Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 57

Computer, Electrical, Automation, Control and Information Engineering

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  • 57
    An Evaluation of Algorithms for Single-Echo Biosonar Target Classification

    A recent neurospiking coding scheme for feature extraction from biosonar echoes of various plants is examined with avariety of stochastic classifiers. Feature vectors derived are employedin well-known stochastic classifiers, including nearest-neighborhood,single Gaussian and a Gaussian mixture with EM optimization.Classifiers' performances are evaluated by using cross-validation and bootstrapping techniques. It is shown that the various classifers perform equivalently and that the modified preprocessing configuration yields considerably improved results.

    Self-Organization of Clusters Having Locally Distributed Patterns for Highly Synchronized Inputs

    Many experimental results suggest that more precise spike timing is significant in neural information processing. We construct a self-organization model using the spatiotemporal pat-terns, where Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP) tunes the conduction delays between neurons. We show that, for highly syn-chronized inputs, the fluctuation of conduction delays causes globally continuous and locally distributed firing patterns through the self-organization.

    A Unified Framework for a Robust Conflict-Free Robot Navigation
    Many environment specific methods and systems for Robot Navigation exist. However vast strides in the evolution of navigation technologies and system techniques create the need for a general unified framework that is scalable, modular and dynamic. In this paper a Unified Framework for a Robust Conflict-free Robot Navigation System that can be used for either a structured or unstructured and indoor or outdoor environments has been proposed. The fundamental design aspects and implementation issues encountered during the development of the module are discussed. The results of the deployment of three major peripheral modules of the framework namely the GSM based communication module, GIS Module and GPS module are reported in this paper.
    Adaptive Car Safety System

    Car accident is one of the major causes of death in many countries. Many researchers have attempted to design and develop techniques to increase car safety in the past recent years. In spite of all the efforts, it is still challenging to design a system adaptive to the driver rather than the automotive characteristics. In this paper, the adaptive car safety system is explained which attempts to find a balance.

    Combining ILP with Semi-supervised Learning for Web Page Categorization

    This paper presents a semi-supervised learning algorithm called Iterative-Cross Training (ICT) to solve the Web pages classification problems. We apply Inductive logic programming (ILP) as a strong learner in ICT. The objective of this research is to evaluate the potential of the strong learner in order to boost the performance of the weak learner of ICT. We compare the result with the supervised Naive Bayes, which is the well-known algorithm for the text classification problem. The performance of our learning algorithm is also compare with other semi-supervised learning algorithms which are Co-Training and EM. The experimental results show that ICT algorithm outperforms those algorithms and the performance of the weak learner can be enhanced by ILP system.

    Sensing Pressure for Authentication System Using Keystroke Dynamics

    In this paper, an authentication system using keystroke dynamics is presented. We introduced pressure sensing for the improvement of the accuracy of measurement and durability against intrusion using key-logger, and so on, however additional instrument is needed. As the result, it has been found that the pressure sensing is also effective for estimation of real moment of keystroke.

    AudioMine: Medical Data Mining in Heterogeneous Audiology Records

    We report on the results of a pilot study in which a data-mining tool was developed for mining audiology records. The records were heterogeneous in that they contained numeric, category and textual data. The tools developed are designed to observe associations between any field in the records and any other field. The techniques employed were the statistical chi-squared test, and the use of self-organizing maps, an unsupervised neural learning approach.

    Software Test Data Generation using Ant Colony Optimization

    State-based testing is frequently used in software testing. Test data generation is one of the key issues in software testing. A properly generated test suite may not only locate the errors in a software system, but also help in reducing the high cost associated with software testing. It is often desired that test data in the form of test sequences within a test suite can be automatically generated to achieve required test coverage. This paper proposes an Ant Colony Optimization approach to test data generation for the state-based software testing.

