Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 43

Computer, Electrical, Automation, Control and Information Engineering

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  • 43
    1369
    Metamorphism, Formal Grammars and Undecidable Code Mutation
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    This paper presents a formalisation of the different existing code mutation techniques (polymorphism and metamorphism) by means of formal grammars. While very few theoretical results are known about the detection complexity of viral mutation techniques, we exhaustively address this critical issue by considering the Chomsky classification of formal grammars. This enables us to determine which family of code mutation techniques are likely to be detected or on the contrary are bound to remain undetected. As an illustration we then present, on a formal basis, a proof-of-concept metamorphic mutation engine denoted PB MOT, whose detection has been proven to be undecidable.

    42
    1890
    Quantitative Analysis of Weld Defect Images in Industrial Radiography Based Invariant Attributes
    Abstract:

    For the characterization of the weld defect region in the radiographic image, looking for features which are invariant regarding the geometrical transformations (rotation, translation and scaling) proves to be necessary because the same defect can be seen from several angles according to the orientation and the distance from the welded framework to the radiation source. Thus, panoply of geometrical attributes satisfying the above conditions is proposed and which result from the calculation of the geometrical parameters (surface, perimeter, etc.) on the one hand and the calculation of the different order moments, on the other hand. Because the large range in values of the raw features and taking into account other considerations imposed by some classifiers, the scaling of these values to lie between 0 and 1 is indispensable. The principal component analysis technique is used in order to reduce the number of the attribute variables in the aim to give better performance to the further defect classification.

    41
    2195
    Generalized Morphological 3D Shape Decomposition Grayscale Interframe Interpolation Method
    Abstract:

    One of the main image representations in Mathematical Morphology is the 3D Shape Decomposition Representation, useful for Image Compression and Representation,and Pattern Recognition. The 3D Morphological Shape Decomposition representation can be generalized a number of times,to extend the scope of its algebraic characteristics as much as possible. With these generalizations, the Morphological Shape Decomposition 's role to serve as an efficient image decomposition tool is extended to grayscale images.This work follows the above line, and further develops it. Anew evolutionary branch is added to the 3D Morphological Shape Decomposition's development, by the introduction of a 3D Multi Structuring Element Morphological Shape Decomposition, which permits 3D Morphological Shape Decomposition of 3D binary images (grayscale images) into "multiparameter" families of elements. At the beginning, 3D Morphological Shape Decomposition representations are based only on "1 parameter" families of elements for image decomposition.This paper addresses the gray scale inter frame interpolation by means of mathematical morphology. The new interframe interpolation method is based on generalized morphological 3D Shape Decomposition. This article will present the theoretical background of the morphological interframe interpolation, deduce the new representation and show some application examples.Computer simulations could illustrate results.

    40
    2394
    Blur and Ringing Artifact Measurement in Image Compression using Wavelet Transform
    Abstract:

    Quality evaluation of an image is an important task in image processing applications. In case of image compression, quality of decompressed image is also the criterion for evaluation of given coding scheme. In the process of compression -decompression various artifacts such as blocking artifacts, blur artifact, ringing or edge artifact are observed. However quantification of these artifacts is a difficult task. We propose here novel method to quantify blur and ringing artifact in an image.

    39
    2586
    Multiple Regression based Graphical Modeling for Images
    Abstract:

    Super resolution is one of the commonly referred inference problems in computer vision. In the case of images, this problem is generally addressed using a graphical model framework wherein each node represents a portion of the image and the edges between the nodes represent the statistical dependencies. However, the large dimensionality of images along with the large number of possible states for a node makes the inference problem computationally intractable. In this paper, we propose a representation wherein each node can be represented as acombination of multiple regression functions. The proposed approach achieves a tradeoff between the computational complexity and inference accuracy by varying the number of regression functions for a node.

