Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 17

Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering

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  • 17
    729
    An Experimental Study on Development of the Connection System of Concrete Barriers Applicable to Modular Bridge
    Abstract:
    Although many studies on the assembly technology of the bridge construction have dealt mostly with on the pier, girder or the deck of the bridge, studies on the prefabricated barrier have rarely been performed. For understanding structural characteristics and application of the concrete barrier in the modular bridge, which is an assembly of structure members, static loading test was performed. Structural performances as a road barrier of the three methods, conventional cast-in-place(ST), vertical bolt connection(BVC) and horizontal bolt connection(BHC) were evaluated and compared through the analyses of load-displacement curves, strain curves of the steel, concrete strain curves and the visual appearances of crack patterns. The vertical bolt connection(BVC) method demonstrated comparable performance as an alternative to conventional cast-in-place(ST) while providing all the advantages of prefabricated technology. Necessities for the future improvement in nuts enforcement as well as legal standard and regulation are also addressed.
    16
    1194
    Experimental Study of Thermal Environment in a Room with Mixing Ventilation
    Abstract:
    This paper reports an experimental study on a sleeping thermal manikin in a room equipped with a mixing ventilation system. In the experimental work, heat loss from the sleeping thermal manikin was measured under different conditions. The supply air temperature was in a range of 17°C to 27°C. Apart from the heat loss of the sleeping thermal manikin, the velocity distributions and temperature distributions were also measured in the experiments for subsequent analysis.
    15
    3466
    Planning the Building Evacuation Routes by a Spatial Network
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    The previous proposed evacuation routing approaches usually divide the space into multiple interlinked zones. However, it may be harder to clearly and objectively define the margins of each zone. This paper proposes an approach that connects locations of necessary guidance into a spatial network. In doing so, evacuation routes can be constructed based on the links between starting points, turning nodes, and terminal points. This approach more conforms to the real-life evacuation behavior. The feasibility of the proposed approach is evaluated through a case of one floor in a hospital building. Results indicate that the proposed approach provides valuable suggestions for evacuation planning.

    14
    4086
    Calculation of Voided Slabs Rigidities
    Abstract:
    A theoretical study of the rigidities of slabs with circular voids oriented in the longitudinal and in the transverse direction is discussed. Equations are presented for predicting the bending and torsional rigidities of the voided slabs. This paper summarizes the results of an extensive literature search and initial review of the current methods of analyzing voided slab. The various methods of calculating the equivalent plate parameters, which are necessary for two-dimensional analysis, are also reviewed. Static deflections on voided slabs are shown to be in good agreement with proposed equation.
    13
    5336
    Numerical Modeling of Steel-Composite Hybrid Tubes Subject to Static and Dynamic Loading
    Abstract:

    The commercial finite element program LS-DYNA was employed to evaluate the response and energy absorbing capacity of cylindrical metal tubes that are externally wrapped with composite. The effects of composite wall thickness, loading conditions and fiber ply orientation were examined. The results demonstrate that a wrapped composite can be utilized effectively to enhance the crushing characteristics and energy absorbing capacity of the tubes. Increasing the thickness of the composite increases the mean force and the specific energy absorption under both static and dynamic crushing. The ply pattern affects the energy absorption capacity and the failure mode of the metal tube and the composite material property is also significant in determining energy absorption efficiency.

    12
    6335
    Dynamic Response of a Water Tower Composed of Interlocked Panels
    Abstract:
    Earthquakes produce some of the most violent loading situations that a structure can be subjected to and if a structure fails under these loads then inevitably human life is put at risk. One of the most common methods by which a structure fails under seismic loading is at the connection of structural elements. The research presented in this paper investigates the interlock systems as a novel method for building structures. The main objective of this experimental study wasto determine the dynamic characteristics and the seismic behaviour of the proposed structures compared to conventional structural systemsduring seismic motions. Results of this study indicate that the interlock mechanism of the panels influences the behaviour of lateral load-resisting systems of the structures during earthquakes, contributing to better structural flexibility and easier maintenance.
    11
    6659
    Development of Road Maintenance Management System Based on WebGIS
    Abstract:

    Based on an analysis of the current research and application of Road maintenance, geographic information system (WebGIS) and ArcGIS Server, the platform overhead construction for Road maintenance development is studied and the key issues are presented, including the organization and design of spatial data on the basis of the geodatabase technology, middleware technology, tiles cache index technology and dynamic segmentation of WebGIS. Road maintenance geographic information platform is put forward through the researching ideas of analysis of the system design. The design and application of WebGIS system are discussed on the basis of a case study of BaNan district of Chongqing highway maintenance management .The feasibility of the theories and methods are validated through the system.