    Moving Data Mining Tools toward a Business Intelligence System
    Data mining (DM) is the process of finding and extracting frequent patterns that can describe the data, or predict unknown or future values. These goals are achieved by using various learning algorithms. Each algorithm may produce a mining result completely different from the others. Some algorithms may find millions of patterns. It is thus the difficult job for data analysts to select appropriate models and interpret the discovered knowledge. In this paper, we describe a framework of an intelligent and complete data mining system called SUT-Miner. Our system is comprised of a full complement of major DM algorithms, pre-DM and post-DM functionalities. It is the post-DM packages that ease the DM deployment for business intelligence applications.
    Memetic Algorithm Based Path Planning for a Mobile Robot

    In this paper, the problem of finding the optimal collision free path for a mobile robot, the path planning problem, is solved using an advanced evolutionary algorithm called memetic algorithm. What is new in this work is a novel representation of solutions for evolutionary algorithms that is efficient, simple and also compatible with memetic algorithm. The new representation makes it possible to solve the problem with a small population and in a few generations. It also makes the genetic operator simple and allows using an efficient local search operator within the evolutionary algorithm. The proposed algorithm is applied to two instances of path planning problem and the results are available.

    Modeling of Pulping of Sugar Maple Using Advanced Neural Network Learning

    This paper reports work done to improve the modeling of complex processes when only small experimental data sets are available. Neural networks are used to capture the nonlinear underlying phenomena contained in the data set and to partly eliminate the burden of having to specify completely the structure of the model. Two different types of neural networks were used for the application of Pulping of Sugar Maple problem. A three layer feed forward neural networks, using the Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient (PCG) methods were used in this investigation. Preconditioning is a method to improve convergence by lowering the condition number and increasing the eigenvalues clustering. The idea is to solve the modified problem where M is a positive-definite preconditioner that is closely related to A. We mainly focused on Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient- based training methods which originated from optimization theory, namely Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient with Fletcher-Reeves Update (PCGF), Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient with Polak-Ribiere Update (PCGP) and Preconditioned Conjugate Gradient with Powell-Beale Restarts (PCGB). The behavior of the PCG methods in the simulations proved to be robust against phenomenon such as oscillations due to large step size.

    On the Noise Distance in Robust Fuzzy C-Means
    In the last decades, a number of robust fuzzy clustering algorithms have been proposed to partition data sets affected by noise and outliers. Robust fuzzy C-means (robust-FCM) is certainly one of the most known among these algorithms. In robust-FCM, noise is modeled as a separate cluster and is characterized by a prototype that has a constant distance δ from all data points. Distance δ determines the boundary of the noise cluster and therefore is a critical parameter of the algorithm. Though some approaches have been proposed to automatically determine the most suitable δ for the specific application, up to today an efficient and fully satisfactory solution does not exist. The aim of this paper is to propose a novel method to compute the optimal δ based on the analysis of the distribution of the percentage of objects assigned to the noise cluster in repeated executions of the robust-FCM with decreasing values of δ . The extremely encouraging results obtained on some data sets found in the literature are shown and discussed.
    A Fuzzy Classifier with Evolutionary Design of Ellipsoidal Decision Regions

    A fuzzy classifier using multiple ellipsoids approximating decision regions for classification is to be designed in this paper. An algorithm called Gustafson-Kessel algorithm (GKA) with an adaptive distance norm based on covariance matrices of prototype data points is adopted to learn the ellipsoids. GKA is able toadapt the distance norm to the underlying distribution of the prototypedata points except that the sizes of ellipsoids need to be determined a priori. To overcome GKA's inability to determine appropriate size ofellipsoid, the genetic algorithm (GA) is applied to learn the size ofellipsoid. With GA combined with GKA, it will be shown in this paper that the proposed method outperforms the benchmark algorithms as well as algorithms in the field.

    Simulation of Robotic Arm using Genetic Algorithm and AHP
    In this paper, we have proposed a low cost optimized solution for the movement of a three-arm manipulator using Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP). A scheme is given for optimizing the movement of robotic arm with the help of Genetic Algorithm so that the minimum energy consumption criteria can be achieved. As compared to Direct Kinematics, Inverse Kinematics evolved two solutions out of which the best-fit solution is selected with the help of Genetic Algorithm and is kept in search space for future use. The Inverse Kinematics, Fitness Value evaluation and Binary Encoding like tasks are simulated and tested. Although, three factors viz. Movement, Friction and Least Settling Time (or Min. Vibration) are used for finding the Fitness Function / Fitness Values, however some more factors can also be considered.
    An Improved Preprocessing for Biosonar Target Classification

    An improved processing description to be employed in biosonar signal processing in a cochlea model is proposed and examined. It is compared to conventional models using a modified discrimination analysis and both are tested. Their performances are evaluated with echo data captured from natural targets (trees).Results indicate that the phase characteristics of low-pass filters employed in the echo processing have a significant effect on class separability for this data.

