Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 64

Computer, Electrical, Automation, Control and Information Engineering

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  • 64
    513
    Robot Motion Planning in Dynamic Environments with Moving Obstacles and Target
    Abstract:
    This paper presents a new sensor-based online method for generating collision-free near-optimal paths for mobile robots pursuing a moving target amidst dynamic and static obstacles. At each iteration, first the set of all collision-free directions are calculated using velocity vectors of the robot relative to each obstacle and target, forming the Directive Circle (DC), which is a novel concept. Then, a direction close to the shortest path to the target is selected from feasible directions in DC. The DC prevents the robot from being trapped in deadlocks or local minima. It is assumed that the target's velocity is known, while the speeds of dynamic obstacles, as well as the locations of static obstacles, are to be calculated online. Extensive simulations and experimental results demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed method and its success in coping with complex environments and obstacles.
    63
    837
    Discontinuous Feedback Linearization of an Electrically Driven Fast Robot Manipulator
    Abstract:

    A multivariable discontinuous feedback linearization approach is proposed to position control of an electrically driven fast robot manipulator. A desired performance is achieved by selecting a useful controller and suitable sampling rate and considering saturation for actuators. There is a high flexibility to apply the proposed control approach on different electrically driven manipulators. The control approach can guarantee the stability and satisfactory tracking performance. A PUMA 560 robot driven by geared permanent magnet dc motors is simulated. The simulation results show a desired performance for control system under technical specifications.

    62
    1914
    A Computational Model for Resolving Pronominal Anaphora in Turkish Using Hobbs- Naïve Algorithm
    Abstract:

    In this paper we present a computational model for pronominal anaphora resolution in Turkish. The model is based on Hobbs’ Naїve Algorithm [4, 5, 6], which exploits only the surface syntax of sentences in a given text.

    61
    2193
    A Real-Time Tracking System Developed for an Interactive Stage Performance
    Abstract:

    A real-time tracking system was built to track performers on an interactive stage. Using an ordinary, up to date, desktop workstation, the performers- silhouette was segmented from the background and parameterized by calculating the normalized central image moments. In the stage system, the silhouette moments were then sent to a parallel workstation, which used them to generate corresponding 3D virtual geometry and projected the generated graphic back onto the stage.

    60
    2286
    Representing Collective Unconsciousness Using Neural Networks
    Abstract:

    Instead of representing individual cognition only, population cognition is represented using artificial neural networks whilst maintaining individuality. This population network trains continuously, simulating adaptation. An implementation of two coexisting populations is compared to the Lotka-Volterra model of predator-prey interaction. Applications include multi-agent systems such as artificial life or computer games.

    59
    2475
    Walsh-Hadamard Transform for Facial Feature Extraction in Face Recognition
    Abstract:

    This Paper proposes a new facial feature extraction approach, Wash-Hadamard Transform (WHT). This approach is based on correlation between local pixels of the face image. Its primary advantage is the simplicity of its computation. The paper compares the proposed approach, WHT, which was traditionally used in data compression with two other known approaches: the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) using the face database of Olivetti Research Laboratory (ORL). In spite of its simple computation, the proposed algorithm (WHT) gave very close results to those obtained by the PCA and DCT. This paper initiates the research into WHT and the family of frequency transforms and examines their suitability for feature extraction in face recognition applications.

    58
    2826
    Feature Extraction for Surface Classification – An Approach with Wavelets
    Abstract:

    Surface metrology with image processing is a challenging task having wide applications in industry. Surface roughness can be evaluated using texture classification approach. Important aspect here is appropriate selection of features that characterize the surface. We propose an effective combination of features for multi-scale and multi-directional analysis of engineering surfaces. The features include standard deviation, kurtosis and the Canny edge detector. We apply the method by analyzing the surfaces with Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Dual-Tree Complex Wavelet Transform (DT-CWT). We used Canberra distance metric for similarity comparison between the surface classes. Our database includes the surface textures manufactured by three machining processes namely Milling, Casting and Shaping. The comparative study shows that DT-CWT outperforms DWT giving correct classification performance of 91.27% with Canberra distance metric.