    38
    3030
    Parallel Image Compression and Analysis with Wavelets
    Abstract:

    This paper presents image compression with wavelet based method. The wavelet transformation divides image to low- and high pass filtered parts. The traditional JPEG compression technique requires lower computation power with feasible losses, when only compression is needed. However, there is obvious need for wavelet based methods in certain circumstances. The methods are intended to the applications in which the image analyzing is done parallel with compression. Furthermore, high frequency bands can be used to detect changes or edges. Wavelets enable hierarchical analysis for low pass filtered sub-images. The first analysis can be done for a small image, and only if any interesting is found, the whole image is processed or reconstructed.

    37
    3385
    Edge-end Pixel Extraction for Edge-based Image Segmentation
    Abstract:

    Extraction of edge-end-pixels is an important step for the edge linking process to achieve edge-based image segmentation. This paper presents an algorithm to extract edge-end pixels together with their directional sensitivities as an augmentation to the currently available mathematical models. The algorithm is implemented in the Java environment because of its inherent compatibility with web interfaces since its main use is envisaged to be for remote image analysis on a virtual instrumentation platform.

    36
    3562
    An Effective Framework for Chinese Syntactic Parsing
    Abstract:

    This paper presents an effective framework for Chinesesyntactic parsing, which includes two parts. The first one is a parsing framework, which is based on an improved bottom-up chart parsingalgorithm, and integrates the idea of the beam search strategy of N bestalgorithm and heuristic function of A* algorithm for pruning, then get multiple parsing trees. The second is a novel evaluation model, which integrates contextual and partial lexical information into traditional PCFG model and defines a new score function. Using this model, the tree with the highest score is found out as the best parsing tree. Finally,the contrasting experiment results are given. Keywords?syntactic parsing, PCFG, pruning, evaluation model.

    35
    3618
    Weld Defect Detection in Industrial Radiography Based Digital Image Processing
    Abstract:

    Industrial radiography is a famous technique for the identification and evaluation of discontinuities, or defects, such as cracks, porosity and foreign inclusions found in welded joints. Although this technique has been well developed, improving both the inspection process and operating time, it does suffer from several drawbacks. The poor quality of radiographic images is due to the physical nature of radiography as well as small size of the defects and their poor orientation relatively to the size and thickness of the evaluated parts. Digital image processing techniques allow the interpretation of the image to be automated, avoiding the presence of human operators making the inspection system more reliable, reproducible and faster. This paper describes our attempt to develop and implement digital image processing algorithms for the purpose of automatic defect detection in radiographic images. Because of the complex nature of the considered images, and in order that the detected defect region represents the most accurately possible the real defect, the choice of global and local preprocessing and segmentation methods must be appropriated.

    34
    5071
    Unsupervised Texture Segmentation via Applying Geodesic Active Regions to Gaborian Feature Space
    Abstract:

    In this paper, we propose a novel variational method for unsupervised texture segmentation. We use a Gabor filter bank to extract texture features. Some of the filtered channels form a multidimensional Gaborian feature space. To avoid deforming contours directly in a vector-valued space we use a Gaussian mixture model to describe the statistical distribution of this space and get the boundary and region probabilities. Then a framework of geodesic active regions is applied based on them. In the end, experimental results are presented, and show that this method can obtain satisfied boundaries between different texture regions.

    33
    5293
    Nuclear Medical Image Treatment System Based On FPGA in Real Time
    Abstract:

    We present in this paper an acquisition and treatment system designed for semi-analog Gamma-camera. It consists of a nuclear medical Image Acquisition, Treatment and Display chain(IATD) ensuring the acquisition, the treatment of the signals(resulting from the Gamma-camera detection head) and the scintigraphic image construction in real time. This chain is composed by an analog treatment board and a digital treatment board. We describe the designed systems and the digital treatment algorithms in which we have improved the performance and the flexibility. The digital treatment algorithms are implemented in a specific reprogrammable circuit FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array).interface for semi-analog cameras of Sopha Medical Vision(SMVi) by taking as example SOPHY DS7. The developed system consists of an Image Acquisition, Treatment and Display (IATD) ensuring the acquisition and the treatment of the signals resulting from the DH. The developed chain is formed by a treatment analog board and a digital treatment board designed around a DSP [2]. In this paper we have presented the architecture of a new version of our chain IATD in which the integration of the treatment algorithms is executed on an FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Array)