    Meta-Search in Human Resource Management
    In the area of Human Resource Management, the trend is towards online exchange of information about human resources. For example, online applications for employment become standard and job offerings are posted in many job portals. However, there are too many job portals to monitor all of them if someone is interested in a new job. We developed a prototype for integrating information of different job portals into one meta-search engine. First, existing job portals were investigated and XML schema documents were derived automated from these portals. Second, translation rules for transforming each schema to a central HR-XML-conform schema were determined. The HR-XML-schema is used to build a form for searching jobs. The data supplied by a user in this form is now translated into queries for the different job portals. Each result obtained by a job portal is sent to the meta-search engine that ranks the result of all received job offers according to user's preferences.
    Mining Frequent Patterns with Functional Programming
    Frequent patterns are patterns such as sets of features or items that appear in data frequently. Finding such frequent patterns has become an important data mining task because it reveals associations, correlations, and many other interesting relationships hidden in a dataset. Most of the proposed frequent pattern mining algorithms have been implemented with imperative programming languages such as C, Cµ, Java. The imperative paradigm is significantly inefficient when itemset is large and the frequent pattern is long. We suggest a high-level declarative style of programming using a functional language. Our supposition is that the problem of frequent pattern discovery can be efficiently and concisely implemented via a functional paradigm since pattern matching is a fundamental feature supported by most functional languages. Our frequent pattern mining implementation using the Haskell language confirms our hypothesis about conciseness of the program. The performance studies on speed and memory usage support our intuition on efficiency of functional language.
    Combining Bagging and Additive Regression

    Bagging and boosting are among the most popular re-sampling ensemble methods that generate and combine a diversity of regression models using the same learning algorithm as base-learner. Boosting algorithms are considered stronger than bagging on noise-free data. However, there are strong empirical indications that bagging is much more robust than boosting in noisy settings. For this reason, in this work we built an ensemble using an averaging methodology of bagging and boosting ensembles with 10 sub-learners in each one. We performed a comparison with simple bagging and boosting ensembles with 25 sub-learners on standard benchmark datasets and the proposed ensemble gave better accuracy.

    Resource Matching and a Matchmaking Service for an Intelligent Grid
    We discuss the application of matching in the area of resource discovery and resource allocation in grid computing. We present a formal definition of matchmaking, overview algorithms to evaluate different matchmaking expressions, and develop a matchmaking service for an intelligent grid environment.
    The Imaging Methods for Classifying Crispiness of Freeze-Dried Durian using Fuzzy Logic
    In quality control of freeze-dried durian, crispiness is a key quality index of the product. Generally, crispy testing has to be done by a destructive method. A nondestructive testing of the crispiness is required because the samples can be reused for other kinds of testing. This paper proposed a crispiness classification method of freeze-dried durians using fuzzy logic for decision making. The physical changes of a freeze-dried durian include the pores appearing in the images. Three physical features including (1) the diameters of pores, (2) the ratio of the pore area and the remaining area, and (3) the distribution of the pores are considered to contribute to the crispiness. The fuzzy logic is applied for making the decision. The experimental results comparing with food expert opinion showed that the accuracy of the proposed classification method is 83.33 percent.
    IVE: Virtual Humans’ AI Prototyping Toolkit

    IVE toolkit has been created for facilitating research,education and development in the field of virtual storytelling and computer games. Primarily, the toolkit is intended for modelling action selection mechanisms of virtual humans, investigating level-of-detail AI techniques for large virtual environments, and for exploring joint behaviour and role-passing technique (Sec. V). Additionally, the toolkit can be used as an AI middleware without any changes. The main facility of IVE is that it serves for prototyping both the AI and virtual worlds themselves. The purpose of this paper is to describe IVE's features in general and to present our current work - including an educational game - on this platform.

