Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 22

Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering

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  • 22
    Sub-Impact Phenomenon of Elasto-Plastic Free-Free Beam during a Strike
    Based on Rayleigh beam theory, the sub-impacts of a free-free beam struck horizontally by a round-nosed rigid mass is simulated by the finite difference method and the impact-separation conditions. In order to obtain the sub-impact force, a uniaxial compression elastic-plastic contact model is employed to analyze the local deformation field on contact zone. It is found that the horizontal impact is a complicated process including the elastic plastic sub-impacts in sequence. There are two sub-zones of sub-impact. In addition, it found that the elastic energy of the free-free beam is more suitable for the Poisson collision hypothesis to explain compression and recovery processes.
    Cost Optimization of Concentric Braced Steel Building Structures
    Seismic design may require non-conventional concept, due to the fact that the stiffness and layout of the structure have a great effect on the overall structural behaviour, on the seismic load intensity as well as on the internal force distribution. To find an economical and optimal structural configuration the key issue is the optimal design of the lateral load resisting system. This paper focuses on the optimal design of regular, concentric braced frame (CBF) multi-storey steel building structures. The optimal configurations are determined by a numerical method using genetic algorithm approach, developed by the authors. Aim is to find structural configurations with minimum structural cost. The design constraints of objective function are assigned in accordance with Eurocode 3 and Eurocode 8 guidelines. In this paper the results are presented for various building geometries, different seismic intensities, and levels of energy dissipation.
    Effects of Opening Shape and Location on the Structural Strength of R.C. Deep Beams with Openings
    This research investigates the effects of the opening shape and location on the structural behavior of reinforced concrete deep beam with openings, while keeping the opening size unchanged. The software ANSYS 12.1 is used to handle the nonlinear finite element analysis. The ultimate strength of reinforced concrete deep beam with opening obtained by ANSYS 12.1 shows fair agreement with the experimental results, with a difference of no more than 20%. The present work concludes that the opening location has much more effect on the structural strength than the opening shape. It was concluded that placing the openings near the upper corners of the deep beam may double the strength, and the use of a rectangular narrow opening, with the long sides in the horizontal direction, can save up to 40% of structural strength of the deep beam.
    Toward Integrative Stormwater Design in Urban Spaces
    The design requirements for successful human accommodation in urban spaces are well known; and the range of facilities available for meeting urban water quality and quantity requirements is also well established. Their competing requirements must be reconciled in order for urban spaces to be successful for both. This paper outlines the separate human and water imperatives and their interactions in urban spaces. Stormwater management facilities- relative potential contributions to urban spaces are contrasted, and design choices for achieving those potentials are described. This study uses human success of urban space as the evaluative criterion of stormwater amenity: human values call on stormwater facilities to contribute to successful human spaces. Placing water-s contribution under the overall idea of successful urban space is an evolution from previous subjective evaluations. The information is based on photographs and notes from approximately 1,000 stormwater facilities and urban sites collected during the last 35 years in North America and overseas, and the author-s experience on multi-disciplinary design teams. This conceptual study combines the disciplinary roles of engineering, landscape architecture, and sociology in effecting successful urban design.
    Shock Induced Damage onto Free-Standing Objects in an Earthquake

    In areas of low to moderate seismicity many building contents and equipment are not positively fixed to the floor or tied to adjacent walls. Under seismic induced horizontal vibration, such contents and equipment can suffer from damage by either overturning or impact associated with rocking. This paper focuses on the estimation of shock on typical contents and equipment due to rocking. A simplified analytical model is outlined that can be used to estimate the maximum acceleration on a rocking object given its basic geometric and mechanical properties. The developed model was validated against experimental results. The experimental results revealed that the maximum shock acceleration can be underestimated if the static stiffness of the materials at the interface between the rocking object and floor is used rather than the dynamic stiffness. Excellent agreement between the model and experimental results was found when the dynamic stiffness for the interface material was used, which was found to be generally much higher than corresponding static stiffness under different investigated boundary conditions of the cushion. The proposed model can be a beneficial tool in performing a rapid assessment of shock sensitive components considered for possible seismic rectification. 