    57
    2889
    Multisensor Agent Based Intrusion Detection
    Abstract:
    In this paper we propose a framework for multisensor intrusion detection called Fuzzy Agent-Based Intrusion Detection System. A unique feature of this model is that the agent uses data from multiple sensors and the fuzzy logic to process log files. Use of this feature reduces the overhead in a distributed intrusion detection system. We have developed an agent communication architecture that provides a prototype implementation. This paper discusses also the issues of combining intelligent agent technology with the intrusion detection domain.
    56
    3061
    Dynamic Network Routing Method Based on Chromosome Learning
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    In this paper, we probe into the traffic assignment problem by the chromosome-learning-based path finding method in simulation, which is to model the driver' behavior in the with-in-a-day process. By simply making a combination and a change of the traffic route chromosomes, the driver at the intersection chooses his next route. The various crossover and mutation rules are proposed with extensive examples.

    55
    3389
    An Ant Colony Optimization for Dynamic JobScheduling in Grid Environment
    Abstract:
    Grid computing is growing rapidly in the distributed heterogeneous systems for utilizing and sharing large-scale resources to solve complex scientific problems. Scheduling is the most recent topic used to achieve high performance in grid environments. It aims to find a suitable allocation of resources for each job. A typical problem which arises during this task is the decision of scheduling. It is about an effective utilization of processor to minimize tardiness time of a job, when it is being scheduled. This paper, therefore, addresses the problem by developing a general framework of grid scheduling using dynamic information and an ant colony optimization algorithm to improve the decision of scheduling. The performance of various dispatching rules such as First Come First Served (FCFS), Earliest Due Date (EDD), Earliest Release Date (ERD), and an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) are compared. Moreover, the benefit of using an Ant Colony Optimization for performance improvement of the grid Scheduling is also discussed. It is found that the scheduling system using an Ant Colony Optimization algorithm can efficiently and effectively allocate jobs to proper resources.
    54
    3436
    Actionable Rules: Issues and New Directions
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    Knowledge Discovery in Databases (KDD) is the process of extracting previously unknown, hidden and interesting patterns from a huge amount of data stored in databases. Data mining is a stage of the KDD process that aims at selecting and applying a particular data mining algorithm to extract an interesting and useful knowledge. It is highly expected that data mining methods will find interesting patterns according to some measures, from databases. It is of vital importance to define good measures of interestingness that would allow the system to discover only the useful patterns. Measures of interestingness are divided into objective and subjective measures. Objective measures are those that depend only on the structure of a pattern and which can be quantified by using statistical methods. While, subjective measures depend only on the subjectivity and understandability of the user who examine the patterns. These subjective measures are further divided into actionable, unexpected and novel. The key issues that faces data mining community is how to make actions on the basis of discovered knowledge. For a pattern to be actionable, the user subjectivity is captured by providing his/her background knowledge about domain. Here, we consider the actionability of the discovered knowledge as a measure of interestingness and raise important issues which need to be addressed to discover actionable knowledge.

    53
    3442
    Revisiting Distributed Protocols for Mobility at the Application Layer
    Abstract:

    During more than a decade, many proposals and standards have been designed to deal with the mobility issues; however, there are still some serious limitations in basing solutions on them. In this paper we discuss the possibility of handling mobility at the application layer. We do this while revisiting the conventional implementation of the Two Phase Commit (2PC) protocol which is a fundamental asset of transactional technology for ensuring the consistent commitment of distributed transactions. The solution is based on an execution framework providing an efficient extension that is aware of the mobility and preserves the 2PC principle.

    52
    3736
    Translator Design to Model Cpp Files
    Abstract:

    The most reliable and accurate description of the actual behavior of a software system is its source code. However, not all questions about the system can be answered directly by resorting to this repository of information. What the reverse engineering methodology aims at is the extraction of abstract, goal-oriented “views" of the system, able to summarize relevant properties of the computation performed by the program. While concentrating on reverse engineering we had modeled the C++ files by designing the translator.

    51
    4204
    Performance Evaluation of Compression Algorithms for Developing and Testing Industrial Imaging Systems
    Abstract:
    The development of many measurement and inspection systems of products based on real-time image processing can not be carried out totally in a laboratory due to the size or the temperature of the manufactured products. Those systems must be developed in successive phases. Firstly, the system is installed in the production line with only an operational service to acquire images of the products and other complementary signals. Next, a recording service of the image and signals must be developed and integrated in the system. Only after a large set of images of products is available, the development of the real-time image processing algorithms for measurement or inspection of the products can be accomplished under realistic conditions. Finally, the recording service is turned off or eliminated and the system operates only with the real-time services for the acquisition and processing of the images. This article presents a systematic performance evaluation of the image compression algorithms currently available to implement a real-time recording service. The results allow establishing a trade off between the reduction or compression of the image size and the CPU time required to get that compression level.
    50
    4326
    A Computer Proven Application of the Discrete Logarithm Problem
    Abstract:

    In this paper we analyze the application of a formal proof system to the discrete logarithm problem used in publickey cryptography. That means, we explore a computer verification of the ElGamal encryption scheme with the formal proof system Isabelle/HOL. More precisely, the functional correctness of this algorithm is formally verified with computer support. Besides, we present a formalization of the DSA signature scheme in the Isabelle/HOL system. We show that this scheme is correct what is a necessary condition for the usefulness of any cryptographic signature scheme.

