Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 24

Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering

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  • 24
    Design Alternatives for Lateral Force-Resisting Systems of Tall Buildings in Dubai, UAE
    Four design alternatives for lateral force-resisting systems of tall buildings in Dubai, UAE are presented. Quantitative comparisons between the different designs are also made. This paper is intended to provide different feasible lateral systems to be used in Dubai in light of the available seismic hazard studies of the UAE. The different lateral systems are chosen in conformance with the International Building Code (IBC). Moreover, the expected behavior of each system is highlighted and light is shed on some of the cost implications associated with lateral system selection.
    Artificial Neural Networks Modeling in Water Resources Engineering: Infrastructure and Applications
    The use of artificial neural network (ANN) modeling for prediction and forecasting variables in water resources engineering are being increasing rapidly. Infrastructural applications of ANN in terms of selection of inputs, architecture of networks, training algorithms, and selection of training parameters in different types of neural networks used in water resources engineering have been reported. ANN modeling conducted for water resources engineering variables (river sediment and discharge) published in high impact journals since 2002 to 2011 have been examined and presented in this review. ANN is a vigorous technique to develop immense relationship between the input and output variables, and able to extract complex behavior between the water resources variables such as river sediment and discharge. It can produce robust prediction results for many of the water resources engineering problems by appropriate learning from a set of examples. It is important to have a good understanding of the input and output variables from a statistical analysis of the data before network modeling, which can facilitate to design an efficient network. An appropriate training based ANN model is able to adopt the physical understanding between the variables and may generate more effective results than conventional prediction techniques.
    A Study for Carbonation Degree on Concrete using a Phenolphthalein Indicator and Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy
    A concrete structure is designed and constructed for its purpose of use, and is expected to maintain its function for the target durable years from when it was planned. Nevertheless, as time elapses the structure gradually deteriorates and then eventually degrades to the point where the structure cannot exert the function for which it was planned. The performance of concrete that is able to maintain the level of the performance required over the designed period of use as it has less deterioration caused by the elapse of time under the designed condition is referred to as Durability. There are a number of causes of durability degradation, but especially chloride damage, carbonation, freeze-thaw, etc are the main causes. In this study, carbonation, one of the main causes of deterioration of the durability of a concrete structure, was investigated via a microstructure analysis technique. The method for the measurement of carbonation was studied using the existing indicator method, and the method of measuring the progress of carbonation in a quantitative manner was simultaneously studied using a FT-IR (Fourier-Transform Infrared) Spectrometer along with the microstructure analysis technique.
    Analytical Study on a Longitudinal Joints of the Slab-Type Modular Bridges
    In this study, a longitudinal joint connection was proposed for the short-span slab-type modular bridges with rapid construction. The slab-type modular bridge consists of a number of precast slab modules and has the joint connection between the modules in the longitudinal direction of the bridge. A finite element based parameter analysis was conducted to design the shape and the dimensions of the longitudinal joint connection. Numbers of shear keys within the joint, height and depth of the shear key, tooth angle, and the spacing were considered as the design parameters. Using the local cracking load at the corner of the shear key and the cross-sectional area of the joint, an efficiency factor was proposed to evaluate the effectiveness of the longitudinal joint connection. The dimensions of shear key were determined by comparing the cracking loads and the efficiency factors obtained from the finite element analysis.
    Stress Analysis of Non-persistent Rock Joints under Biaxial Loading

    Two-dimensional finite element model was created in this work to investigate the stresses distribution within rock-like samples with offset open non-persistent joints under biaxial loading. The results of this study have explained the fracture mechanisms observed in tests on rock-like material with open non-persistent offset joints [1]. Finite element code SAP2000 was used to study the stresses distribution within the specimens. Four-nodded isoperimetric plain strain element with two degree of freedom per node, and the three-nodded constant strain triangular element with two degree of freedom per node were used in the present study.The results of the present study explained the formation of wing cracks at the tip of the joints for low confining stress as well as the formation of wing cracks at the middle of the joint for the higher confining stress. High shear stresses found in the numerical study at the tip of the joints explained the formation of secondary cracks at the tip of the joints in the experimental study. The study results coincide with the experimental observations which showed that for bridge inclination of 0o, the coalescence occurred due to shear failure and for bridge inclination of 90o the coalescence occurred due to tensile failure while for the other bridge inclinations coalescence occurred due to mixed tensile and shear failure.