    Rehabilitation of Reinforced Concrete Columns

    In recent years, rehabilitation has been the subject of extensive research due to increased spending on building work and repair of built works. In all cases, it is absolutely essential to carry out methods of strengthening or repair of structural elements, and that following an inspection analysis and methodology of a correct diagnosis. The reinforced concrete columns are important elements in building structures. They support the vertical loads and provide bracing against the horizontal loads. This research about the behavior of reinforced concrete rectangular columns, rehabilitated by concrete liner, confinement FRP fabric, steel liner or cage formed by metal corners. It allows comparing the contributions of different processes used perspective section resistance elements rehabilitated compared to that is not reinforced or repaired. The different results obtained revealed a considerable gain in bearing capacity failure of reinforced sections cladding concrete, metal bracket, steel plates and a slight improvement to the section reinforced with fabric FRP. The use of FRP does not affect the weight of the structures, but the use of different techniques cladding increases the weight of elements rehabilitated and therefore the weight of the building which requires resizing foundations.

    Non Destructive Characterisation of Cement Mortar during Carbonation
    The objective of this work was to examine the changes in non destructive properties caused by carbonation of CEM II mortar. Samples of CEM II mortar were prepared and subjected to accelerated carbonation at 20°C, 65% relative humidity and 20% CO2 concentration. We examined the evolutions of the gas permeability, the thermal conductivity, the thermal diffusivity, the volume of the solid phase by helium pycnometry, the longitudinal and transverse ultrasonic velocities. The principal contribution of this work is that, apart of the gas permeability, changes in other non destructive properties have never been studied during the carbonation of cement materials. These properties are important in predicting/measuring the durability of reinforced concrete in CO2 environment. The carbonation depth and the porosity accessible to water were also reported in order to explain comprehensively the changes in non destructive parameters.
    Effect of U-Turn in Reinforced Concrete Dog-Legged Stair Slabs
    Reinforced concrete stair slabs with mid landings i.e. Dog-legged shaped are conventionally designed as per specifications of standard codes of practices which guide about the effective span according to the varying support conditions. Presently, the behavior of such slabs has been investigated using Finite Element method. A single flight stair slab with landings on both sides and supported at ends on wall, and a multi flight stair slab with landings and six different support arrangements have been analyzed. The results obtained for stresses, strains and deflections are used to describe the behavior of such stair slabs, including locations of critical moments and deflections. Values of critical moments obtained by F.E. analysis have also have been compared with that obtained from conventional analysis. Analytical results show that the moments are also critical near the kinks i.e. junction of mid-landing and inclined waist slab. This change in the behavior of dog-legged stair slab may be due to continuity of the material in transverse direction in two landings adjoining the waist slab, hence additional stiffness achieved. This change in the behavior is generally not taken care of in conventional method of design.
    Repairing and Strengthening Earthquake Damaged RC Beams with Composites

    The dominant judgment for earthquake damaged reinforced concrete (RC) structures is to rebuild them with the new ones. Consequently, this paper estimates if there is chance to repair earthquake RC beams and obtain economical contribution to modern day society. Therefore, the totally damaged (damaged in shear under cyclic load) reinforced concrete (RC) beams repaired and strengthened by externally bonded carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) strips in this study. Four specimens, apart from the reference beam, were separated into two distinct groups. Two experimental beams in the first group primarily tested up to failure then appropriately repaired and strengthened with CFRP strips. Two undamaged specimens from the second group were not repaired but strengthened by the identical strengthening scheme as the first group for comparison. This study studies whether earthquake damaged RC beams that have been repaired and strengthened will validate similar strength and behavior to equally strengthened, undamaged RC beams. Accordingly, a strength correspondence according to strengthened specimens was acquired for the repaired and strengthened specimens. Test results confirmed that repair and strengthening, which were estimated in the experimental program, were effective for the specimens with the cracking patterns considered in the experimental program. 

    A Retrospective of Wind Turbine Architectural Integration in the Built Environment
    Since the European renewable energy directives set the target for 22.1% of electricity generation to be supplied by 2010 [1], there has been increased interest in using green technologies also within the urban enviroment. The most commonly considered installations are solar thermal and solar photovoltaics. Nevertheless, as observed by Bahaj et al. [2], small scale turbines can reduce the built enviroment related CO2 emissions. Thus, in the last few years, an increasing number of manufacturers have developed small wind turbines specifically designed for the built enviroment. The present work focuses on the integration into architectural systems of such installations and presents a survey of successful case studies.
    Effect of Temperature of Exposure on Properties of Cement Mortar with MSWI Bottom Ash

    Effect of high temperature exposure on properties of cement mortar containing municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) bottom ash as partial natural aggregate replacement is analyzed in the paper. The measurements of mechanical properties, bulk density, matrix density, total open porosity, sorption and desorption isotherms are done on samples exposed to the temperatures of 20°C to 1000°C. TGA analysis is performed as well. Finally, the studied samples are analyzed by IR spectroscopy in order to evaluate TGA data.