    IMDC: An Image-Mapped Data Clustering Technique for Large Datasets

    In this paper, we present a new algorithm for clustering data in large datasets using image processing approaches. First the dataset is mapped into a binary image plane. The synthesized image is then processed utilizing efficient image processing techniques to cluster the data in the dataset. Henceforth, the algorithm avoids exhaustive search to identify clusters. The algorithm considers only a small set of the data that contains critical boundary information sufficient to identify contained clusters. Compared to available data clustering techniques, the proposed algorithm produces similar quality results and outperforms them in execution time and storage requirements.

    Application of Neural Networks in Financial Data Mining

    This paper deals with the application of a well-known neural network technique, multilayer back-propagation (BP) neural network, in financial data mining. A modified neural network forecasting model is presented, and an intelligent mining system is developed. The system can forecast the buying and selling signs according to the prediction of future trends to stock market, and provide decision-making for stock investors. The simulation result of seven years to Shanghai Composite Index shows that the return achieved by this mining system is about three times as large as that achieved by the buy and hold strategy, so it is advantageous to apply neural networks to forecast financial time series, the different investors could benefit from it.

    Real-Time Defects Detection Algorithm for High-Speed Steel Bar in Coil
    This paper presents a real-time defect detection algorithm for high-speed steel bar in coil. Because the target speed is very high, proposed algorithm should process quickly the large volumes of image for real-time processing. Therefore, defect detection algorithm should satisfy two conflicting requirements of reducing the processing time and improving the efficiency of defect detection. To enhance performance of detection, edge preserving method is suggested for noise reduction of target image. Finally, experiment results show that the proposed algorithm guarantees the condition of the real-time processing and accuracy of detection.
    [email protected]: Intelligent Home Control and Simulation

    In this paper, we present [email protected], a multiagent system aiming at modeling, controlling and simulating the behavior of an intelligent house. The developed system aims at providing to architects, designers and psychologists a simulation and control tool for understanding which is the impact of embedded and pervasive technology on people daily life. In this vision, the house is seen as an environment made up of independent and distributed devices, controlled by agents, interacting to support user's goals and tasks.

    String Matching using Inverted Lists

    This paper proposes a new solution to string matching problem. This solution constructs an inverted list representing a  string pattern to be searched for. It then uses a new algorithm to process an input string in a single pass. The preprocessing phase  takes 1) time complexity O(m) 2) space complexity O(1) where m is  the length of pattern. The searching phase time complexity takes 1)  O(m+α ) in average case 2) O(n/m) in the best case and 3) O(n) in  the worst case, where α is the number of comparing leading to  mismatch and n is the length of input text.

    A Flexible and Scalable Agent Platform for Multi-Agent Systems
    Multi-agent system is composed by several agents capable of reaching the goal cooperatively. The system needs an agent platform for efficient and stable interaction between intelligent agents. In this paper we propose a flexible and scalable agent platform by composing the containers with multiple hierarchical agent groups. It also allows efficient implementation of multiple domain presentations of the agents unlike JADE. The proposed platform provides both group management and individual management of agents for efficiency. The platform has been implemented and tested, and it can be used as a flexible foundation of the dynamic multi-agent system targeting seamless delivery of ubiquitous services.
    Evaluation of Algorithms for Sequential Decision in Biosonar Target Classification

    A sequential decision problem, based on the task ofidentifying the species of trees given acoustic echo data collectedfrom them, is considered with well-known stochastic classifiers,including single and mixture Gaussian models. Echoes are processedwith a preprocessing stage based on a model of mammalian cochlearfiltering, using a new discrete low-pass filter characteristic. Stoppingtime performance of the sequential decision process is evaluated andcompared. It is observed that the new low pass filter processingresults in faster sequential decisions.