    32
    5905
    Recursive Wiener-Khintchine Theorem
    Abstract:

    Power Spectral Density (PSD) computed by taking the Fourier transform of auto-correlation functions (Wiener-Khintchine Theorem) gives better result, in case of noisy data, as compared to the Periodogram approach. However, the computational complexity of Wiener-Khintchine approach is more than that of the Periodogram approach. For the computation of short time Fourier transform (STFT), this problem becomes even more prominent where computation of PSD is required after every shift in the window under analysis. In this paper, recursive version of the Wiener-Khintchine theorem has been derived by using the sliding DFT approach meant for computation of STFT. The computational complexity of the proposed recursive Wiener-Khintchine algorithm, for a window size of N, is O(N).

    31
    6227
    Automated Feature Points Management for Video Mosaic Construction
    Abstract:

    A novel algorithm for construct a seamless video mosaic of the entire panorama continuously by automatically analyzing and managing feature points, including management of quantity and quality, from the sequence is presented. Since a video contains significant redundancy, so that not all consecutive video images are required to create a mosaic. Only some key images need to be selected. Meanwhile, feature-based methods for mosaicing rely on correction of feature points? correspondence deeply, and if the key images have large frame interval, the mosaic will often be interrupted by the scarcity of corresponding feature points. A unique character of the method is its ability to handle all the problems above in video mosaicing. Experiments have been performed under various conditions, the results show that our method could achieve fast and accurate video mosaic construction. Keywords?video mosaic, feature points management, homography estimation.

    30
    6242
    Complex-Valued Neural Network in Image Recognition: A Study on the Effectiveness of Radial Basis Function
    Abstract:

    A complex valued neural network is a neural network, which consists of complex valued input and/or weights and/or thresholds and/or activation functions. Complex-valued neural networks have been widening the scope of applications not only in electronics and informatics, but also in social systems. One of the most important applications of the complex valued neural network is in image and vision processing. In Neural networks, radial basis functions are often used for interpolation in multidimensional space. A Radial Basis function is a function, which has built into it a distance criterion with respect to a centre. Radial basis functions have often been applied in the area of neural networks where they may be used as a replacement for the sigmoid hidden layer transfer characteristic in multi-layer perceptron. This paper aims to present exhaustive results of using RBF units in a complex-valued neural network model that uses the back-propagation algorithm (called 'Complex-BP') for learning. Our experiments results demonstrate the effectiveness of a Radial basis function in a complex valued neural network in image recognition over a real valued neural network. We have studied and stated various observations like effect of learning rates, ranges of the initial weights randomly selected, error functions used and number of iterations for the convergence of error on a neural network model with RBF units. Some inherent properties of this complex back propagation algorithm are also studied and discussed.

    29
    6247
    Effect of Neighborhood Size on Negative Weights in Punctual Kriging Based Image Restoration
    Abstract:

    We present a general comparison of punctual kriging based image restoration for different neighbourhood sizes. The formulation of the technique under consideration is based on punctual kriging and fuzzy concepts for image restoration in spatial domain. Three different neighbourhood windows are considered to estimate the semivariance at different lags for studying its effect in reduction of negative weights resulted in punctual kriging, consequently restoration of degraded images. Our results show that effect of neighbourhood size higher than 5x5 on reduction in negative weights is insignificant. In addition, image quality measures, such as structure similarity indices, peak signal to noise ratios and the new variogram based quality measures; show that 3x3 window size gives better performance as compared with larger window sizes.

    28
    7379
    Adaptive Total Variation Based on Feature Scale
    Abstract:

    The widely used Total Variation de-noising algorithm can preserve sharp edge, while removing noise. However, since fixed regularization parameter over entire image, small details and textures are often lost in the process. In this paper, we propose a modified Total Variation algorithm to better preserve smaller-scaled features. This is done by allowing an adaptive regularization parameter to control the amount of de-noising in any region of image, according to relative information of local feature scale. Experimental results demonstrate the efficient of the proposed algorithm. Compared with standard Total Variation, our algorithm can better preserve smaller-scaled features and show better performance.