    Elastic Failure of Web-Cracked Plate Girder
    The presence of a vertical fatigue crack in the web of a plate girder subjected to pure bending influences the bending moment capacity of the girder. The growth of the crack may lead to premature elastic failure due to flange local yielding, flange local buckling, or web local buckling. Approximate expressions for the bending moment capacities corresponding to these failure modes were formulated. Finite element analyses were then used to validate the expressions. The expressions were employed to assess the effects of crack length on the capacity. Neglecting brittle fracture, tension buckling, and ductile failure modes, it was found that typical girders are governed by the capacity associated with flange local yielding as influenced by the crack. Concluding, a possible use of the capacity expressions in girder design was demonstrated.
    The Significance of Embodied Energy in Certified Passive Houses

    Certifications such as the Passive House Standard aim to reduce the final space heating energy demand of residential buildings. Space conditioning, notably heating, is responsible for nearly 70% of final residential energy consumption in Europe. There is therefore significant scope for the reduction of energy consumption through improvements to the energy efficiency of residential buildings. However, these certifications totally overlook the energy embodied in the building materials used to achieve this greater operational energy efficiency. The large amount of insulation and the triple-glazed high efficiency windows require a significant amount of energy to manufacture. While some previous studies have assessed the life cycle energy demand of passive houses, including their embodied energy, these rely on incomplete assessment techniques which greatly underestimate embodied energy and can lead to misleading conclusions. This paper analyses the embodied and operational energy demands of a case study passive house using a comprehensive hybrid analysis technique to quantify embodied energy. Results show that the embodied energy is much more significant than previously thought. Also, compared to a standard house with the same geometry, structure, finishes and number of people, a passive house can use more energy over 80 years, mainly due to the additional materials required. Current building energy efficiency certifications should widen their system boundaries to include embodied energy in order to reduce the life cycle energy demand of residential buildings.

    Study of Damage in Beams with Different Boundary Conditions
    –In this paper the damage in clamped-free, clampedclamped and free-free beam are analyzed considering samples without and with structural modifications. The damage location is investigated by the use of the bispectrum and wavelet analysis. The mathematical models are obtained using 2D elasticity theory and the Finite Element Method (FEM). The numerical and experimental data are approximated using the Particle Swarm Optimizer (PSO) method and this way is possible to adjust the localization and the severity of the damage. The experimental data are obtained through accelerometers placed along the sample. The system is excited using impact hammer.
    Principal Type of Water Responsible for Damage of Concrete Repeated Freeze-Thaw Cycles

    The first and basic cause of the failure of concrete is repeated freezing (thawing) of moisture contained in the pores, microcracks, and cavities of the concrete. On transition to ice, water existing in the free state in cracks increases in volume, expanding the recess in which freezing occurs. A reduction in strength below the initial value is to be expected and further cycle of freezing and thawing have a further marked effect. By using some experimental parameters like nuclear magnetic resonance variation (NMR), enthalpy-temperature (or heat capacity) variation, we can resolve between the various water states and their effect on concrete properties during cooling through the freezing transition temperature range. The main objective of this paper is to describe the principal type of water responsible for the reduction in strength and structural damage (frost damage) of concrete following repeated freeze –thaw cycles. Some experimental work was carried out at the institute of cryogenics to determine what happens to water in concrete during the freezing transition. 