    Approaches and Schemes for Storing DTD-Independent XML Data in Relational Databases
    The volume of XML data exchange is explosively increasing, and the need for efficient mechanisms of XML data management is vital. Many XML storage models have been proposed for storing XML DTD-independent documents in relational database systems. Benchmarking is the best way to highlight pros and cons of different approaches. In this study, we use a common benchmarking scheme, known as XMark to compare the most cited and newly proposed DTD-independent methods in terms of logical reads, physical I/O, CPU time and duration. We show the effect of Label Path, extracting values and storing in another table and type of join needed for each method's query answering.
    A Comparison and Analysis of Name Matching Algorithms
    Names are important in many societies, even in technologically oriented ones which use e.g. ID systems to identify individual people. Names such as surnames are the most important as they are used in many processes, such as identifying of people and genealogical research. On the other hand variation of names can be a major problem for the identification and search for people, e.g. web search or security reasons. Name matching presumes a-priori that the recorded name written in one alphabet reflects the phonetic identity of two samples or some transcription error in copying a previously recorded name. We add to this the lode that the two names imply the same person. This paper describes name variations and some basic description of various name matching algorithms developed to overcome name variation and to find reasonable variants of names which can be used to further increasing mismatches for record linkage and name search. The implementation contains algorithms for computing a range of fuzzy matching based on different types of algorithms, e.g. composite and hybrid methods and allowing us to test and measure algorithms for accuracy. NYSIIS, LIG2 and Phonex have been shown to perform well and provided sufficient flexibility to be included in the linkage/matching process for optimising name searching.
    Mapping Complex, Large – Scale Spiking Networks on Neural VLSI
    Traditionally, VLSI implementations of spiking neural nets have featured large neuron counts for fixed computations or small exploratory, configurable nets. This paper presents the system architecture of a large configurable neural net system employing a dedicated mapping algorithm for projecting the targeted biology-analog nets and dynamics onto the hardware with its attendant constraints.
    Modeling Biology Inspired Reactive Agents Using X-machines

    Recent advances in both the testing and verification of software based on formal specifications of the system to be built have reached a point where the ideas can be applied in a powerful way in the design of agent-based systems. The software engineering research has highlighted a number of important issues: the importance of the type of modeling technique used; the careful design of the model to enable powerful testing techniques to be used; the automated verification of the behavioural properties of the system; the need to provide a mechanism for translating the formal models into executable software in a simple and transparent way. This paper introduces the use of the X-machine formalism as a tool for modeling biology inspired agents proposing the use of the techniques built around X-machine models for the construction of effective, and reliable agent-based software systems.

    Personalised Mobile Picture Puzzle

    Mobile Picture Puzzle is a mobile game application where the player use existing images stored in the mobile phone to create a puzzle to be played. This traditional picture puzzle is not so challenging once the player is familiar with the game. The objective of the developed mobile game application is to have a similar mobile game application that can provide the player with more challenging gaming experience. The developed mobile game application is also a mobile picture puzzle game application to create a puzzle to be played but instead of just using existing images that are stored, the personalised capability allows the player to use the built-in camera phone to capture an image and use the newly captured image to create the puzzle. The development of the mobile game application uses Symbian Operating System (OS), Mobile Media API (Application Programming Interface), Record Management System (RMS) storage and TiledLayer class from Game API.

    A Comparison of First and Second Order Training Algorithms for Artificial Neural Networks
    Minimization methods for training feed-forward networks with Backpropagation are compared. Feedforward network training is a special case of functional minimization, where no explicit model of the data is assumed. Therefore due to the high dimensionality of the data, linearization of the training problem through use of orthogonal basis functions is not desirable. The focus is functional minimization on any basis. A number of methods based on local gradient and Hessian matrices are discussed. Modifications of many methods of first and second order training methods are considered. Using share rates data, experimentally it is proved that Conjugate gradient and Quasi Newton?s methods outperformed the Gradient Descent methods. In case of the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is of special interest in financial forecasting.
    Morphing Human Faces: Automatic Control Points Selection and Color Transition

    In this paper, we propose a morphing method by which face color images can be freely transformed. The main focus of this work is the transformation of one face image to another. This method is fully automatic in that it can morph two face images by automatically detecting all the control points necessary to perform the morph. A face detection neural network, edge detection and medium filters are employed to detect the face position and features. Five control points, for both the source and target images, are then extracted based on the facial features. Triangulation method is then used to match and warp the source image to the target image using the control points. Finally color interpolation is done using a color Gaussian model that calculates the color for each particular frame depending on the number of frames used. A real coded Genetic algorithm is used in both the image warping and color blending steps to assist in step size decisions and speed up the morphing. This method results in ''very smooth'' morphs and is fast to process.