    27
    8476
    Efficient Spectral Analysis of Quasi Stationary Time Series
    Abstract:

    Power Spectral Density (PSD) of quasi-stationary processes can be efficiently estimated using the short time Fourier series (STFT). In this paper, an algorithm has been proposed that computes the PSD of quasi-stationary process efficiently using offline autoregressive model order estimation algorithm, recursive parameter estimation technique and modified sliding window discrete Fourier Transform algorithm. The main difference in this algorithm and STFT is that the sliding window (SW) and window for spectral estimation (WSA) are separately defined. WSA is updated and its PSD is computed only when change in statistics is detected in the SW. The computational complexity of the proposed algorithm is found to be lesser than that for standard STFT technique.

    26
    8634
    Intelligent Audio Watermarking using Genetic Algorithm in DWT Domain
    Abstract:

    In this paper, an innovative watermarking scheme for audio signal based on genetic algorithms (GA) in the discrete wavelet transforms is proposed. It is robust against watermarking attacks, which are commonly employed in literature. In addition, the watermarked image quality is also considered. We employ GA for the optimal localization and intensity of watermark. The watermark detection process can be performed without using the original audio signal. The experimental results demonstrate that watermark is inaudible and robust to many digital signal processing, such as cropping, low pass filter, additive noise.

    25
    9116
    Scene Adaptive Shadow Detection Algorithm
    Abstract:

    Robustness is one of the primary performance criteria for an Intelligent Video Surveillance (IVS) system. One of the key factors in enhancing the robustness of dynamic video analysis is,providing accurate and reliable means for shadow detection. If left undetected, shadow pixels may result in incorrect object tracking and classification, as it tends to distort localization and measurement information. Most of the algorithms proposed in literature are computationally expensive; some to the extent of equalling computational requirement of motion detection. In this paper, the homogeneity property of shadows is explored in a novel way for shadow detection. An adaptive division image (which highlights homogeneity property of shadows) analysis followed by a relatively simpler projection histogram analysis for penumbra suppression is the key novelty in our approach.

    24
    9270
    Image Authenticity and Perceptual Optimization via Genetic Algorithm and a Dependence Neighborhood
    Abstract:

    Information hiding for authenticating and verifying the content integrity of the multimedia has been exploited extensively in the last decade. We propose the idea of using genetic algorithm and non-deterministic dependence by involving the un-watermarkable coefficients for digital image authentication. Genetic algorithm is used to intelligently select coefficients for watermarking in a DCT based image authentication scheme, which implicitly watermark all the un-watermarkable coefficients also, in order to thwart different attacks. Experimental results show that such intelligent selection results in improvement of imperceptibility of the watermarked image, and implicit watermarking of all the coefficients improves security against attacks such as cover-up, vector quantization and transplantation.

    23
    9964
    A Visual Cryptography and Statistics Based Method for Ownership Identification of Digital Images
    Abstract:

    In this paper, a novel copyright protection scheme for digital images based on Visual Cryptography and Statistics is proposed. In our scheme, the theories and properties of sampling distribution of means and visual cryptography are employed to achieve the requirements of robustness and security. Our method does not need to alter the original image and can identify the ownership without resorting to the original image. Besides, our method allows multiple watermarks to be registered for a single host image without causing any damage to other hidden watermarks. Moreover, it is also possible for our scheme to cast a larger watermark into a smaller host image. Finally, experimental results will show the robustness of our scheme against several common attacks.

    22
    10498
    A New Approach for Flexible Document Categorization
    Abstract:

    In this paper we propose a new approach for flexible document categorization according to the document type or genre instead of topic. Our approach implements two homogenous classifiers: contextual classifier and logical classifier. The contextual classifier is based on the document URL, whereas, the logical classifier use the logical structure of the document to perform the categorization. The final categorization is obtained by combining contextual and logical categorizations. In our approach, each document is assigned to all predefined categories with different membership degrees. Our experiments demonstrate that our approach is best than other genre categorization approaches.

