|Commenced in January 1999 || Frequency: Monthly || Edition: International|| Paper Count: 15 |
Civil, Environmental, Structural, Construction and Architectural Engineering
Monitoring the Drying and Grinding Process during Production of Celitement through a NIR-Spectroscopy Based Approach
Online measurement of the product quality is a
challenging task in cement production, especially in the production of
Celitement, a novel environmentally friendly hydraulic binder. The
mineralogy and chemical composition of clinker in ordinary Portland
cement production is measured by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and
X-ray fluorescence (XRF), where only crystalline constituents can be
detected. But only a small part of the Celitement components can be
measured via XRD, because most constituents have an amorphous
structure. This paper describes the development of algorithms
suitable for an on-line monitoring of the final processing step of
Celitement based on NIR-data. For calibration intermediate products
were dried at different temperatures and ground for variable
durations. The products were analyzed using XRD and
thermogravimetric analyses together with NIR-spectroscopy to
investigate the dependency between the drying and the milling
processes on one and the NIR-signal on the other side. As a result,
different characteristic parameters have been defined. A short
overview of the Celitement process and the challenging tasks of the
online measurement and evaluation of the product quality will be
presented. Subsequently, methods for systematic development of
near-infrared calibration models and the determination of the final
calibration model will be introduced. The application of the model on
experimental data illustrates that NIR-spectroscopy allows for a quick
and sufficiently exact determination of crucial process parameters.
Development of Recycled-Modified Asphalt Using Basalt Aggregate
With the strengthened regulation on the mandatory use
of recycled aggregate, development of construction materials using
recycled aggregate has recently increased. This study aimed to secure
the performance of asphalt concrete mixture by developing
recycled-modified asphalt using recycled basalt aggregate from the
Jeju area. The strength of the basalt aggregate from the Jeju area used
in this study was similar to that of general aggregate, while the specific
surface area was larger due to the development of pores. Modified
asphalt was developed using a general aggregate-recycled aggregate
ratio of 7:3, and the results indicated that the Marshall stability
increased by 27% compared to that of asphalt concrete mixture using
only general aggregate, and the flow values showed similar levels.
Also, the indirect tensile strength increased by 79%, and the toughness
increased by more than 100%. In addition, the TSR for examining
moisture resistance was 0.95 indicating that the reduction in the
indirect tensile strength due to moisture was very low (5% level), and
the developed recycled-modified asphalt could satisfy all the quality
standards of asphalt concrete mixture.
A Review on the Development and Challenges of Green Roof Systems in Malaysia
Green roof system is considered a relatively new
concept in Malaysia even though it has been implemented widely in
the developed countries. Generally, green roofs provide many
benefits such as enhancing aesthetical quality of the built
environment, reduce urban heat island effect, reduce energy
consumption, improve stormwater attenuation, and reduce noise
pollution. A better understanding on the implementation of green roof
system in Malaysia is crucial, as Malaysia’s climate is different if
compared with the climate in temperate countries where most of the
green roof studies have been conducted. This study has concentrated
on the technical aspect of green roof system which focuses on i) types
of plants and method of planting; ii) engineering design for green
roof system; iii) its hydrological performance on reducing stormwater
runoff; and iv) benefits of green roofs with respect to energy.
Literature review has been conducted to identify the development and
obstacles associated with green roofs systems in Malaysia. The study
had identified the challenges and potentials of green roofs
development in Malaysia. This study also provided the
recommendations on standard design and strategies on the
implementation of green roofs in Malaysia in the near future.
Characterization of the Airtightness Level in School Classrooms in Mediterranean Climate
An analysis of the air tightness level is performed on a representative sample of school classrooms in Southern Spain, which allows knowing the infiltration level of these classrooms, mainly through its envelope, which can affect both energy demand and occupant's thermal comfort. By using a pressurization/depressurization equipment (Blower-Door test), a characterization of 45 multipurpose classrooms have been performed in nine non-university educational institutions of the main climate zones of Southern Spain. In spite of having two doors and a high ratio between glass surface and outer surface, it is possible to see in these classrooms that there is an adequate level of airtightness, since all the n50 values obtained are lower than 9.0 ACH, with an average value around 7.0 ACH.
Finite Difference Method of the Seismic Analysis of Earth Dam
Many embankment dams have suffered failures during
earthquakes due to the increase of pore water pressure under seismic
loading. After analyzing of the behavior of embankment dams under
severe earthquakes, major advances have been attained in the
understanding of the seismic action on dams. The present study concerns numerical analysis of the seismic
response of earth dams. The procedure uses a nonlinear stress-strain
relation incorporated into the code FLAC2D based on the finite
difference method. This analysis provides the variation of the pore
water pressure and horizontal displacement.