    Experimental and Analytical Study of Scrap Tire Rubber Pad for Seismic Isolation
    A seismic isolation pad produced by utilizing the scrap tire rubber which contains interleaved steel reinforcing cords has been proposed. The steel cords are expected to function similar to the steel plates used in conventional laminated rubber bearings. The scrap tire rubber pad (STRP) isolator is intended to be used in low rise residential buildings of highly seismic areas of the developing countries. Experimental investigation was conducted on unbonded STRP isolators, and test results provided useful information including stiffness, damping values and an eventual instability of the isolation unit. Finite element analysis (FE analysis) of STRP isolator was carried out on properly bonded samples. These types of isolators provide positive incremental force resisting capacity up to shear strain level of 155%. This paper briefly discusses the force deformation behavior of bonded STRP isolators including stability of the isolation unit.
    Work Structuring and the Feasibility of Application to Construction Projects in Vietnam
    Design should be viewed concurrently by three ways as transformation, flow and value generation. An innovative approach to solve design – related problems is described as the integrated product - process design. As a foundation for a formal framework consisting of organizing principles and techniques, Work Structuring has been developed to guide efforts in the integration that enhances the development of operation and process design in alignment with product design. Vietnam construction projects are facing many delays, and cost overruns caused mostly by design related problems. A better design management that integrates product and process design could resolve these problems. A questionnaire survey and in – depth interviews were used to investigate the feasibility of applying Work Structuring to construction projects in Vietnam. The purpose of this paper is to present the research results and to illustrate the possible problems and potential solutions when Work Structuring is implemented to construction projects in Vietnam.
    Assessment of Compaction Temperatures on Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) Properties
    Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) is one of the most commonest constructed asphalts in Iran and the quality control of constructed roads with HMA have been always paid due attention by researchers. The quality control of constructed roads with this method is being usually carried out by measuring volumetric parameters of HMA marshall samples. One of the important parameters that has a critical role in changing these volumetric parameters is “compaction temperature"; which as a result of its changing, volumetric parameters of Marshall Samples and subsequently constructed asphalt is encountered with variations. In this study, considering the necessity of preservation of the compaction temperature, the effect of various temperatures on Hot Mix Asphalt (HMA) samples properties has been evaluated. As well, to evaluate the effect of this parameter on different grading, two different grading (Top coat index grading and binder index grading) have been used and samples were compacted at 5 various temperatures.
    Strengthening of RC Beams with Large Openings in Shear by CFRP Laminates: 2D Nonlinear FE Analysis
    To date, theoretical studies concerning the Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) strengthening of RC beams with openings have been rather limited. In addition, various numerical analyses presented so far have effectively simulated the behaviour of solid beam strengthened by FRP material. In this paper, a two dimensional nonlinear finite element analysis is presented to validate against the laboratory test results of six RC beams. All beams had the same rectangular cross-section geometry and were loaded under four point bending. The crack pattern results of the finite element model show good agreement with the crack pattern of the experimental beams. The load midspan deflection curves of the finite element models exhibited a stiffer result compared to the experimental beams. The possible reason may be due to the perfect bond assumption used between the concrete and steel reinforcement.
    Development of a Support Tool for Cost and Schedule Integration Managment at Program Level

    There has been gradual progress of late in construction projects, particularly in big-scale megaprojects. Due to the long-term construction period, however, with large-scale budget investment, lack of construction management technologies, and increase in the incomplete elements of project schedule management, a plan to conduct efficient operations and to ensure business safety is required. In particular, as the project management information system (PMIS) is meant for managing a single project centering on the construction phase, there is a limitation in the management of program-scale businesses like megaprojects. Thus, a program management information system (PgMIS) that includes program-level management technologies is needed to manage multiple projects. In this study, a support tool was developed for managing the cost and schedule information occurring in the construction phase, at the program level. In addition, a case study on the developed support tool was conducted to verify the usability of the system. With the use of the developed support tool program, construction managers can monitor the progress of the entire project and of the individual subprojects in real time.