    49
    4728
    Heuristic Set-Covering-Based Postprocessing for Improving the Quine-McCluskey Method
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    Finding the minimal logical functions has important applications in the design of logical circuits. This task is solved by many different methods but, frequently, they are not suitable for a computer implementation. We briefly summarise the well-known Quine-McCluskey method, which gives a unique procedure of computing and thus can be simply implemented, but, even for simple examples, does not guarantee an optimal solution. Since the Petrick extension of the Quine-McCluskey method does not give a generally usable method for finding an optimum for logical functions with a high number of values, we focus on interpretation of the result of the Quine-McCluskey method and show that it represents a set covering problem that, unfortunately, is an NP-hard combinatorial problem. Therefore it must be solved by heuristic or approximation methods. We propose an approach based on genetic algorithms and show suitable parameter settings.

    48
    5034
    Investigation of Some Technical Indexes inStock Forecasting Using Neural Networks
    Abstract:
    Training neural networks to capture an intrinsic property of a large volume of high dimensional data is a difficult task, as the training process is computationally expensive. Input attributes should be carefully selected to keep the dimensionality of input vectors relatively small. Technical indexes commonly used for stock market prediction using neural networks are investigated to determine its effectiveness as inputs. The feed forward neural network of Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm is applied to perform one step ahead forecasting of NASDAQ and Dow stock prices.
    47
    5170
    Highly Scalable, Reversible and Embedded Image Compression System
    Abstract:

    A new method for low complexity image coding is presented, that permits different settings and great scalability in the generation of the final bit stream. This coding presents a continuoustone still image compression system that groups loss and lossless compression making use of finite arithmetic reversible transforms. Both transformation in the space of color and wavelet transformation are reversible. The transformed coefficients are coded by means of a coding system in depending on a subdivision into smaller components (CFDS) similar to the bit importance codification. The subcomponents so obtained are reordered by means of a highly configure alignment system depending on the application that makes possible the re-configure of the elements of the image and obtaining different levels of importance from which the bit stream will be generated. The subcomponents of each level of importance are coded using a variable length entropy coding system (VBLm) that permits the generation of an embedded bit stream. This bit stream supposes itself a bit stream that codes a compressed still image. However, the use of a packing system on the bit stream after the VBLm allows the realization of a final highly scalable bit stream from a basic image level and one or several enhance levels.

    46
    5666
    Validation Testing for Temporal Neural Networks for RBF Recognition
    Abstract:

    A neuron can emit spikes in an irregular time basis and by averaging over a certain time window one would ignore a lot of information. It is known that in the context of fast information processing there is no sufficient time to sample an average firing rate of the spiking neurons. The present work shows that the spiking neurons are capable of computing the radial basis functions by storing the relevant information in the neurons' delays. One of the fundamental findings of the this research also is that when using overlapping receptive fields to encode the data patterns it increases the network-s clustering capacity. The clustering algorithm that is discussed here is interesting from computer science and neuroscience point of view as well as from a perspective.

    45
    5715
    Judges System for Classifiers Specialization
    Abstract:
    In this paper we designed and implemented a new ensemble of classifiers based on a sequence of classifiers which were specialized in regions of the training dataset where errors of its trained homologous are concentrated. In order to separate this regions, and to determine the aptitude of each classifier to properly respond to a new case, it was used another set of classifiers built hierarchically. We explored a selection based variant to combine the base classifiers. We validated this model with different base classifiers using 37 training datasets. It was carried out a statistical comparison of these models with the well known Bagging and Boosting, obtaining significantly superior results with the hierarchical ensemble using Multilayer Perceptron as base classifier. Therefore, we demonstrated the efficacy of the proposed ensemble, as well as its applicability to general problems.
    44
    5736
    CBCTL: A Reasoning System of TemporalEpistemic Logic with Communication Channel
    Abstract:
    This paper introduces a temporal epistemic logic CBCTL that updates agent-s belief states through communications in them, based on computational tree logic (CTL). In practical environments, communication channels between agents may not be secure, and in bad cases agents might suffer blackouts. In this study, we provide inform* protocol based on ACL of FIPA, and declare the presence of secure channels between two agents, dependent on time. Thus, the belief state of each agent is updated along with the progress of time. We show a prover, that is a reasoning system for a given formula in a given a situation of an agent ; if it is directly provable or if it could be validated through the chains of communications, the system returns the proof.
    43
    5777
    Universal Metadata Definition
    Abstract:
    The need to have standards has always been a priority of all the disciplines in the world. Today, standards such as XML and USB are trying to create a universal interface for their respective areas. The information regarding every family in the discipline addressed, must have a lot in common, known as Metadata. A lot of work has been done in specific domains such as IEEE LOM and MPEG-7 but they do not appeal to the universality of creating Metadata for all entities, where we take an entity (object) as, not restricted to Software Terms. This paper tries to address this problem of universal Metadata Definition which may lead to increase in precision of search.
    42
    6120
    A Framework for Data Mining Based Multi-Agent: An Application to Spatial Data
    Abstract:

    Data mining is an extraordinarily demanding field referring to extraction of implicit knowledge and relationships, which are not explicitly stored in databases. A wide variety of methods of data mining have been introduced (classification, characterization, generalization...). Each one of these methods includes more than algorithm. A system of data mining implies different user categories,, which mean that the user-s behavior must be a component of the system. The problem at this level is to know which algorithm of which method to employ for an exploratory end, which one for a decisional end, and how can they collaborate and communicate. Agent paradigm presents a new way of conception and realizing of data mining system. The purpose is to combine different algorithms of data mining to prepare elements for decision-makers, benefiting from the possibilities offered by the multi-agent systems. In this paper the agent framework for data mining is introduced, and its overall architecture and functionality are presented. The validation is made on spatial data. Principal results will be presented.

    41
    6278
    An Architecture for High Performance File SystemI/O
    Abstract:
    This paper presents an architecture of current filesystem implementations as well as our new filesystem SpadFS and operating system Spad with rewritten VFS layer targeted at high performance I/O applications. The paper presents microbenchmarks and real-world benchmarks of different filesystems on the same kernel as well as benchmarks of the same filesystem on different kernels – enabling the reader to make conclusion how much is the performance of various tasks affected by operating system and how much by physical layout of data on disk. The paper describes our novel features–most notably continuous allocation of directories and cross-file readahead – and shows their impact on performance.
    40
    7456
    Web Based Real Time Laboratory Applications of Analog and Digital Communication Courses with Lab VIEW Access
    Abstract:
    Developments in scientific and technical area cause to use new methods and techniques in education, as is the case in all fields. Especially, the internet contributes a variety of new methods to design virtual and real time laboratory applications in education. In this study, a real time virtual laboratory is designed and implemented for analog and digital communications laboratory experiments by using Lab VIEW program for Marmara University Electronics-Communication Department. In this application, students can access the virtual laboratory web site and perform their experiments without any limitation of time and location so as the students can observe the signals by changing the parameters of the experiment and evaluate the results.
    39
    7503
    An Approach to Task Modeling for User Interface Design
    Abstract:
    The model-based approach to user interface design relies on developing separate models capturing various aspects about users, tasks, application domain, presentation and dialog structures. This paper presents a task modeling approach for user interface design and aims at exploring mappings between task, domain and presentation models. The basic idea of our approach is to identify typical configurations in task and domain models and to investigate how they relate each other. A special emphasis is put on applicationspecific functions and mappings between domain objects and operational task structures. In this respect, we will address two layers in task decomposition: a functional (planning) layer and an operational layer.
    38
    7732
    Motor Imagery Signal Classification for a Four State Brain Machine Interface
    Abstract:

    Motor imagery classification provides an important basis for designing Brain Machine Interfaces [BMI]. A BMI captures and decodes brain EEG signals and transforms human thought into actions. The ability of an individual to control his EEG through imaginary mental tasks enables him to control devices through the BMI. This paper presents a method to design a four state BMI using EEG signals recorded from the C3 and C4 locations. Principle features extracted through principle component analysis of the segmented EEG are analyzed using two novel classification algorithms using Elman recurrent neural network and functional link neural network. Performance of both classifiers is evaluated using a particle swarm optimization training algorithm; results are also compared with the conventional back propagation training algorithm. EEG motor imagery recorded from two subjects is used in the offline analysis. From overall classification performance it is observed that the BP algorithm has higher average classification of 93.5%, while the PSO algorithm has better training time and maximum classification. The proposed methods promises to provide a useful alternative general procedure for motor imagery classification