Sound Insulation between Buildings: The Impact Noise Transmission through Different Floor Configurations
The present paper examines the impact noise
transmission through some floor building assemblies. The Acoubat
software numerical simulation has been used to simulate the impact
noise transmission through different floor configurations used in
Algerian construction mode. The results are compared with the
available measurements. We have developed two experimental
methods, i) field method, and ii) laboratory method using Brüel and
Kjær equipments. The results show that the different cases of floor
configurations need some improvement to ensure the acoustic
comfort in the receiving apartment. The recommended value of the
impact sound level in the receiving room should not exceed 58 dB.
The important results obtained in this paper can be used as platform
to improve the Algerian building acoustic regulation aimed at the
construction of the multi-storey residential building.
Structural Rehabilitation, Retrofitting and Strengthening of Reinforced Concrete Structures
Reinforced cement concrete is getting extensively used
for construction of different type of structures for the last one century.
During this period, we have constructed many structures like
buildings, bridges, industrial structures, pavement, water tanks etc.
using this construction material. These structures have been created
with huge investment of resources. It is essential to maintain those
structures in functional condition. Since deterioration in RCC
Structures is a common and natural phenomenon it is required to have
a detailed plan, methodology for structural repair and rehabilitation
shall be in place for dealing such issues. It is important to know exact
reason of distress, type of distress and correct method of repair
concrete structures. The different methods of repair are described in
paper according to distress category which can be refereed for repair.
Major finding of the study is that to protect our structure we need to
have maintenance frequency and correct material to be chosen for
repair. Also workmanship during repair needs to be taken utmost care
for quality repair.
Impact of the Operation and Infrastructure Parameters to the Railway Track Capacity
The railway transport is considered as a one of the
most environmentally friendly mode of transport. With future
prediction of increasing of freight transport there are lines facing
problems with demanded capacity. Increase of the track capacity
could be achieved by infrastructure constructive adjustments. The
contribution shows how the travel time can be minimized and the
track capacity increased by changing some of the basic infrastructure
and operation parameters, for example, the minimal curve radius of
the track, the number of tracks, or the usable track length at stations.
Calculation of the necessary parameter changes is based on the
fundamental physical laws applied to the train movement, and
calculation of the occupation time is dependent on the changes of
controlling the traffic between the stations.
Urban Regeneration of Historic Paths: A Case Study of Kom El Dekka Historic Path
Historic paths in today's cities are facing the pressure
of the urban development due to the rapid urban growth. Every new
development is tearing the old urban fabric and the socio-economic
character of the historic paths. Furthermore, in some cases historic
paths suffer from negligence and decay. Kom El Dekka historic path
was one of those deteriorated paths in the city of Alexandria, Egypt,
in spite of its high heritage and socio-economic value. Therefore,
there was a need to develop urban regeneration strategies as a part of
a wider sustainable development vision, to handle the situation and
revitalize the path as a livable space in the heart of the city. This
study aims to develop a comprehensive assessment methodology to
evaluate the different values of the path and to create community-oriented
and economic-based analysis methodology for its socio-economic
values. These analysis and assessments provide strategies
for any regeneration action plan for Kom El Dekka historic path.
Effect of Orientation of the Wall Window on Energy Saving under Clear Sky Conditions
In this paper, an attempt has been made to analyze the effect of wall window orientation on Daylight Illuminance Ratio (DIR) and energy saving in a building known as “SODHA BERS COMPLEX (SBC)” at Varanasi, UP, India. The building has been designed incorporating all passive concepts for thermal comfort as well daylighting concepts to maximize the use of natural daylighting for the occupants in the day to day activities. The annual average DIR and the energy saving has been estimated by using the DIR model for wall window with different orientations under clear sky condition. It has been found that for south oriented window the energy saving per square meter is more compared to the other orientations due to the higher level of solar insolation for the south window in northern hemisphere whereas energy saving potential is minimum for north oriented wall window. The energy saving potential was 26%, 81% and 51% higher for east, south and west oriented window in comparison to north oriented window. The average annual DIR has same trends of variation as the annual energy saving and it is maximum for south oriented window and minimum for north oriented window.
Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Flexural Behavior of Macro-Synthetic FRC
Promotion of the Fiber Reinforced Concrete (FRC) as a construction material for civil engineering projects has invoked numerous researchers to investigate their mechanical behavior. Even though there is satisfactory information about the effects of fiber type and length, concrete mixture, casting type and other variables on the strength and deformability parameters of FRC, the numerical modeling of such materials still needs research attention. The focus of this study is to investigate the feasibility of Concrete Damaged Plasticity (CDP) model in prediction of Macro-synthetic FRC structures behavior. CDP model requires the tensile behavior of concrete to be well characterized. For this purpose, a series of uniaxial direct tension and four point bending tests were conducted on the notched specimens to define bilinear tension softening (post-peak tension stress-strain) behavior. With these parameters obtained, the flexural behavior of macro-synthetic FRC beams were modeled and the results showed a good agreement with the experimental measurements.