    Tension Stiffening Parameter in Composite Concrete Reinforced with Inoxydable Steel: Laboratory and Finite Element Analysis
    In the present work, behavior of inoxydable steel as reinforcement bar in composite concrete is being investigated. The bar-concrete adherence in reinforced concrete (RC) beam is studied and focus is made on the tension stiffening parameter. This study highlighted an approach to observe this interaction behavior in bending test instead of direct tension as per reported in many references. The approach resembles actual loading condition of the structural RC beam. The tension stiffening properties are then applied to numerical finite element analysis (FEA) to verify their correlation with laboratory results. Comparison with laboratory shows a good correlation between the two. The experimental settings is able to determine tension stiffening parameters in RC beam and the modeling strategies made in ABAQUS can closely represent the actual condition. Tension stiffening model used can represent the interaction properties between inoxydable steel and concrete.
    Optimization of CO2 Emissions and Cost for Composite Building Design with NSGA-II
    Environmental pollution problems have been globally main concern in all fields including economy, society and culture into the 21st century. Beginning with the Kyoto Protocol, the reduction on the emissions of greenhouse gas such as CO2 and SOX has been a principal challenge of our day. As most buildings unlike durable goods in other industries have a characteristic and long life cycle, they consume energy in quantity and emit much CO2. Thus, for green building construction, more research is needed to reduce the CO2 emissions at each stage in the life cycle. However, recent studies are focused on the use and maintenance phase. Also, there is a lack of research on the initial design stage, especially the structure design. Therefore, in this study, we propose an optimal design plan considering CO2 emissions and cost in composite buildings simultaneously by applying to the structural design of actual building.
    Low-Cost Eco-Friendly Building Material: A Case Study in Ethiopia
    This work presents a low-cost and eco-friendly building material named Agrostone panel. Africa-s urban population is growing at an annual rate of 2.8% and 62% of its population will live in urban areas by 2050. As a consequence, many of the least urbanized and least developed African countries- will face serious challenges in providing affordable housing to the urban dwellers. Since the cost of building materials accounts for the largest proportion of the overall construction cost, innovating low-cost building material is vital. Agrostone panel is used in housing projects in Ethiopia. It uses raw materials of agricultural/industrial wastes and/or natural minerals as a filler, magnesium-based chemicals as a binder and fiberglass as reinforcement. Agrostone panel reduces the cost of wall construction by 50% compared with the conventional building materials. The pros and cons of Agrostone panel as well as the use of other waste materials as a raw material to make the panel more sustainable, low-cost and better properties are discussed.
    Comparison of Eurocodes EN310 and EN789 in Determining the Bending Strength and Modulus of Elasticity of Red Seraya Plywood Panel
    The characteristic bending strength (MOR) and mean modulus of elasticity (MOE) of tropical hardwood red seraya (Shorea spp.) plywood were determined using European Standard EN310 and EN789. The thickness of the test specimen was 4.0mm, 7.0mm, 9.0mm, 12.0mm and 15.0mm. The experiment found that the MOR of red seraya plywood in EN310 is about 12% to 20% and 7% to 24% higher than EN789 whereas MOE were about 28% to 41% and 30% to 36% lower than those obtained from EN 789 for test specimens parallel and perpendicular to the grain direction. The linear regression shows that MOR and MOE for EN789 is about 0.8 times less and 1.5 times more than EN310. The experiment also found that the MOR and MOE of EN310 and EN789 also depend on the wood species that used in the experiment.
    Neural Network Evaluation of FRP Strengthened RC Buildings Subjected to Near-Fault Ground Motions having Fling Step

