Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 22

Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering

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  • 22
    An Experimental Investigation of Bond Properties of Reinforcements Embedded in Geopolymer Concrete

    Geopolymer concretes are new class of construction materials that have emerged as an alternative to Ordinary Portland cement concrete. Considerable researches have been carried out on material development of geopolymer concrete; however, a few studies have been reported on the structural use of them. This paper presents the bond behaviors of reinforcement embedded in fly ash based geopolymer concrete. The development lengths of reinforcement for various compressive strengths of concrete, 20, 30 and 40 MPa, and reinforcement diameters, 10, 16 and 25 mm, are investigated. Total 27 specimens were manufactured and pull-out test according to EN 10080 was applied to measure bond strength and slips between concrete and reinforcements. The average bond strengths decreased from 23.06MPa to 17.26 MPa, as the diameters of reinforcements increased from 10mm to 25mm. The compressive strength levels of geopolymer concrete showed no significant influence on bond strengths in this study. Also, the bond-slip relations between geopolymer concrete and reinforcement are derived using non-linear regression analysis for various experimental conditions.

    An Analytical Study on Rotational Capacity of Beam-Column Joints in Unit Modular Frames

    Modular structural systems are constructed using a method that they are assembled with prefabricated unit modular frames on-site. This provides a benefit that can significantly reduce building construction time. The structural design is usually carried out under the assumption that their load-carrying mechanism is similar to that of traditional steel moment-resisting systems. However, both systems are different in terms of beam-column connection details which may strongly influence the lateral structural behavior. Specially, the presence of access holes in a beam-column joint of a unit modular frame could cause undesirable failure during strong earthquakes. Therefore, this study carried out finite element analyses (FEMs) of unit modular frames to investigate the cyclic behavior of beam-column joints with the access holes. Analysis results show that the unit modular frames present stable cyclic response with large deformation capacities and their joints are classified into semi-rigid connections even if there are access holes.

    Sustainable Energy Supply in Social Housing

    The final energy use can be divided mainly in four sectors: commercial, industrial, residential, and transportation. The trend in final energy consumption by sector plays as a most straightforward way to provide a wide indication of progress for reducing energy consumption and associated environmental impacts by different end use sectors. The average share of end use energy for residential sector in the world was nearly 20% until 2011, in Germany a higher proportion is between 25% and 30%. However, it remains less studied than energy use in other three sectors as well its impacts on climate and environment. The reason for this involves a wide range of fields, including the diversity of residential construction like different housing building design and materials, living or energy using behavioral patterns, climatic condition and variation as well other social obstacles, market trend potential and financial support from government.

    This paper presents an extensive and in-depth analysis of the manner by which projects researched and operated by authors in the fields of energy efficiency primarily from the perspectives of both technical potential and initiative energy saving consciousness in the residential sectors especially in social housing buildings.

    Field Study for Evaluating Winter Thermal Performance of Auckland School Buildings

    Auckland has a temperate climate with comfortable warm, dry summers and mild, wet winters. An Auckland school normally does not need air conditioning for cooling during the summer and only needs heating during the winter. The Auckland school building thermal design should more focus on winter thermal performance and indoor thermal comfort for energy efficiency. This field study of testing indoor and outdoor air temperatures, relative humidity and indoor surface temperatures of three classrooms with different envelopes were carried out in the Avondale College during the winter months in 2013. According to the field study data, this study is to compare and evaluate winter thermal performance and indoor thermal conditions of school buildings with different envelopes.

    Seismic Fragility Functions of RC Moment Frames Using Incremental Dynamic Analyses

    A capacity spectrum method (CSM), one of methodologies to evaluate seismic fragilities of building structures, has been long recognized as the most convenient method, even if it contains several limitations to predict the seismic response of structures of interest. This paper proposes the procedure to estimate seismic fragility curves using an incremental dynamic analysis (IDA) rather than the method adopting a CSM. To achieve the research purpose, this study compares the seismic fragility curves of a 5-story reinforced concrete (RC) moment frame obtained from both methods; an IDA method and aCSM. Both seismic fragility curves are similar in slight and moderate damage states whereas the fragility curve obtained from the IDA method presents less variation (or uncertainties) in extensive and complete damage states. This is due to the fact that the IDA method can properly capture the structural response beyond yielding rather than the CSM and can directly calculate higher mode effects. From these observations, the CSM could overestimate seismic vulnerabilities of the studied structure in extensive or complete damage states.