    Analytical Modelling of Average Bond Stress within the Anchorage of Tensile Reinforcing Bars in Reinforced Concrete Members
    A reliable estimate of the average bond stress within the anchorage of steel reinforcing bars in tension is critically important for the design of reinforced concrete member. This paper describes part of a recently completed experimental research program in the Centre for Infrastructure Engineering and Safety (CIES) at the University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia aimed at assessing the effects of different factors on the anchorage requirements of modern high strength steel reinforcing bars. The study found that an increase in the anchorage length and bar diameter generally leads to a reduction of the average ultimate bond stress. By the extension of a well established analytical model of bond and anchorage, it is shown here that the differences in the average ultimate bond stress for different anchorage lengths is associated with the variable degree of plastic deformation in the tensile zone of the concrete surrounding the bar.
    Assessment of Vulnerability Curves Using Vulnerability Index Method for Reinforced Concrete Structures
    The seismic feedback experiences in Algeria have shown higher percentage of damages for non-code conforming reinforced concrete (RC) buildings. Furthermore, the vulnerability of these buildings was further aggravated due to presence of many factors (e.g. weak the seismic capacity of these buildings, shorts columns, Pounding effect, etc.). Consequently Seismic risk assessments were carried out on populations of buildings to identify the buildings most likely to undergo losses during an earthquake. The results of such studies are important in the mitigation of losses under future seismic events as they allow strengthening intervention and disaster management plans to be drawn up. Within this paper, the state of the existing structures is assessed using "the vulnerability index" method. This method allows the classification of RC constructions taking into account both, structural and non structural parameters, considered to be ones of the main parameters governing the vulnerability of the structure. Based on seismic feedback from past earthquakes DPM (damage probability matrices) were developed too.
    Engineered Cement Composite Materials Characterization for Tunneling Applications
    Cements, which are intrinsically brittle materials, can exhibit a degree of pseudo-ductility when reinforced with a sufficient volume fraction of a fibrous phase. This class of materials, called Engineered Cement Composites (ECC) has the potential to be used in future tunneling applications where a level of pseudo-ductility is required to avoid brittle failures. However uncertainties remain regarding mechanical performance. Previous work has focused on comparatively thin specimens; however for future civil engineering applications, it is imperative that the behavior in tension of thicker specimens is understood. In the present work, specimens containing cement powder and admixtures have been manufactured following two different processes and tested in tension. Multiple matrix cracking has been observed during tensile testing, leading to a “strain-hardening" behavior, confirming the possible suitability of ECC material when used as thick sections (greater than 50mm) in tunneling applications.
    About Methods of Additional Mining Pressure Figuring while Reconstruction of Tunnels
    At the end of the 20th century it was actual the development of transport corridors and the improvement of their technical parameters. With this purpose, many countries and Georgia among them manufacture to construct new highways, railways and also reconstruction-modernization of the existing transport infrastructure. It is necessary to explore the artificial structures (bridges and tunnels) on the existing tracks as they are very old. Conference report includes the peculiarities of reconstruction of tunnels, because we think that this theme is important for the modernization of the existing road infrastructure. We must remark that the methods of determining mining pressure of tunnel reconstructions are worked out according to the jobs of new tunnels but it is necessary to foresee additional mining pressure which will be formed during their reconstruction. In this report there are given the methods of figuring the additional mining pressure while reconstruction of tunnels, there was worked out the computer program, it is determined that during reconstruction of tunnels the additional mining pressure is 1/3rd of main mining pressure.
    Comparative Analysis of Vibration between Laminated Composite Plates with and without Holes under Compressive Loads
    In this study, a vibration analysis was carried out of symmetric angle-ply laminated composite plates with and without square hole when subjected to compressive loads, numerically. A buckling analysis is also performed to determine the buckling load of laminated plates. For each fibre orientation, the compression load is taken equal to 50% of the corresponding buckling load. In the analysis, finite element method (FEM) was applied to perform parametric studies, the effects of degree of orthotropy and stacking sequence upon the fundamental frequencies and buckling loads are discussed. The results show that the presence of a constant compressive load tends to reduce uniformly the natural frequencies for materials which have a low degree of orthotropy. However, this reduction becomes non-uniform for materials with a higher degree of orthotropy.
    A Methodology for Definition of Road Networks in Rural Areas of Nepal
    This work provides a practical method for the development of rural road networks in rural areas of developing countries. The proposed methodology enables to determine obligatory points in the rural road network maximizing the number of settlements that have access to basic services within a given maximum distance. The proposed methodology is simple and practical, hence, highly applicable to real-world scenarios, as demonstrated in the definition of the road network for the rural areas of Nepal.
    Effects of Carbonation on the Microstructure and Macro Physical Properties of Cement Mortar
    The objective of this work was to examine the changes in the microstructure and macro physical properties caused by the carbonation of normalised CEM II mortar. Samples were prepared and subjected to accelerated carbonation at 20°C, 65% relative humidity and 20% CO2 concentration. On the microstructure scale, the evolutions of the cumulative pore volume, pore size distribution, and specific surface area during carbonation were calculated from the adsorption desorption isotherms of nitrogen. We also examined the evolution of macro physical properties such as the porosity accessible to water, the gas permeability, and thermal conductivity. The conflict between the results of nitrogen porosity and water porosity indicated that the porous domains explored using these two techniques are different and help to complementarily evaluate the effects of carbonation. This is a multi-scale study where results on microstructural changes can help to explain the evolution of macro physical properties.