Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 16

Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering

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  • 16
    Reliability Analysis of Underground Pipelines Using Subset Simulation

    An advanced Monte Carlo simulation method, called Subset Simulation (SS) for the time-dependent reliability prediction for underground pipelines has been presented in this paper. The SS can provide better resolution for low failure probability level with efficient investigating of rare failure events which are commonly encountered in pipeline engineering applications. In SS method, random samples leading to progressive failure are generated efficiently and used for computing probabilistic performance by statistical variables. SS gains its efficiency as small probability event as a product of a sequence of intermediate events with larger conditional probabilities. The efficiency of SS has been demonstrated by numerical studies and attention in this work is devoted to scrutinise the robustness of the SS application in pipe reliability assessment. It is hoped that the development work can promote the use of SS tools for uncertainty propagation in the decision-making process of underground pipelines network reliability prediction.

    Evaluation of the Acoustic Performance of Classrooms in Algerian Teaching Schools

    This paper presents the results of an evaluation of acoustic comfort such as background noise and reverberation time in teaching rooms in Height National School of Civil Engineering, Algeria. Four teaching rooms are evaluated: conference room, two classroom and amphitheatre. The acoustic quality of the classrooms has been analyzed based on measurements of sound pressure level inside room and reverberations time. The measurement results show that impulse decays dependent on the position of the microphone inside room and the background noise is with agreement of National Official Journal of Algeria published in July 1993. Therefore there exists a discrepancy between the obtained reverberation time value and recommended reverberation time in some classrooms. Three methods have been proposed to reduce the reverberation time values in such room. We developed a program with FORTRAN 6.0 language based on the absorption acoustic values of the Technical Document Regulation (DTR C3.1.1). The important results of this paper can be used to regulate the construction and execute the acoustic rehabilitations of teaching room in Algeria, especially the classrooms of the pupils in primary and secondary schools.

    Mechanical Properties and Released Gas Analysis of High Strength Concrete with Polypropylene and Raw Rice Husk under High Temperature Effect

    When concrete is exposed to high temperatures, some changes may occur in its physical and mechanical properties. Especially, high strength concrete (HSC), may exhibit damages such as cracks and spallings. To overcome this problem, incorporating polymer fibers such as polypropylene (PP) in concrete is a well-known method. In high temperatures, PP decomposes and releases harmful gases such as CO and CO2. This study researches the use of raw rice husk (RRH) as a sustainable material, instead of PP fibers considering its several favorable properties, and its usability in HSC. RRH and PP fibers were incorporated in concrete at 0.5-3% and 0.2-0.5% by weight of cement, respectively. Concrete specimens were exposed to 20 (control), 300, 600 and 900°C. Under these temperatures, residual compressive and splitting tensile strength was determined. During the high temperature effect, the amount of released harmful gases was measured by a gas detector.

    A Study on Changing of Energy-Saving Performance of GHP Air Conditioning System with Time-Series Variation

    This paper deals the energy saving performance of GHP (Gas engine heat pump) air conditioning system has improved with time-series variation. There are two types of air conditioning systems, VRF (Variable refrigerant flow) and central cooling and heating system. VRF is classified as EHP (Electric driven heat pump) and GHP. EHP drives the compressor with electric motor. GHP drives the compressor with the gas engine. The electric consumption of GHP is less than one tenth of EHP does.

    In this study, the energy consumption data of GHP installed the junior high schools was collected. An annual and monthly energy consumption per rated thermal output power of each apparatus was calculated, and then their energy efficiency was analyzed. From these data, we investigated improvement of the energy saving of the GHP air conditioning system by the change in the generation.

    Enhance Construction Visual As-Built Schedule Management Using BIM Technology

    Construction project control attempts to obtain real-time as-built schedule information and to eliminate project delays by effectively enhancing dynamic schedule control and management. Suitable platforms for enhancing an as-built schedule visually during the construction phase are necessary and important for general contractors. As the application of building information modeling (BIM) becomes more common, schedule management integrated with the BIM approach becomes essential to enhance visual construction management implementation for the general contractor during the construction phase. To enhance visualization of the updated as-built schedule for the general contractor, this study presents a novel system called the Construction BIM-assisted Schedule Management (ConBIM-SM) system for general contractors in Taiwan. The primary purpose of this study is to develop a web ConBIM-SM system for the general contractor to enhance visual as-built schedule information sharing and efficiency in tracking construction as-built schedule. Finally, the ConBIM-SM system is applied to a case study of a commerce building project in Taiwan to verify its efficacy and demonstrate its effectiveness during the construction phase. The advantages of the ConBIM-SM system lie in improved project control and management efficiency for general contractors, and in providing BIM-assisted as-built schedule tracking and management, to access the most current as-built schedule information through a web browser. The case study results show that the ConBIM-SM system is an effective visual as-built schedule management platform integrated with the BIM approach for general contractors in a construction project.