    Intuition Operator: Providing Genomes with Reason

    In this contribution, the use of a new genetic operator is proposed. The main advantage of using this operator is that it is able to assist the evolution procedure to converge faster towards the optimal solution of a problem. This new genetic operator is called ''intuition'' operator. Generally speaking, one can claim that this operator is a way to include any heuristic or any other local knowledge, concerning the problem, that cannot be embedded in the fitness function. Simulation results show that the use of this operator increases significantly the performance of the classic Genetic Algorithm by increasing the convergence speed of its population.

    Building Gabor Filters from Retinal Responses

    Starting from a biologically inspired framework, Gabor filters were built up from retinal filters via LMSE algorithms. Asubset of retinal filter kernels was chosen to form a particular Gabor filter by using a weighted sum. One-dimensional optimization approaches were shown to be inappropriate for the problem. All model parameters were fixed with biological or image processing constraints. Detailed analysis of the optimization procedure led to the introduction of a minimization constraint. Finally, quantization of weighting factors was investigated. This resulted in an optimized cascaded structure of a Gabor filter bank implementation with lower computational cost.

    Improving the Convergence of the Backpropagation Algorithm Using Local Adaptive Techniques

    Since the presentation of the backpropagation algorithm, a vast variety of improvements of the technique for training a feed forward neural networks have been proposed. This article focuses on two classes of acceleration techniques, one is known as Local Adaptive Techniques that are based on weightspecific only, such as the temporal behavior of the partial derivative of the current weight. The other, known as Dynamic Adaptation Methods, which dynamically adapts the momentum factors, α, and learning rate, η, with respect to the iteration number or gradient. Some of most popular learning algorithms are described. These techniques have been implemented and tested on several problems and measured in terms of gradient and error function evaluation, and percentage of success. Numerical evidence shows that these techniques improve the convergence of the Backpropagation algorithm.

    Two-Phase Optimization for Selecting Materialized Views in a Data Warehouse
    A data warehouse (DW) is a system which has value and role for decision-making by querying. Queries to DW are critical regarding to their complexity and length. They often access millions of tuples, and involve joins between relations and aggregations. Materialized views are able to provide the better performance for DW queries. However, these views have maintenance cost, so materialization of all views is not possible. An important challenge of DW environment is materialized view selection because we have to realize the trade-off between performance and view maintenance. Therefore, in this paper, we introduce a new approach aimed to solve this challenge based on Two-Phase Optimization (2PO), which is a combination of Simulated Annealing (SA) and Iterative Improvement (II), with the use of Multiple View Processing Plan (MVPP). Our experiments show that 2PO outperform the original algorithms in terms of query processing cost and view maintenance cost.
    A Taguchi Approach to Investigate Impact of Factors for Reusability of Software Components
    Quantitative Investigation of impact of the factors' contribution towards measuring the reusability of software components could be helpful in evaluating the quality of developed or developing reusable software components and in identification of reusable component from existing legacy systems; that can save cost of developing the software from scratch. But the issue of the relative significance of contributing factors has remained relatively unexplored. In this paper, we have use the Taguchi's approach in analyzing the significance of different structural attributes or factors in deciding the reusability level of a particular component. The results obtained shows that the complexity is the most important factor in deciding the better Reusability of a function oriented Software. In case of Object Oriented Software, Coupling and Complexity collectively play significant role in high reusability.
    Intention Recognition using a Graph Representation
    The human friendly interaction is the key function of a human-centered system. Over the years, it has received much attention to develop the convenient interaction through intention recognition. Intention recognition processes multimodal inputs including speech, face images, and body gestures. In this paper, we suggest a novel approach of intention recognition using a graph representation called Intention Graph. A concept of valid intention is proposed, as a target of intention recognition. Our approach has two phases: goal recognition phase and intention recognition phase. In the goal recognition phase, we generate an action graph based on the observed actions, and then the candidate goals and their plans are recognized. In the intention recognition phase, the intention is recognized with relevant goals and user profile. We show that the algorithm has polynomial time complexity. The intention graph is applied to a simple briefcase domain to test our model.
    Context for Simplicity: A Basis for Context-aware Systems Based on the 3GPP Generic User Profile

    The paper focuses on the area of context modeling with respect to the specification of context-aware systems supporting ubiquitous applications. The proposed approach, followed within the SIMPLICITY IST project, uses a high-level system ontology to derive context models for system components which consequently are mapped to the system's physical entities. For the definition of user and device-related context models in particular, the paper suggests a standard-based process consisting of an analysis phase using the Common Information Model (CIM) methodology followed by an implementation phase that defines 3GPP based components. The benefits of this approach are further depicted by preliminary examples of XML grammars defining profiles and components, component instances, coupled with descriptions of respective ubiquitous applications.