    Recordings from recent earthquakes have provided evidence that ground motions in the near field of a rupturing fault differ from ordinary ground motions, as they can contain a large energy, or “directivity" pulse. This pulse can cause considerable damage during an earthquake, especially to structures with natural periods close to those of the pulse. Failures of modern engineered structures observed within the near-fault region in recent earthquakes have revealed the vulnerability of existing RC buildings against pulse-type ground motions. This may be due to the fact that these modern structures had been designed primarily using the design spectra of available standards, which have been developed using stochastic processes with relatively long duration that characterizes more distant ground motions. Many recently designed and constructed buildings may therefore require strengthening in order to perform well when subjected to near-fault ground motions. Fiber Reinforced Polymers are considered to be a viable alternative, due to their relatively easy and quick installation, low life cycle costs and zero maintenance requirements. The objective of this paper is to investigate the adequacy of Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) to determine the three dimensional dynamic response of FRP strengthened RC buildings under the near-fault ground motions. For this purpose, one ANN model is proposed to estimate the base shear force, base bending moments and roof displacement of buildings in two directions. A training set of 168 and a validation set of 21 buildings are produced from FEA analysis results of the dynamic response of RC buildings under the near-fault earthquakes. It is demonstrated that the neural network based approach is highly successful in determining the response.

    Resource Leveling in Construction Projects using Re- Modified Minimum Moment Approach
    An attempt in this paper proposes a re-modification to the minimum moment approach of resource leveling which is a modified minimum moment approach to the traditional method by Harris. The method is based on critical path method. The new approach suggests the difference between the methods in the selection criteria of activity which needs to be shifted for leveling resource histogram. In traditional method, the improvement factor found first to select the activity for each possible day of shifting. In modified method maximum value of the product of Resources Rate and Free Float was found first and improvement factor is then calculated for that activity which needs to be shifted. In the proposed method the activity to be selected first for shifting is based on the largest value of resource rate. The process is repeated for all the remaining activities for possible shifting to get updated histogram. The proposed method significantly reduces the number of iterations and is easier for manual computations.
    Some Factors Affecting the Compressive Behaviour of Structural Masonry at Small Scales
    This paper presents part of a research into the small scale modelling of masonry. Small scale testing of masonry has been carried out by many authors, but few have attempted a systematic determination of the parameters that affect masonry at a small scale. The effect of increasing mortar strength and different sand gradings under compression were investigated. The results show masonry strength at small scale is influenced by increasing mortar strength and different sand gradings.
    Effect of Ground Subsidence on Load Sharing and Settlement of Raft and Piled Raft Foundations
    In this paper, two centrifugal model tests (case 1: raft foundation, case 2: 2x2 piled raft foundation) were conducted in order to evaluate the effect of ground subsidence on load sharing among piles and raft and settlement of raft and piled raft foundations. For each case, two conditions consisting of undrained (without groundwater pumping) and drained (with groundwater pumping) conditions were considered. Vertical loads were applied to the models after the foundations were completely consolidated by selfweight at 50g. The results show that load sharing by the piles in piled raft foundation (piled load share) for drained condition decreases faster than that for undrained condition. Settlement of both raft and piled raft foundations for drained condition increases more quickly than that for undrained condition. In addition, the settlement of raft foundation increases more largely than the settlement of piled raft foundation for drained condition.
    Properties of SMA Mixtures Containing Waste Polyethylene Terephthalate
    Utilization of waste material in asphalt pavement would be beneficial in order to find an alternative solution to increase service life of asphalt pavement and reduce environmental pollution as well. One of these waste materials is Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) which is a type of polyester material and is produced in a large extent. This research program is investigating the effects of adding waste PET particles into the asphalt mixture with a maximum size of 2.36 mm. Different percentages of PET were added into the mixture during dry process. Gap-graded mixture (SMA 14) and PG 80-100 asphalt binder have been used for this study. To evaluate PET reinforced asphalt mixture different laboratory investigations have been conducted on specimens. Marshall Stability test was carried out. Besides, stiffness modulus test and indirect tensile fatigue test were conducted on specimens at optimum asphalt content. It was observed that in many cases PET reinforced SMA mixture had better mechanical properties in comparison with control mixture.
    An Overview of Issues to Consider Before Introducing Performance-Based Road Maintenance Contracting
    Road authorities have confronted problems to maintaining the serviceability of road infrastructure systems by using various traditional methods of contracting. As a solution to these problems, many road authorities have started contracting out road maintenance works to the private sector based on performance measures. This contracting method is named Performance-Based Maintenance Contracting (PBMC). It is considered more costeffective than other traditional methods of contracting. It has a substantial success records in many developed and developing countries over the last two decades. This paper discusses and analyses the potential issues to be considered before the introduction of PBMC in a country.
    Developing Damage Assessment Model for Bridge Surroundings: A Study of Disaster by Typhoon Morakot in Taiwan
    This paper presents an integrated model that automatically measures the change of rivers, damage area of bridge surroundings, and change of vegetation. The proposed model is on the basis of a neurofuzzy mechanism enhanced by SOM optimization algorithm, and also includes three functions to deal with river imagery. High resolution imagery from FORMOSAT-2 satellite taken before and after the invasion period is adopted. By randomly selecting a bridge out of 129 destroyed bridges, the recognition results show that the average width has increased 66%. The ruined segment of the bridge is located exactly at the most scour region. The vegetation coverage has also reduced to nearly 90% of the original. The results yielded from the proposed model demonstrate a pinpoint accuracy rate at 99.94%. This study brings up a successful tool not only for large-scale damage assessment but for precise measurement to disasters.
    Comparative Embodied Carbon Analysis of the Prefabrication Elements Compared with In-situ Elements in Residential Building Development of Hong Kong