    Design and Development of Constant Stress Composite Cantilever Beam

    Composite materials, due to their unique properties such as high strength to weight ratio, corrosion resistance, and impact resistance have huge potential as structural materials in automotive, construction and transportation applications. However, these properties often come at higher cost owing to complex design methods, difficult manufacturing processes and raw material cost. Traditionally, tapered laminated composite structures are manufactured using autoclave manufacturing process by ply drop off technique. Autoclave manufacturing though very powerful suffers from high capital investment and higher energy consumption. As per the current trends in composite manufacturing, Out of Autoclave (OoA) processes are looked as emerging technologies for manufacturing the structural composite components for aerospace and defense applications. However, there is a need for improvement among these processes to make them reliable and consistent. In this paper, feasibility of using out of autoclave process to manufacture the variable thickness cantilever beam is discussed. The minimum weight design for the composite beam is obtained using constant stress beam concept by tailoring the thickness of the beam. Ply drop off techniques was used to fabricate the variable thickness beam from glass/epoxy prepregs. Experiments were conducted to measure bending stresses along the span of the cantilever beam at different intervals by applying the concentrated load at the free end. Experimental results showed that the stresses in the bean at different intervals were constant. This proves the ability of OoA process to manufacture the constant stress beam. Finite element model for the constant stress beam was developed using commercial finite element simulation software. It was observed that the simulation results agreed very well with the experimental results and thus validated design and manufacturing approach used.

    Development of a Numerical Model to Predict Wear in Grouted Connections for Offshore Wind Turbine Generators

    In order to better understand the long term implications of the grout wear failure mode in large-diameter plainsided grouted connections, a numerical model has been developed and calibrated that can take advantage of existing operational plant data to predict the wear accumulation for the actual load conditions experienced over a given period, thus limiting the requirement for expensive monitoring systems. This model has been derived and calibrated based on site structural condition monitoring (SCM) data and supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA) data for two operational wind turbine generator substructures afflicted with this challenge, along with experimentally derived wear rates.

    Evaluation of Expected Annual Loss Probabilities of RC Moment Resisting Frames

    Building loss estimation methodologies which have been advanced considerably in recent decades are usually used to estimate socio and economic impacts resulting from seismic structural damage. In accordance with these methods, this paper presents the evaluation of an annual loss probability of a reinforced concrete moment resisting frame designed according to Korean Building Code. The annual loss probability is defined by (1) a fragility curve obtained from a capacity spectrum method which is similar to a method adopted from HAZUS, and (2) a seismic hazard curve derived from annual frequencies of exceedance per peak ground acceleration. Seismic fragilities are computed to calculate the annual loss probability of a certain structure using functions depending on structural capacity, seismic demand, structural response and the probability of exceeding damage state thresholds. This study carried out a nonlinear static analysis to obtain the capacity of a RC moment resisting frame selected as a prototype building. The analysis results show that the probability of being extensive structural damage in the prototype building is expected to 0.01% in a year.

    Prediction of California Bearing Ratio from Physical Properties of Fine-Grained Soils

    The California Bearing Ratio (CBR) has been acknowledged as an important parameter to characterize the bearing capacity of earth structures, such as earth dams, road embankments, airport runways, bridge abutments and pavements. Technically, the CBR test can be carried out in the laboratory or in the field. The CBR test is time-consuming and is infrequently performed due to the equipment needed and the fact that the field moisture content keeps changing over time. Over the years, many correlations have been developed for the prediction of CBR by various researchers, including the dynamic cone penetrometer, undrained shear strength and Clegg impact hammer. This paper reports and discusses some of the results from a study on the prediction of CBR. In the current study, the CBR test was performed in the laboratory on some finegrained subgrade soils collected from various locations in Victoria. Based on the test results, a satisfactory empirical correlation was found between the CBR and the physical properties of the experimental soils.