    21
    10623
    Developments for ''Virtual'' Monitoring and Process Simulation of the Cryogenic Pilot Plant
    Abstract:

    The implementation of the new software and hardware-s technologies for tritium processing nuclear plants, and especially those with an experimental character or of new technology developments shows a coefficient of complexity due to issues raised by the implementation of the performing instrumentation and equipment into a unitary monitoring system of the nuclear technological process of tritium removal. Keeping the system-s flexibility is a demand of the nuclear experimental plants for which the change of configuration, process and parameters is something usual. The big amount of data that needs to be processed stored and accessed for real time simulation and optimization demands the achievement of the virtual technologic platform where the data acquiring, control and analysis systems of the technological process can be integrated with a developed technological monitoring system. Thus, integrated computing and monitoring systems needed for the supervising of the technological process will be executed, to be continued with the execution of optimization system, by choosing new and performed methods corresponding to the technological processes within the tritium removal processing nuclear plants. The developing software applications is executed with the support of the program packages dedicated to industrial processes and they will include acquisition and monitoring sub-modules, named “virtually" as well as the storage sub-module of the process data later required for the software of optimization and simulation of the technological process for tritium removal. The system plays and important role in the environment protection and durable development through new technologies, that is – the reduction of and fight against industrial accidents in the case of tritium processing nuclear plants. Research for monitoring optimisation of nuclear processes is also a major driving force for economic and social development.

    20
    10642
    Unconditionally Secure Quantum Payment System
    Abstract:

    A potentially serious problem with current payment systems is that their underlying hard problems from number theory may be solved by either a quantum computer or unanticipated future advances in algorithms and hardware. A new quantum payment system is proposed in this paper. The suggested system makes use of fundamental principles of quantum mechanics to ensure the unconditional security without prior arrangements between customers and vendors. More specifically, the new system uses Greenberger-Home-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and Quantum Key Distribution to authenticate the vendors and guarantee the transaction integrity.

    19
    10721
    The Socio-Technical Indicator Model: Socially-Sensitive CMC Technology, with an Implementation of Representative Moderation
    Abstract:

    Computer-mediated communication technologies which provide for virtual communities have typically evolved in a cross-dichotomous manner, such that technical constructs of the technology have evolved independently from the social environment of the community. The present paper analyses some limitations of current implementations of computer-mediated communication technology that are implied by such a dichotomy, and discusses their inhibiting effects on possible developments of virtual communities. A Socio-Technical Indicator Model is introduced that utilizes integrated feedback to describe, simulate and operationalise increasing representativeness within a variety of structurally and parametrically diverse systems. In illustration, applications of the model are briefly described for financial markets and for eco-systems. A detailed application is then provided to resolve the aforementioned technical limitations of moderation on the evolution of virtual communities. The application parameterises virtual communities to function as self-transforming social-technical systems which are sensitive to emergent and shifting community values as products of on-going communications within the collective.

    18
    10994
    Density Estimation using Generalized Linear Model and a Linear Combination of Gaussians
    Abstract:

    In this paper we present a novel approach for density estimation. The proposed approach is based on using the logistic regression model to get initial density estimation for the given empirical density. The empirical data does not exactly follow the logistic regression model, so, there will be a deviation between the empirical density and the density estimated using logistic regression model. This deviation may be positive and/or negative. In this paper we use a linear combination of Gaussian (LCG) with positive and negative components as a model for this deviation. Also, we will use the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm to estimate the parameters of LCG. Experiments on real images demonstrate the accuracy of our approach.