    Lime-Pozzolan Plasters with Enhanced Thermal Capacity

    A new type of lightweight plaster with the thermal capacity enhanced by PCM (Phase Change Material) addition is analyzed. The basic physical characteristics, namely the bulk density, matrix density, total open porosity, and pore size distribution are measured at first. For description of mechanical properties, compressive strength measurements are done. The thermal properties are characterized by transient impulse techniques as well as by DSC analysis that enables determination of the specific heat capacity as a function of temperature. The resistivity against the liquid water ingress is described by water absorption coefficient measurement. The experimental results indicate a good capability of the designed plaster to moderate effectively the interior climate of buildings.

    Thermal Properties of Lime-Pozzolan Plasters for Application in Hollow Bricks Systems

    The effect of waste ceramic powder on the thermal properties of lime-pozzolana composites is investigated. At first, the measurements of effective thermal conductivity of lime-pozzolan composites are performed in dependence on moisture content from the dry state to fully water saturated state using a pulse method. Then, the obtained data are analyzed using two different homogenization techniques, namely the Lichtenecker’s and Dobson’s formulas, taking into account Wiener’s and Hashin/Shtrikman bounds. 

    Applications of Building Information Modeling (BIM) in Knowledge Sharing and Management in Construction

    Construction knowledge can be referred to and reused among involved project managers and jobsite engineers to alleviate problems on a construction jobsite and reduce the time and cost of solving problems related to constructability. This paper proposes a new methodology to provide sharing of construction knowledge by using the Building Information Modeling (BIM) approach. The main characteristics of BIM include illustrating 3D CAD-based presentations and keeping information in a digital format, and facilitation of easy updating and transfer of information in the 3D BIM environment. Using the BIM approach, project managers and engineers can gain knowledge related to 3D BIM and obtain feedback provided by jobsite engineers for future reference. This study addresses the application of knowledge sharing management in the construction phase of construction projects and proposes a BIM-based Knowledge Sharing Management (BIMKSM) system for project managers and engineers. The BIMKSM system is then applied in a selected case study of a construction project in Taiwan to verify the proposed methodology and demonstrate the effectiveness of sharing knowledge in the BIM environment. The combined results demonstrate that the BIMKSM system can be used as a visual BIM-based knowledge sharing management platform by utilizing the BIM approach and web technology.

    The Use of Seashell by-Products in Pervious Concrete Pavers

    Pervious concrete is a green alternative to conventional pavements with minimal fine aggregate and a high void content. Pervious concrete allows water to infiltrate through the pavement, thereby reducing the runoff and the requirement for stormwater management systems.

    Seashell By-Products (SBP) are produced in an important quantity in France and are considered as waste. This work investigated to use SBP in pervious concrete and produce an even more environmentally friendly product, Pervious Concrete Pavers.

    The research methodology involved substituting the coarse aggregate in the previous concrete mix design with 20%, 40% and 60% SBP. The testing showed that pervious concrete containing less than 40% SBP had strengths, permeability and void content which are comparable to the pervious concrete containing with only natural aggregate. The samples that contained 40% SBP or higher had a significant loss in strength and an increase in permeability and a void content from the control mix pervious concrete. On the basis of the results in this research, it was found that the natural aggregate can be substituted by SBP without affecting the delicate balance of a pervious concrete mix. Additional, it is recommended that the optimum replacement percentage for SBP in pervious concrete is 40 % direct replacement of natural coarse aggregate while maintaining the structural performance and drainage capabilities of the pervious concrete.

    Traffic Congestion on Highways in Nigeria Causes, Effects and Remedies

    This study investigates the causes, effects and remedies of traffic congestion which has become a common sight in most highways in Nigeria; Mowe/Ibafo section of the Lagos-Ibadan expressway was used as the case-study. 300 Structured questionnaires were distributed among the road users comprising drivers (Private and Commercial), passengers, pedestrians, traffic officers, church congregations, community leaders, Mowe/Ibafo residents, and other users of the road.

    300 questionnaires were given out; the average of 276 well completed returned questionnaires formed the basis of the study and was analyzed by the Relative Importance Index (R.I.I.). The result from the study showed the causes of traffic congestion as inadequate road capacity, poor road pavement, poor traffic management, poor drainage system poor driving habit, poor parking habit, poor design junctions/round-about, presence of heavy trucks, lack of pedestrian facilities, lack of road furniture, lack of parking facilities and others. Effects of road congestion from the study are waste of time, delay movement, stress, accident, inability to forecast travel of time, fuel consumption, road rage, relocation, night driving, and environmental pollution. To drastically reduce these negative effects; there must be provision for adequate parking space, construction of proper drainage, enlarging the width of the road, rehabilitate all roads needing attention, public enlightenment, traffic education, hack down all illegal buildings/shops built on the right of way (ROW), create a separate/alternative root for trucks and heavy vehicles, provision of pedestrian facilities, In-depth training of transport/traffic personnel, ban all form of road trading/hawking, and reduce the number of bus-stop where necessary. It is hoped that this study will become the foundation of further research in the area of improve road traffic management on our major highway.