    Challenges in Adopting 3R Concept in the Heritage Building Restoration

    Malaysia is rich with historic buildings, particularly in Penang and Malacca states. Restoration activities are increasingly important as these states are recognized under UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Restoration activities help to maintain the uniqueness and value of a heritage building. However, increasing in restoration activities has resulted in large quantities of waste. To cope with this problem, the 3R concept (reduce, reuse and recycle) is introduced. The 3R concept is one of the waste management hierarchies. This concept is still yet to apply in the building restoration industry compared to the construction industry. Therefore, this study aims to promote the 3R concept in the heritage building restoration industry. This study aims to examine the importance of 3R concept and to identify challenges in applying the 3R concept in the heritage building restoration industry. This study focused on contractors and consultants who are involved in heritage restoration projects in Penang. Literature review and interviews helps to reach the research objective. Data that obtained is analyzed by using content analysis. For the research, application of 3R concept is important to conserve natural resources and reduce pollution problems. However, limited space to organise waste is the obstruction during the implementation of this concept. In conclusion, the 3R concept plays an important role in promoting environmental conservation and helping in reducing the construction waste.

    Adaptive Thermal Comfort Model for Air-Conditioned Lecture Halls in Malaysia

    This paper presents an adaptive thermal comfort model study in the tropical country of Malaysia. A number of researchers have been interested in applying the adaptive thermal comfort model to different climates throughout the world, but so far no study has been performed in Malaysia. For the use as a thermal comfort model, which better applies to hot and humid climates, the adaptive thermal comfort model was developed as part of this research by using the collected results from a large field study in six lecture halls with 178 students. The relationship between the operative temperature and behavioral adaptations was determined. In the developed adaptive model, the acceptable indoor neutral temperatures lay within the range of 23.9-26.0C, with outdoor temperatures ranging between 27.0-34.6C. The most comfortable temperature for students in lecture hall was 25.7C.

    Seismic Performance of Reinforced Concrete Frames Infilled by Masonry Walls with Different Heights

    This study carried out comparative seismic performance of reinforced concrete frames infilled by masonry walls with different heights. Partial and fully infilled reinforced concrete frames were modeled for the research objectives and the analysis model for a bare reinforced concrete frame was also established for comparison. Non–linear static analyses for the studied frames were performed to investigate their structural behavior under extreme seismic loads and to find out their collapse mechanism. It was observed from analysis results that the strengths of the partial infilled reinforced concrete frames are increased and their ductilities are reduced, as infilled masonry walls are higher. Especially, reinforced concrete frames with higher partial infilled masonry walls would experience shear failures. Non–linear dynamic analyses using 10 earthquake records show that the bare and fully infilled reinforced concrete frame present stable collapse mechanism while the reinforced concrete frames with partially infilled masonry walls collapse in more brittle manner due to short-column effects.

    Resistance and Sub-Resistances of RC Beams Subjected to Multiple Failure Modes

    Geometric and mechanical properties all influence the resistance of RC structures and may, in certain combination of property values, increase the risk of a brittle failure of the whole system. This paper presents a statistical and probabilistic investigation on the resistance of RC beams designed according to Eurocodes 2 and 8, and subjected to multiple failure modes, under both the natural variation of material properties and the uncertainty associated with cross-section and transverse reinforcement geometry. A full probabilistic model based on JCSS Probabilistic Model Code is derived. Different beams are studied through material nonlinear analysis via Monte Carlo simulations. The resistance model is consistent with Eurocode 2. Both a multivariate statistical evaluation and the data clustering analysis of outcomes are then performed. Results show that the ultimate load behaviour of RC beams subjected to flexural and shear failure modes seems to be mainly influenced by the combination of the mechanical properties of both longitudinal reinforcement and stirrups, and the tensile strength of concrete, of which the latter appears to affect the overall response of the system in a nonlinear way. The model uncertainty of the resistance model used in the analysis plays undoubtedly an important role in interpreting results.