    17
    10998
    Semantic Spatial Objects Data Structure for Spatial Access Method
    Abstract:

    Modern spatial database management systems require a unique Spatial Access Method (SAM) in order solve complex spatial quires efficiently. In this case the spatial data structure takes a prominent place in the SAM. Inadequate data structure leads forming poor algorithmic choices and forging deficient understandings of algorithm behavior on the spatial database. A key step in developing a better semantic spatial object data structure is to quantify the performance effects of semantic and outlier detections that are not reflected in the previous tree structures (R-Tree and its variants). This paper explores a novel SSRO-Tree on SAM to the Topo-Semantic approach. The paper shows how to identify and handle the semantic spatial objects with outlier objects during page overflow/underflow, using gain/loss metrics. We introduce a new SSRO-Tree algorithm which facilitates the achievement of better performance in practice over algorithms that are superior in the R*-Tree and RO-Tree by considering selection queries.

    16
    11076
    An Agent-Based Approach to Vehicle Routing Problem
    Abstract:

    The paper proposes and validates a new method of solving instances of the vehicle routing problem (VRP). The approach is based on a multiple agent system paradigm. The paper contains the VRP formulation, an overview of the multiple agent environment used and a description of the proposed implementation. The approach is validated experimentally. The experiment plan and the discussion of experiment results follow.

    15
    11309
    On the Use of Image Processing Techniques for the Estimation of the Porosity of Textile Fabrics
    Abstract:

    This paper presents a novel approach to assessing textile porosity by the application of the image analysis techniques. The images of different types of sample fabrics, taken through a microscope when the fabric is placed over a constant light source,transfer the problem into the image analysis domain. Indeed, porosity can thus be expressed in terms of a brightness percentage index calculated on the digital microscope image. Furthermore, it is meaningful to compare the brightness percentage index with the air permeability and the tightness indices of each fabric type. We have experimentally shown that there exists an approximately linear relation between brightness percentage and air permeability indices.

    14
    11594
    A Neural Model of Object Naming
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    One astonishing capability of humans is to recognize thousands of different objects visually, and to learn the semantic association between those objects and words referring to them. This work is an attempt to build a computational model of such capacity,simulating the process by which infants learn how to recognize objects and words through exposure to visual stimuli and vocal sounds.One of the main fact shaping the brain of a newborn is that lights and colors come from entities of the world. Gradually the visual system learn which light sensations belong to same entities, despite large changes in appearance. This experience is common between humans and several other mammals, like non-human primates. But humans only can recognize a huge variety of objects, most manufactured by himself, and make use of sounds to identify and categorize them. The aim of this model is to reproduce these processes in a biologically plausible way, by reconstructing the essential hierarchy of cortical circuits on the visual and auditory neural paths.

    13
    11600
    Towards an Extended SQLf: Bipolar Query Language with Preferences
    Abstract:

    Database management systems that integrate user preferences promise better solution for personalization, greater flexibility and higher quality of query responses. This paper presents a tentative work that studies and investigates approaches to express user preferences in queries. We sketch an extend capabilities of SQLf language that uses the fuzzy set theory in order to define the user preferences. For that, two essential points are considered: the first concerns the expression of user preferences in SQLf by so-called fuzzy commensurable predicates set. The second concerns the bipolar way in which these user preferences are expressed on mandatory and/or optional preferences.

    12
    11895
    Applications of Cascade Correlation Neural Networks for Cipher System Identification
    Abstract:

    Crypto System Identification is one of the challenging tasks in Crypt analysis. The paper discusses the possibility of employing Neural Networks for identification of Cipher Systems from cipher texts. Cascade Correlation Neural Network and Back Propagation Network have been employed for identification of Cipher Systems. Very large collection of cipher texts were generated using a Block Cipher (Enhanced RC6) and a Stream Cipher (SEAL). Promising results were obtained in terms of accuracy using both the Neural Network models but it was observed that the Cascade Correlation Neural Network Model performed better compared to Back Propagation Network.