    Observation and Experience of Using Mechanically Activated Fly Ash in Concrete

    Paper focuses on experimental testing of possibilities of mechanical activation of fly ash and observation of influence of specific surface and granulometry on final properties of fresh and hardened concrete. Mechanical grinding prepared various fineness of fly ash, which was classed by specific surface in accordance with Blain and their granulometry was determined by means of laser granulometer. Then, sets of testing specimens were made from mix designs of identical composition with 25% or Portland cement CEM I 42.5 R replaced with fly ash with various specific surface and granulometry. Mix design with only Portland cement was used as reference. Mix designs were tested on consistency of fresh concrete and compressive strength after 7, 28, 60 and 90 days.

    Strengthen of Cold-Formed Steel Column with Ferrocement Jacket: Push out Tests

    The population growth in the world requires an increase in demand of residential and housing construction. Using lightweight construction materials such as cold formed steel sections and ferrocement could be an alternate solution to foster the construction industry. In this study, a new composite column is introduced. It consists of cold formed steel section and ferrocement jacket. The ferrocement jacket was constructed using self-compacting mortar with two wire steel mesh of 550 MPa yield strength. Experimental push out tests was conducted to investigate the strength capacities and behavior of proposed shear connectors namely, bolt, bar-angle and self-drilling screw shear connectors. It was found that bolt connector showed the best behavior followed by bar-angle. Also, it was concluded that the ferrocement could be used to strength and improve the behavior of cold formed steel column.

    A Fundamental Study on the Anchor Performance of Non-Surface Treated Multi CFRP Tendons

    CFRP (Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer) is mainly used as reinforcing material for degraded structures owing to its advantages including its non-corrodibility, high strength and lightweight properties. Recently, dedicated studies focused not only on its simple bonding but also on its tensioning. The tension necessary for prestressing requires the anchoring of multi-CFRP tendons with high capacity and the surface treatment of the CFRP tendons may also constitute an important issue according to the type of anchor. The wedge type, swage type or bonded type anchor can be used to anchor the CFRP tendon. The bonded type anchor presents the disadvantage to lengthen the length of the anchor due to the low bond strength of the CFRP tendon without surface treatment. This study intends to overcome this drawback through the application of a method enlarging the bond area at the end of the CFRP tendon. This method enlarges the bond area by splitting the end of the CFRP tendon along its length and can be applied when CFRP is produced by pultrusion. The application of this method shows that the mono-CFRP tendon and 3-multi CFRP tendon secured the anchor performance corresponding to the tensile performance of the CFRP tendon and that the 7-multi tendon secured anchor performance corresponding to 90% of the tensile strength due to the occurrence of buckling in the steel tube anchorage. 

    Speed Characteristics of Mixed Traffic Flow on Urban Arterials

    Speed and traffic volume data are collected on different sections of four lane and six lane roads in three metropolitan cities in India. Speed data are analyzed to fit the statistical distribution to individual vehicle speed data and all vehicles speed data. It is noted that speed data of individual vehicle generally follows a normal distribution but speed data of all vehicle combined at a section of urban road may or may not follow the normal distribution depending upon the composition of traffic stream. A new term Speed Spread Ratio (SSR) is introduced in this paper which is the ratio of difference in 85th and 50th percentile speed to the difference in 50th and 15th percentile speed. If SSR is unity then speed data are truly normally distributed. It is noted that on six lane urban roads, speed data follow a normal distribution only when SSR is in the range of 0.86 – 1.11. The range of SSR is validated on four lane roads also.

    Study on Status and Development of Hydraulic System Protection: Pump Combined With Air Chamber

    Fluid transient analysis is one of the more challenging and complicated flow problems in the design and the operation of water pipeline systems (wps). When transient conditions "water hammer" exists, the life expectancy of the wps can be adversely impacted, resulting in pump and valve failures and catastrophic pipe ruptures. Transient control has become an essential requirement for ensuring safe operation of wps. An accurate analysis and suitable protection devices should be used to protect wps. This paper presents the problem of modeling and simulation of transient phenomena in wps based on the characteristics method. Also, it provides the influence of using the protection devices to control the adverse effects due to excessive and low pressure occur in the transient. The developed model applied for main wps: pump combined with closed surge tank connected to a reservoir. The results obtained provide that the model is an efficient tool for water hammer analysis. Moreover; using the closed surge tank reduces the unfavorable effects of transients.

    Sizing the Protection Devices to Control Water Hammer Damage

    The primary objectives of transient analysis are to determine the values of transient pressures that can result from flow control operations and to establish the design criteria for system equipment and devices (such as control devices and pipe wall thickness) so as to provide an acceptable level of protection against system failure due to pipe collapse or bursting. Because of the complexity of the equations needed to describe transients, numerical computer models are used to analyze transient flow hydraulics. An effective numerical model allows the hydraulic engineer to analyze potential transient events and to identify and evaluate alternative solutions for controlling hydraulic transients, thereby protecting the integrity of the hydraulic system. This paper presents the influence of using the protection devices to control the adverse effects due to excessive and low pressure occurs in the transient.