    10
    6818
    Effect of Water- Cement Ratio (w/c) on Mechanical Properties of Self-Compacting Concrete (Case Study)
    Abstract:
    Nowadays, the performance required for concrete structures is more complicated and diversified. Self-compacting concrete is a fluid mixture suitable for placing in structures with congested reinforcement without vibration. Self-compacting concrete development must ensure a good balance between deformability and stability. Also, compatibility is affected by the characteristics of materials and the mix proportions; it becomes necessary to evolve a procedure for mix design of SCC. This paper presents an experimental procedure for the design of self-compacting concrete mixes with different water-cement ratios (w/c) and other constant ratios by local materials. The test results for acceptance characteristics of self-compacting concrete such as slump flow, V-funnel and L-Box are presented. Further, compressive strength, tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of specimens were also determined and results are included here
    9
    7043
    Land Use around Metro Stations: A Case Study
    Abstract:
    Transport and land use are two systems that are mutually influenced. Their interaction is a complex process associated with continuous feedback. The paper examines the existing land use around an under construction metro station of the new metro network of Thessaloniki, Greece, through the use of field investigations, around the station-s predefined location. Moreover, except from the analytical land use recording, a sampling questionnaire survey is addressed to several selected enterprises of the study area. The survey aims to specify the characteristics of the enterprises, the trip patterns of their employees and clients, as well as the stated preferences towards the changes the new metro station is considered to bring to the area. The interpretation of the interrelationships among selected data from the questionnaire survey takes place using the method of Principal Components Analysis for Categorical Data. The followed methodology and the survey-s results contribute to the enrichment of the relevant bibliography concerning the way the creation of a new metro station can have an impact on the land use pattern of an area, by examining the situation before the operation of the station.
    8
    7588
    Experimental Analysis on Electrical and Photometric Performances of Commercially Available Integrated Compact Fluorescent Lamp
    Abstract:
    Lighting upgrades involve relatively lower costs which allow the benefits to be spread more widely than is possible with any other energy efficiency measure. In order to popularize the adoption of CFL in Taiwan, the authority proposes to implement a new energy efficient lamp comparative label system. The current study was accordingly undertaken to investigate the factors affecting the performance and the deviation of actual and labeled performance of commercially available integrated CFLs. In this paper, standard test methods to determine the electrical and photometric performances of CFL were developed based on CIE 84-1989 and CIE 60901-1987, then 55 selected CFLs from market were tested. The results show that with higher color temperature of CFLs lower efficacy are achieved. It was noticed that the most packaging of CFL often lack the information of Color Rendering Index. Also, there was no correlation between price and performance of the CFLs was indicated in this work. The results of this paper might help consumers to make more informed CFL-purchasing decisions.
    7
    8603
    Energy Based Temperature Profile for Heat Transfer Analysis of Concrete Section Exposed to Fire on One Side
    Abstract:
    For fire safety purposes, the fire resistance and the structural behavior of reinforced concrete members are assessed to satisfy specific fire performance criteria. The available prescribed provisions are based on standard fire load. Under various fire scenarios, engineers are in need of both heat transfer analysis and structural analysis. For heat transfer analysis, the study proposed a modified finite difference method to evaluate the temperature profile within a cross section. The research conducted is limited to concrete sections exposed to a fire on their one side. The method is based on the energy conservation principle and a pre-determined power function of the temperature profile. The power value of 2.7 is found to be a suitable value for concrete sections. The temperature profiles of the proposed method are only slightly deviate from those of the experiment, the FEM and the FDM for various fire loads such as ASTM E 119, ASTM 1529, BS EN 1991-1-2 and 550 oC. The proposed method is useful to avoid incontinence of the large matrix system of the typical finite difference method to solve the temperature profile. Furthermore, design engineers can simply apply the proposed method in regular spreadsheet software.
    6
    9574
    Thermal and Visual Performance of Solar Control Film
    Abstract:
    The use of solar control film on windows as one of solar passive strategies for building have becoming important and is gaining recognition. Malaysia located close to equator is having warm humid climate with long sunshine hours and abundant solar radiation throughout the year. Hence, befitting solar control on windows is absolutely necessary to capture the daylight whilst moderating thermal impact and eliminating glare problems. This is one of the energy efficient strategies to achieve thermal and visual comfort in buildings. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effect of window solar controls on thermal and visual performance of naturally ventilated buildings. This was conducted via field data monitoring using a test building facility. Four types of window glazing systems were used with three types of solar control films. Data were analysed for thermal and visual impact with reference to thermal and optical characteristics of the films. Results show that for each glazing system, the surface temperature of windows are influenced by the Solar Energy Absorption property, the indoor air temperature are influenced by the Solar Energy Transmittance and Solar Energy Reflectance, and the daylighting by Visible Light Transmission and Shading Coefficient. Further investigations are underway to determine the mathematical relation between thermal energy and visual performance with the thermal and optical characteristics of solar control films.
    5
    9663
    GIS-based Approach for Land-Use Analysis: A Case Study
    Abstract:
    Geographical Information Systems are an integral part of planning in modern technical systems. Nowadays referred to as Spatial Decision Support Systems, as they allow synergy database management systems and models within a single user interface machine and they are important tools in spatial design for evaluating policies and programs at all levels of administration. This work refers to the creation of a Geographical Information System in the context of a broader research in the area of influence of an under construction station of the new metro in the Greek city of Thessaloniki, which included statistical and multivariate data analysis and diagrammatic representation, mapping and interpretation of the results.
    4
    10262
    Retaining Structural System Active Vibration Control
    Abstract:
    This study presents an active vibration control technique to reduce the earthquake responses of a retained structural system. The proposed technique is a synthesis of the adaptive input estimation method (AIEM) and linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) controller. The AIEM can estimate an unknown system input online. The LQG controller offers optimal control forces to suppress wall-structural system vibration. The numerical results show robust performance in the active vibration control technique.
    3
    12376
    Behavior of RC Buildings to Tsunami Action
    Abstract:
    The present report describes the characteristics of damages and behavior of reinforced concrete buildings during the tsunami action. The discussion is based on the field damage survey in selected cities located on the coast of the zone affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011. This earthquake is the most powerful know earthquake that has hit Japan with a magnitude 9.0 and with epicenter located at 129 km of Sendai city (off the coast). The earthquake triggered a destructive tsunami with run up height of up to 40 meters that mainly affect cities located on the Pacific Ocean coast of the Tohoku region (north-east region of Japan). Reinforced concrete buildings in general resist the tsunami without collapse however the non-structural elements like panels and ceilings were severely damaged. The analysis of damages has permitted to understand the behavior of RC buildings under tsunami attack, and has also permitted to establish recommendations for their use to take refuge from tsunami in places where natural topography makes impossible to reach hilltops or other safer places.
    2
    12947
    Effects of Energy Consumption on Indoor Air Quality
    Abstract:

    Continuous measurements and multivariate methods are applied in researching the effects of energy consumption on indoor air quality (IAQ) in a Finnish one-family house. Measured data used in this study was collected continuously in a house in Kuopio, Eastern Finland, during fourteen months long period. Consumption parameters measured were the consumptions of district heat, electricity and water. Indoor parameters gathered were temperature, relative humidity (RH), the concentrations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) and differential air pressure. In this study, self-organizing map (SOM) and Sammon's mapping were applied to resolve the effects of energy consumption on indoor air quality. Namely, the SOM was qualified as a suitable method having a property to summarize the multivariable dependencies into easily observable two-dimensional map. Accompanying that, the Sammon's mapping method was used to cluster pre-processed data to find similarities of the variables, expressing distances and groups in the data. The methods used were able to distinguish 7 different clusters characterizing indoor air quality and energy efficiency in the study house. The results indicate, that the cost implications in euros of heating and electricity energy vary according to the differential pressure, concentration of carbon dioxide, temperature and season.

    1
    13161
    Application of Smart Temperature Information Material for The Evaluation of Heat Storage Capacity and Insulation Capacity of Exterior Walls
    Abstract:

    The heat storage capacity of concrete in building shells is a major reason for excessively large electricity consumption induced by indoor air conditioning. In this research, the previously developed Smart Temperature Information Material (STIM) is embedded in two groups of exterior wall specimens (the control group contains reinforced concrete exterior walls and the experimental group consists of tiled exterior walls). Long term temperature measurements within the concrete are taken by the embedded STIM. Temperature differences between the control group and the experimental group in walls facing the four cardinal directions (east, west, south, and north) are evaluated. This study aims to provide a basic reference for the design of exterior walls and the selection of heat insulation materials.