needing to complicated equations or difficult charts.
    Simulation and Statistical Analysis of Motion Behavior of a Single Rockfall
    The impact force of a rockfall is mainly determined by its moving behavior and velocity, which are contingent on the rock shape, slope gradient, height, and surface roughness of the moving path. It is essential to precisely calculate the moving path of the rockfall in order to effectively minimize and prevent damages caused by the rockfall. By applying the Colorado Rockfall Simulation Program (CRSP) program as the analysis tool, this research studies the influence of three shapes of rock (spherical, cylindrical and discoidal) and surface roughness on the moving path of a single rockfall. As revealed in the analysis, in addition to the slope gradient, the geometry of the falling rock and joint roughness coefficient ( JRC ) of the slope are the main factors affecting the moving behavior of a rockfall. On a single flat slope, both the rock-s bounce height and moving velocity increase as the surface gradient increases, with a critical gradient value of 1:m = 1 . Bouncing behavior and faster moving velocity occur more easily when the rock geometry is more oval. A flat piece tends to cause sliding behavior and is easily influenced by the change of surface undulation. When JRC
    Damage Evolution of Underground Structural Reinforced Concrete Small-Scale Static-Loading Experiments
    Small-scale RC models of both piles and tunnel ducts were produced as mockups of reality and loaded under soil confinement conditionsto investigate the damage evolution of structural RC interacting with soil. Experimental verifications usinga 3D nonlinear FE analysis program called COM3D, which was developed at the University of Tokyo, are introduced. This analysis has been used in practice for seismic performance assessment of underground ducts and in-ground LNG storage tanks in consideration of soil-structure interactionunder static and dynamic loading. Varying modes of failure of RCpilessubjected to different magnitudes of soil confinement were successfully reproduced in the proposed small-scale experiments and numerically simulated as well. Analytical simulation was applied to RC tunnel mockups under a wide variety of depth and soil confinement conditions, and reasonable matching was confirmed.
    Mass Transfer Modeling of Nitrate in an Ion Exchange Selective Resin
    The rate of nitrate adsorption by a nitrate selective ion exchange resin was investigated in a well-stirred batch experiments. The kinetic experimental data were simulated with diffusion models including external mass transfer, particle diffusion and chemical adsorption. Particle pore volume diffusion and particle surface diffusion were taken into consideration separately and simultaneously in the modeling. The model equations were solved numerically using the Crank-Nicholson scheme. An optimization technique was employed to optimize the model parameters. All nitrate concentration decay data were well described with the all diffusion models. The results indicated that the kinetic process is initially controlled by external mass transfer and then by particle diffusion. The external mass transfer coefficient and the coefficients of pore volume diffusion and surface diffusion in all experiments were close to each other with the average value of 8.3×10-3 cm/S for external mass transfer coefficient. In addition, the models are more sensitive to the mass transfer coefficient in comparison with particle diffusion. Moreover, it seems that surface diffusion is the dominant particle diffusion in comparison with pore volume diffusion.
    A Hidden Markov Model for Modeling Pavement Deterioration under Incomplete Monitoring Data
    In this paper, the potential use of an exponential hidden Markov model to model a hidden pavement deterioration process, i.e. one that is not directly measurable, is investigated. It is assumed that the evolution of the physical condition, which is the hidden process, and the evolution of the values of pavement distress indicators, can be adequately described using discrete condition states and modeled as a Markov processes. It is also assumed that condition data can be collected by visual inspections over time and represented continuously using an exponential distribution. The advantage of using such a model in decision making process is illustrated through an empirical study using real world data.