    A System for Performance Evaluation of Embedded Software

    Developers need to evaluate software's performance to make software efficient. This paper suggests a performance evaluation system for embedded software. The suggested system consists of code analyzer, testing agents, data analyzer, and report viewer. The code analyzer inserts additional code dependent on target system into source code and compiles the source code. The testing agents execute performance test. The data analyzer translates raw-level results data to class-level APIs for reporting viewer. The report viewer offers users graphical report views by using the APIs. We hope that the suggested tool will be useful for embedded-related software development,because developers can easily and intuitively analyze software's performance and resource utilization.

    Concept Indexing using Ontology and Supervised Machine Learning
    Nowadays, ontologies are the only widely accepted paradigm for the management of sharable and reusable knowledge in a way that allows its automatic interpretation. They are collaboratively created across the Web and used to index, search and annotate documents. The vast majority of the ontology based approaches, however, focus on indexing texts at document level. Recently, with the advances in ontological engineering, it became clear that information indexing can largely benefit from the use of general purpose ontologies which aid the indexing of documents at word level. This paper presents a concept indexing algorithm, which adds ontology information to words and phrases and allows full text to be searched, browsed and analyzed at different levels of abstraction. This algorithm uses a general purpose ontology, OntoRo, and an ontologically tagged corpus, OntoCorp, both developed for the purpose of this research. OntoRo and OntoCorp are used in a two-stage supervised machine learning process aimed at generating ontology tagging rules. The first experimental tests show a tagging accuracy of 78.91% which is encouraging in terms of the further improvement of the algorithm.
    Restartings: A Technique to Improve Classic Genetic Algorithms Performance

    In this contribution, a way to enhance the performance of the classic Genetic Algorithm is proposed. The idea of restarting a Genetic Algorithm is applied in order to obtain better knowledge of the solution space of the problem. A new operator of 'insertion' is introduced so as to exploit (utilize) the information that has already been collected before the restarting procedure. Finally, numerical experiments comparing the performance of the classic Genetic Algorithm and the Genetic Algorithm with restartings, for some well known test functions, are given.

    Fuzzy Clustering of Categorical Attributes and its Use in Analyzing Cultural Data

    We develop a three-step fuzzy logic-based algorithm for clustering categorical attributes, and we apply it to analyze cultural data. In the first step the algorithm employs an entropy-based clustering scheme, which initializes the cluster centers. In the second step we apply the fuzzy c-modes algorithm to obtain a fuzzy partition of the data set, and the third step introduces a novel cluster validity index, which decides the final number of clusters.

    Automatic Camera Calibration for Images of Soccer Match

    Camera calibration plays an important role in the domain of the analysis of sports video. Considering soccer video, in most cases, the cross-points can be used for calibration at the center of the soccer field are not sufficient, so this paper introduces a new automatic camera calibration algorithm focus on solving this problem by using the properties of images of the center circle, halfway line and a touch line. After the theoretical analysis, a practicable automatic algorithm is proposed. Very little information used though, results of experiments with both synthetic data and real data show that the algorithm is applicable.

    Granulation using Clustering and Rough Set Theory and its Tree Representation
    Granular computing deals with representation of information in the form of some aggregates and related methods for transformation and analysis for problem solving. A granulation scheme based on clustering and Rough Set Theory is presented with focus on structured conceptualization of information has been presented in this paper. Experiments for the proposed method on four labeled data exhibit good result with reference to classification problem. The proposed granulation technique is semi-supervised imbibing global as well as local information granulation. To represent the results of the attribute oriented granulation a tree structure is proposed in this paper.
    Affine Projection Algorithm with Variable Data-Reuse Factor

    This paper suggests a new Affine Projection (AP) algorithm with variable data-reuse factor using the condition number as a decision factor. To reduce computational burden, we adopt a recently reported technique which estimates the condition number of an input data matrix. Several simulations show that the new algorithm has better performance than that of the conventional AP algorithm.