    Structural Assessment of Low-rise Reinforced Concrete Frames under Tsunami Loads

    This study examines analytically the effect of tsunami loads on reinforced concrete (RC) frame buildings. The impact of tsunami wave loads and waterborne objects are analyzed using a typical substandard full-scale two-story RC frame building tested as part of the EU-funded Ecoleader project. The building was subjected to shake table tests in bare condition, and subsequently strengthened using Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) composites and retested. Numerical models of the building in both bare and CFRP-strengthened conditions are calibrated in DRAIN-3DX software to match the test results. To investigate the response of wave loads and impact forces, the numerical models are subjected to nonlinear dynamic analyses using force time-history input records. The analytical results are compared in terms of displacements at the floors and at the “impact point” of a boat. The results show that the roof displacement of the CFRP-strengthened building reduced by 63% when compared to the bare building. The results also indicate that strengthening only the mid-height of the impact column using CFRP is more effective at reducing damage when compared to strengthening other parts of the column. Alternative solutions to mitigate damage due to tsunami loads are suggested.

    Influential Parameters in Estimating Soil Properties from Cone Penetrating Test: An Artificial Neural Network Study

    The Cone Penetration Test (CPT) is a common in-situ test which generally investigates a much greater volume of soil more quickly than possible from sampling and laboratory tests. Therefore, it has the potential to realize both cost savings and assessment of soil properties rapidly and continuously. The principle objective of this paper is to demonstrate the feasibility and efficiency of using artificial neural networks (ANNs) to predict the soil angle of internal friction (Φ) and the soil modulus of elasticity (E) from CPT results considering the uncertainties and non-linearities of the soil. In addition, ANNs are used to study the influence of different parameters and recommend which parameters should be included as input parameters to improve the prediction. Neural networks discover relationships in the input data sets through the iterative presentation of the data and intrinsic mapping characteristics of neural topologies. General Regression Neural Network (GRNN) is one of the powerful neural network architectures which is utilized in this study. A large amount of field and experimental data including CPT results, plate load tests, direct shear box, grain size distribution and calculated data of overburden pressure was obtained from a large project in the United Arab Emirates. This data was used for the training and the validation of the neural network. A comparison was made between the obtained results from the ANN's approach, and some common traditional correlations that predict Φ and E from CPT results with respect to the actual results of the collected data. The results show that the ANN is a very powerful tool. Very good agreement was obtained between estimated results from ANN and actual measured results with comparison to other correlations available in the literature. The study recommends some easily available parameters that should be included in the estimation of the soil properties to improve the prediction models. It is shown that the use of friction ration in the estimation of Φ and the use of fines content in the estimation of E considerable improve the prediction models.

    Seismic Evaluation with Shear Walls and Braces for Buildings

    R.C.C. buildings with dual structural system consisting of shear walls (or braces) and moment resisting frames have been widely used to resist lateral forces during earthquakes. The dual systems are designed to resist the total design lateral force in proportion to their lateral stiffness. The response of combination of braces and shear walls has not yet been studied. The combination may prove to be more effective to resist lateral forces during earthquakes. This concept has been applied to regular R.C.C. buildings provided with shear walls, braces and their combinations.

    Passive Seismic Energy Dissipation Mechanisms for Smart Green Structural System (SGSS)

    The design philosophy of building structure has been changing time to time. The reason for this is because of an increase of human inertest, an improved building materials and technology that will impact how we live, to speed up construction period and natural effect which includes earthquake disasters and environmental effect. One technique which takes in to account the above case is using a prefabricable structural system. In which each and every structural element is designed and prefabricated and assembled on a site so that the construction speed is increased and the environmental impact is also enhanced. This system has an immense advantage such as: reduce construction cost, reusable, recyclable, speed up construction period and less environmental effect. In this study, it is tried to present some of the developed and evaluated structural elements of building structures.