Experimental Study on Modified Double Slope Solar Still and Modified Basin Type Double Slope Multiwick Solar Still
Water is essential for life and fresh water is a finite
resource that is becoming scarce day by day even though it is
recycled by hydrological cycle. The fresh water reserves are being
polluted due to expanding irrigation, industries, urban population and
its development. Contaminated water leads to several health
problems. With the increasing demand of fresh water, solar
distillation is an alternate solution which uses solar energy to
evaporate water and then to condense it, thereby collecting distilled
water within or outside the same system to use it as potable water.
The structure that houses the process is known as a 'solar still'. In this
paper, ‘Modified double slope solar still (MDSSS)’ & 'Modified
double slope basin type multiwick solar still (MDSBMSS)' have been
designed to convert saline, brackish water into drinking water. In this
work two different modified solar stills are fabricated to study the
performance of these solar stills. For modification of solar stills,
Fibre Reinforced Plastic (FRP) and Acrylic sheets are used. The
experiments in MDSBMSS and MDSSS was carried on 10
September 2015 & 5 November 2015 respectively. Performances of
the stills were investigated. The amount of distillate has been found
3624 Ml/day in MDSBMSS on 10 September 2015 and 2400 Ml/day
in MDSSS on 5 November 2015.
Mechanical Characterization and Impact Study on the Environment of Raw Sediments and Sediments Dehydrated by Addition of Polymer
Large volumes of river sediments are dredged each year in Europe in order to maintain harbour activities and prevent floods. The management of this sediment has become increasingly complex. Several European projects were implemented to find environmentally sound solutions for these materials. The main objective of this study is to show the ability of river sediment to be used in road. Since sediments contain a high amount of water, then a dehydrating treatment by addition of the flocculation aid has been used. Firstly, a lot of physical characteristics are measured and discussed for a better identification of the raw sediment and this dehydrated sediment by addition the flocculation aid. The identified parameters are, for example, the initial water content, the density, the organic matter content, the grain size distribution, the liquid limit and plastic limit and geotechnical parameters. The environmental impacts of the used material were evaluated. The results obtained show that there is a slight change on the physical-chemical and geotechnical characteristics of sediment after dehydration by the addition of polymer. However, these sediments cannot be used in road construction.
Building Information Modeling and Its Application in the State of Kuwait
Recent advances of Building Information Modeling (BIM) especially in the Middle East have increased remarkably. Dubai has been taking a lead on this by making it mandatory for BIM to be adopted for all projects that involve complex architecture designs. This is because BIM is a dynamic process that assists all stakeholders in monitoring the project status throughout different project phases with great transparency. It focuses on utilizing information technology to improve collaboration among project participants during the entire life cycle of the project from the initial design, to the supply chain, resource allocation, construction and all productivity requirements. In view of this trend, the paper examines the extent of applying BIM in the State of Kuwait, by exploring practitioners’ perspectives on BIM, especially their perspectives on main barriers and main advantages. To this end structured interviews were carried out based on questionnaires and with a range of different construction professionals. The results revealed that practitioners perceive improved communication and mitigated project risks by encouraged collaboration between project participants. However, it was also observed that the full implementation of BIM in the State of Kuwait requires concerted efforts to make clients demanding BIM, counteract resistance to change among construction professionals and offer more training for design team members. This paper forms part of an on-going research effort on BIM and its application in the State of Kuwait and it is on this basis that further research on the topic is proposed.
Model Studies on Shear Behavior of Reinforced Reconstituted Clay
In this paper, shear behavior of reconstituted clay reinforced with varying diameter of sand compaction piles with area replacement-ratio (as) of 6.25, 10.24, 16, 20.25 and 64% in 100mm diameter and 200mm long clay specimens is modeled using consolidated drained and undrained triaxial tests under different confining pressures ranging from 50kPa to 575kPa. The test results show that the stress-strain behavior of the clay was highly influenced by the presence of SCP. The insertion of SCPs into soft clay has shown to have a positive effect on the load carrying capacity of the clay, resulting in a composite soil mass that has greater shear strength and improved stiffness compared to the unreinforced clay due to increased reinforcement area ratio. In addition, SCP also acts as vertical drain in the clay thus accelerating the dissipation of excess pore water pressures that are generated during loading by shortening the drainage path and activating radial drainage, thereby reducing post-construction settlement. Thus, sand compaction piles currently stand as one of the most viable and practical techniques for improving the mechanical properties of soft clays.