    A Conceptual Query-Driven Design Framework for Data Warehouse
    Data warehouse is a dedicated database used for querying and reporting. Queries in this environment show special characteristics such as multidimensionality and aggregation. Exploiting the nature of queries, in this paper we propose a query driven design framework. The proposed framework is general and allows a designer to generate a schema based on a set of queries.
    The Factors Significant to Software Development Productivity
    The past decade has seen enormous growth in the amount of software produced. However, given the ever increasing complexity of the software being developed and the concomitant rise in the typical project size, managers are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of issues that influence the productivity levels of the project teams involved. By analyzing the latest release of ISBSG data repository, we report on the factors found to significantly influence the productivity among which average team size and language type are the two most essential ones. Building on this we present an original model for evaluating the potential productivity during the project planning stage.
    Rule-Based Message Passing for Collaborative Application in Distributed Environments

    In this paper, we describe a rule-based message passing method to support developing collaborative applications, in which multiple users share resources in distributed environments. Message communications of applications in collaborative environments tend to be very complex because of the necessity to manage context situations such as sharing events, access controlling of users, and network places. In this paper, we propose a message communications method based on unification of artificial intelligence and logic programming for defining rules of such context information in a procedural object-oriented programming language. We also present an implementation of the method as java classes.

    A New Heuristic for Improving the Performance of Genetic Algorithm
    The hybridisation of genetic algorithm with heuristics has been shown to be one of an effective way to improve its performance. In this work, genetic algorithm hybridised with four heuristics including a new heuristic called neighbourhood improvement were investigated through the classical travelling salesman problem. The experimental results showed that the proposed heuristic outperformed other heuristics both in terms of quality of the results obtained and the computational time.
    The Problem of Using the Calculation of the Critical Path to Solver Instances of the Job Shop Scheduling Problem

    A procedure commonly used in Job Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP) to evaluate the neighborhoods functions that use the non-deterministic algorithms is the calculation of the critical path in a digraph. This paper presents an experimental study of the cost of computation that exists when the calculation of the critical path in the solution for instances in which a JSSP of large size is involved. The results indicate that if the critical path is use in order to generate neighborhoods in the meta-heuristics that are used in JSSP, an elevated cost of computation exists in spite of the fact that the calculation of the critical path in any digraph is of polynomial complexity.

    Resolving Dependency Ambiguity of Subordinate Clauses using Support Vector Machines
    In this paper, we propose a method of resolving dependency ambiguities of Korean subordinate clauses based on Support Vector Machines (SVMs). Dependency analysis of clauses is well known to be one of the most difficult tasks in parsing sentences, especially in Korean. In order to solve this problem, we assume that the dependency relation of Korean subordinate clauses is the dependency relation among verb phrase, verb and endings in the clauses. As a result, this problem is represented as a binary classification task. In order to apply SVMs to this problem, we selected two kinds of features: static and dynamic features. The experimental results on STEP2000 corpus show that our system achieves the accuracy of 73.5%.
    Enhance Performance of Secure Image Using Wavelet Compression

    The increase popularity of multimedia application especially in image processing places a great demand on efficient data storage and transmission techniques. Network communication such as wireless network can easily be intercepted and cause of confidential information leaked. Unfortunately, conventional compression and encryption methods are too slow; it is impossible to carry out real time secure image processing. In this research, Embedded Zerotree Wavelet (EZW) encoder which specially designs for wavelet compression is examined. With this algorithm, three methods are proposed to reduce the processing time, space and security protection that will be secured enough to protect the data.

    Forecasting Enrollment Model Based on First-Order Fuzzy Time Series

    This paper proposes a novel improvement of forecasting approach based on using time-invariant fuzzy time series. In contrast to traditional forecasting methods, fuzzy time series can be also applied to problems, in which historical data are linguistic values. It is shown that proposed time-invariant method improves the performance of forecasting process. Further, the effect of using different number of fuzzy sets is tested as well. As with the most of cited papers, historical enrollment of the University of Alabama is used in this study to illustrate the forecasting process. Subsequently, the performance of the proposed method is compared with existing fuzzy time series time-invariant models based on forecasting accuracy. It reveals a certain performance superiority of the proposed method over methods described in the literature.