    11
    11933
    Improving Cache Memory Utilization
    Abstract:

    In this paper, an efficient technique is proposed to manage the cache memory. The proposed technique introduces some modifications on the well-known set associative mapping technique. This modification requires a little alteration in the structure of the cache memory and on the way by which it can be referenced. The proposed alteration leads to increase the set size virtually and consequently to improve the performance and the utilization of the cache memory. The current mapping techniques have accomplished good results. In fact, there are still different cases in which cache memory lines are left empty and not used, whereas two or more processes overwrite the lines of each other, instead of using those empty lines. The proposed algorithm aims at finding an efficient way to deal with such problem.

    10
    12134
    Probability Density Estimation Using Advanced Support Vector Machines and the Expectation Maximization Algorithm
    Abstract:

    This paper presents a new approach for the prob-ability density function estimation using the Support Vector Ma-chines (SVM) and the Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithms.In the proposed approach, an advanced algorithm for the SVM den-sity estimation which incorporates the Mean Field theory in the learning process is used. Instead of using ad-hoc values for the para-meters of the kernel function which is used by the SVM algorithm,the proposed approach uses the EM algorithm for an automatic optimization of the kernel. Experimental evaluation using simulated data set shows encouraging results.

    9
    12472
    An Implementation of Data Reusable MPEG Video Coding Scheme
    Abstract:

    This paper presents an optimized MPEG2 video codec implementation, which drastically reduces the number of computations and memory accesses required for video compression. Unlike traditional scheme, we reuse data stored in frame memory to omit unnecessary coding operations and memory read/writes for unchanged macroblocks. Due to dynamic memory sharing among reference frames, data-driven macroblock characterization and selective macroblock processing, we perform less than 15% of the total operations required by a conventional coder while maintaining high picture quality.

    8
    12860
    Feature Preserving Image Interpolation and Enhancement Using Adaptive Bidirectional Flow
    Abstract:

    Image interpolation is a common problem in imaging applications. However, most interpolation algorithms in existence suffer visually to some extent the effects of blurred edges and jagged artifacts in the image. This paper presents an adaptive feature preserving bidirectional flow process, where an inverse diffusion is performed to enhance edges along the normal directions to the isophote lines (edges), while a normal diffusion is done to remove artifacts (''jaggies'') along the tangent directions. In order to preserve image features such as edges, angles and textures, the nonlinear diffusion coefficients are locally adjusted according to the first and second order directional derivatives of the image. Experimental results on synthetic images and nature images demonstrate that our interpolation algorithm substantially improves the subjective quality of the interpolated images over conventional interpolations.

    7
    13237
    Bangla Vowel Characterization Based on Analysis by Synthesis
    Abstract:

    Bangla Vowel characterization determines the spectral properties of Bangla vowels for efficient synthesis as well as recognition of Bangla vowels. In this paper, Bangla vowels in isolated word have been analyzed based on speech production model within the framework of Analysis-by-Synthesis. This has led to the extraction of spectral parameters for the production model in order to produce different Bangla vowel sounds. The real and synthetic spectra are compared and a weighted square error has been computed along with the error in the formant bandwidths for efficient representation of Bangla vowels. The extracted features produced good representation of targeted Bangla vowel. Such a representation also plays essential role in low bit rate speech coding and vocoders.

    6
    13307
    OCR for Script Identification of Hindi (Devnagari) Numerals using Error Diffusion Halftoning Algorithm with Neural Classifier
    Abstract:

    The applications on numbers are across-the-board that there is much scope for study. The chic of writing numbers is diverse and comes in a variety of form, size and fonts. Identification of Indian languages scripts is challenging problems. In Optical Character Recognition [OCR], machine printed or handwritten characters/numerals are recognized. There are plentiful approaches that deal with problem of detection of numerals/character depending on the sort of feature extracted and different way of extracting them. This paper proposes a recognition scheme for handwritten Hindi (devnagiri) numerals; most admired one in Indian subcontinent our work focused on a technique in feature extraction i.e. Local-based approach, a method using 16-segment display concept, which is extracted from halftoned images & Binary images of isolated numerals. These feature vectors are fed to neural classifier model that has been trained to recognize a Hindi numeral. The archetype of system has been tested on varieties of image of numerals. Experimentation result shows that recognition rate of halftoned images is 98 % compared to binary images (95%).