    Roller Compacting Concrete “RCC” in Dams
    Rehabilitation of dam components such as foundations, buttresses, spillways and overtopping protection require a wide range of construction and design methodologies. Geotechnical Engineering considerations play an important role in the design and construction of foundations of new dams. Much investigation is required to assess and evaluate the existing dams. The application of roller compacting concrete (RCC) has been accepted as a new method for constructing new dams or rehabilitating old ones. In the past 40 years there have been so many changes in the usage of RCC and now it is one of most satisfactory solutions of water and hydropower resource throughout the world. The considerations of rehabilitation and construction of dams might differ due to upstream reservoir and its influence on penetrating and dewatering of downstream, operations requirements and plant layout. One of the advantages of RCC is its rapid placement which allows the dam to be operated quickly. Unlike ordinary concrete it is a drier mix, and stiffs enough for compacting by vibratory rollers. This paper evaluates some different aspects of RCC and focuses on its preparation progress.
    Influence of Hygro-Chemo-Mechanical Degradation on Performance of Concrete Gravity Dam
    The degradation of concrete due to various hygrochemo- mechanical actions is inevitable for the structures particularly built to store water. Therefore, it is essential to determine the material properties of dam-like structures due to ageing to predict the behavior of such structures after a certain age. The degraded material properties are calculated by introducing isotropic degradation index. The predicted material properties are used to study the behavior of aged dam at different ages. The dam is modeled by finite elements and displacement and is considered as an unknown variable. The parametric study reveals that the displacement is quite larger for comparatively lower design life of the structure because the degradation of elastic properties depends on the design life of the dam. The stresses in dam cam be unexpectedly large at any age with in the design life. The outcomes of the present study indicate the importance of the consideration ageing effect of concrete exposed to water for the safe design of dam throughout its life time.
    Open Channel Flow Measurement of Water by Using Width Contraction
    Present study was aimed to develop a discharge measuring device for irrigation and laboratory channels. Experiments were conducted on sharp edged constricted flow meters having four types of width constrictions namely 2:1, 1.5:1, 1:1 and 90o in the direction of flow. These devices were made of MS sheets and installed separately in a rectangular flume. All these four devices were tested under free and submerged flow conditions. Eight different discharges varying from 2 lit/sec to 30 lit/sec were passed through each device. In total around 500 observations of upstream and downstream depths were taken in the present work. For each discharge, free submerged and critical submergence under different flow conditions were noted and plotted. Once the upstream and downstream depths of flow over any of the device are known, the discharge can be easily calculated with the help of the curves developed for free and submerged flow conditions. The device having contraction 2:1 is the most efficient one as it allows maximum critical submergence.
    Predicting Bridge Pier Scour Depth with SVM
    Prediction of maximum local scour is necessary for the safety and economical design of the bridges. A number of equations have been developed over the years to predict local scour depth using laboratory data and a few pier equations have also been proposed using field data. Most of these equations are empirical in nature as indicated by the past publications. In this paper attempts have been made to compute local depth of scour around bridge pier in dimensional and non-dimensional form by using linear regression, simple regression and SVM (Poly & Rbf) techniques along with few conventional empirical equations. The outcome of this study suggests that the SVM (Poly & Rbf) based modeling can be employed as an alternate to linear regression, simple regression and the conventional empirical equations in predicting scour depth of bridge piers. The results of present study on the basis of non-dimensional form of bridge pier scour indicate the improvement in the performance of SVM (Poly & Rbf) in comparison to dimensional form of scour.
    Investigation of the Effect of Number of Story on Different Structural Components of RC Building
    The paper aims at investigating the effect of number of story on different structural components of reinforced concrete building due to gravity and lateral loading. For the study, three building models having same building plan of three, six and nine stories are analyzed and designed using software package. All the buildings are residential and are located in Dhaka city of Bangladesh. Lateral load including wind and earthquake loading are applied to the building along both longitudinal and transverse direction as per Bangladesh National Building Code (BNBC, 2006). Equivalent static force method is followed for the applied seismic loading. The present study investigates as well as compares mainly total steel requirement in different structural components for those buildings. It has been found that total longitudinal steel requirement for beams at each floor is 48.57% for three storied building, 61.36% for six storied building when the total percentage is taken as 100% in case of nine storied building. For an exterior column, the steel ratio is 2.1%, 3.06%, 4.55% for three, six and nine storied building respectively for the first three floors. In addition, it has been noted that total weight of longitudinal reinforcement of an interior column is 14.02 % for threestoried building and 43.12% for six storied building when the total reinforcement is considered 100% for nine storied building for the first three floors.