    This paper reviews the greenhouse gas emissions of prefabrication elements for residential development in Hong Kong. Prefabrication becomes a common practice in residential development in Hong Kong and is considered as a green approach. In Hong Kong, prefabrication took place at factories in Pearl River Delta. Although prefabrication reduces construction wastage, it might generate more greenhouse gas emission from transportation and manufacturing processes. This study attempts to measure the “cradle to site" greenhouse gas emission from prefabrication elements for a public housing development in Kai Tak area. The findings could help further reduction of greenhouse gas emissions through process improvement.

    The Effect of Frame Geometry on the Seismic Response of Self-Centering Concentrically- Braced Frames
    Conventional concentrically-braced frame (CBF) systems have limited drift capacity before brace buckling and related damage leads to deterioration in strength and stiffness. Self-centering concentrically-braced frame (SC-CBF) systems have been developed to increase drift capacity prior to initiation of damage and minimize residual drift. SC-CBFs differ from conventional CBFs in that the SC-CBF columns are designed to uplift from the foundation at a specified level of lateral loading, initiating a rigid-body rotation (rocking) of the frame. Vertically-aligned post-tensioning bars resist uplift and provide a restoring force to return the SC-CBF columns to the foundation (self-centering the system). This paper presents a parametric study of different prototype buildings using SC-CBFs. The bay widths of the SC-CBFs have been varied in these buildings to study different geometries. Nonlinear numerical analyses of the different SC-CBFs are presented to illustrate the effect of frame geometry on the behavior and dynamic response of the SC-CBF system.
    An Overview of the Factors Affecting Microbial-Induced Calcite Precipitation and its Potential Application in Soil Improvement
    Microbial-induced calcite precipitation (MICP) is a relatively green and sustainable soil improvement technique. It utilizes biochemical process that exists naturally in soil to improve engineering properties of soils. The calcite precipitation process is uplifted by the mean of injecting higher concentration of urease positive bacteria and reagents into the soil. The main objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the factors affecting the MICP in soil. Several factors were identified including nutrients, bacteria type, geometric compatibility of bacteria, bacteria cell concentration, fixation and distribution of bacteria in soil, temperature, reagents concentration, pH, and injection method. These factors were found to be essential for promoting successful MICP soil treatment. Furthermore, a preliminary laboratory test was carried out to investigate the potential application of the technique in improving the shear strength and impermeability of a residual soil specimen. The results showed that both shear strength and impermeability of residual soil improved significantly upon MICP treatment. The improvement increased with increasing soil density.