    5
    14600
    Using Data Mining Techniques for Estimating Minimum, Maximum and Average Daily Temperature Values
    Abstract:

    Estimates of temperature values at a specific time of day, from daytime and daily profiles, are needed for a number of environmental, ecological, agricultural and technical applications, ranging from natural hazards assessments, crop growth forecasting to design of solar energy systems. The scope of this research is to investigate the efficiency of data mining techniques in estimating minimum, maximum and mean temperature values. For this reason, a number of experiments have been conducted with well-known regression algorithms using temperature data from the city of Patras in Greece. The performance of these algorithms has been evaluated using standard statistical indicators, such as Correlation Coefficient, Root Mean Squared Error, etc.

    4
    15710
    An Augmented Automatic Choosing Control Designed by Extremizing a Combination of Hamiltonian and Lyapunov Functions for Nonlinear Systems with Constrained Input
    Abstract:

    In this paper we consider a nonlinear feedback control called augmented automatic choosing control (AACC) for nonlinear systems with constrained input. Constant terms which arise from section wise linearization of a given nonlinear system are treated as coefficients of a stable zero dynamics.Parameters included in the control are suboptimally selectedby extremizing a combination of Hamiltonian and Lyapunov functions with the aid of the genetic algorithm. This approach is applied to a field excitation control problem of power system to demonstrate the splendidness of the AACC. Simulation results show that the new controller can improve performance remarkably well.

    3
    15813
    Encryption Efficiency Analysis and Security Evaluation of RC6 Block Cipher for Digital Images
    Abstract:

    This paper investigates the encryption efficiency of RC6 block cipher application to digital images, providing a new mathematical measure for encryption efficiency, which we will call the encryption quality instead of visual inspection, The encryption quality of RC6 block cipher is investigated among its several design parameters such as word size, number of rounds, and secret key length and the optimal choices for the best values of such design parameters are given. Also, the security analysis of RC6 block cipher for digital images is investigated from strict cryptographic viewpoint. The security estimations of RC6 block cipher for digital images against brute-force, statistical, and differential attacks are explored. Experiments are made to test the security of RC6 block cipher for digital images against all aforementioned types of attacks. Experiments and results verify and prove that RC6 block cipher is highly secure for real-time image encryption from cryptographic viewpoint. Thorough experimental tests are carried out with detailed analysis, demonstrating the high security of RC6 block cipher algorithm. So, RC6 block cipher can be considered to be a real-time secure symmetric encryption for digital images.

    2
    15953
    Feature Preserving Nonlinear Diffusion for Ultrasonic Image Denoising and Edge Enhancement
    Abstract:

    Utilizing echoic intension and distribution from different organs and local details of human body, ultrasonic image can catch important medical pathological changes, which unfortunately may be affected by ultrasonic speckle noise. A feature preserving ultrasonic image denoising and edge enhancement scheme is put forth, which includes two terms: anisotropic diffusion and edge enhancement, controlled by the optimum smoothing time. In this scheme, the anisotropic diffusion is governed by the local coordinate transformation and the first and the second order normal derivatives of the image, while the edge enhancement is done by the hyperbolic tangent function. Experiments on real ultrasonic images indicate effective preservation of edges, local details and ultrasonic echoic bright strips on denoising by our scheme.

    1
    15955
    Predictive Model of Sensor Readings for a Mobile Robot
    Abstract:

    This paper presents a predictive model of sensor readings for mobile robot. The model predicts sensor readings for given time horizon based on current sensor readings and velocities of wheels assumed for this horizon. Similar models for such anticipation have been proposed in the literature. The novelty of the model presented in the paper comes from the fact that its structure takes into account physical phenomena and is not just a black box, for example a neural network. From this point of view it may be regarded as a semi-phenomenological model. The model is developed for the Khepera robot, but after certain modifications, it may be applied for any robot with distance sensors such as infrared or ultrasonic sensors.