    37
    7932
    An Ant-based Clustering System for Knowledge Discovery in DNA Chip Analysis Data
    Abstract:

    Biological data has several characteristics that strongly differentiate it from typical business data. It is much more complex, usually large in size, and continuously changes. Until recently business data has been the main target for discovering trends, patterns or future expectations. However, with the recent rise in biotechnology, the powerful technology that was used for analyzing business data is now being applied to biological data. With the advanced technology at hand, the main trend in biological research is rapidly changing from structural DNA analysis to understanding cellular functions of the DNA sequences. DNA chips are now being used to perform experiments and DNA analysis processes are being used by researchers. Clustering is one of the important processes used for grouping together similar entities. There are many clustering algorithms such as hierarchical clustering, self-organizing maps, K-means clustering and so on. In this paper, we propose a clustering algorithm that imitates the ecosystem taking into account the features of biological data. We implemented the system using an Ant-Colony clustering algorithm. The system decides the number of clusters automatically. The system processes the input biological data, runs the Ant-Colony algorithm, draws the Topic Map, assigns clusters to the genes and displays the output. We tested the algorithm with a test data of 100 to1000 genes and 24 samples and show promising results for applying this algorithm to clustering DNA chip data.

    36
    8121
    Generic Multimedia Database Architecture
    Abstract:
    Multimedia, as it stands now is perhaps the most diverse and rich culture around the globe. One of the major needs of Multimedia is to have a single system that enables people to efficiently search through their multimedia catalogues. Many Domain Specific Systems and architectures have been proposed but up till now no generic and complete architecture is proposed. In this paper, we have suggested a generic architecture for Multimedia Database. The main strengths of our architecture besides being generic are Semantic Libraries to reduce semantic gap, levels of feature extraction for more specific and detailed feature extraction according to classes defined by prior level, and merging of two types of queries i.e. text and QBE (Query by Example) for more accurate yet detailed results.
    35
    8165
    A Method for Analysis of Industrial Distributed Embedded Systems
    Abstract:

    The paper presents a set of guidelines for analysis of industrial embedded distributed systems and introduces a mathematical model derived from these guidelines. In this study, the author examines a set of modern communication technologies that are or possibly can be used to build communication links between the subsystems of a distributed embedded system. An investigation of these guidelines results in a algorithm for analysis of specific use cases of target technologies. A goal of the paper acts as an important base for ongoing research on comparison of communication technologies. The author describes the principles of the model and presents results of the test calculations. Practical implementation of target technologies and empirical experiment data are based on a practical experience during the design and test of specific distributed systems in Latvian market.

    34
    8274
    Model-Based Person Tracking Through Networked Cameras
    Abstract:

    This paper proposes a way to track persons by making use of multiple non-overlapping cameras. Tracking persons on multiple non-overlapping cameras enables data communication among cameras through the network connection between a camera and a computer, while at the same time transferring human feature data captured by a camera to another camera that is connected via the network. To track persons with a camera and send the tracking data to another camera, the proposed system uses a hierarchical human model that comprises a head, a torso, and legs. The feature data of the person being modeled are transferred to the server, after which the server sends the feature data of the human model to the cameras connected over the network. This enables a camera that captures a person's movement entering its vision to keep tracking the recognized person with the use of the feature data transferred from the server.

    33
    8612
    Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols For High Density Ad Hoc Networks based on Qos by GlomoSim Simulator
    Abstract:
    Ad hoc networks are characterized by multihop wireless connectivity, frequently changing network topology and the need for efficient dynamic routing protocols. We compare the performance of three routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks: Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) , Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), location-aided routing(LAR1).The performance differentials are analyzed using varying network load, mobility, and network size. We simulate protocols with GLOMOSIM simulator. Based on the observations, we make recommendations about when the performance of either protocol can be best.
    32
    8658
    A Hybrid Approach for Selection of Relevant Features for Microarray Datasets
    Abstract:

    Developing an accurate classifier for high dimensional microarray datasets is a challenging task due to availability of small sample size. Therefore, it is important to determine a set of relevant genes that classify the data well. Traditionally, gene selection method often selects the top ranked genes according to their discriminatory power. Often these genes are correlated with each other resulting in redundancy. In this paper, we have proposed a hybrid method using feature ranking and wrapper method (Genetic Algorithm with multiclass SVM) to identify a set of relevant genes that classify the data more accurately. A new fitness function for genetic algorithm is defined that focuses on selecting the smallest set of genes that provides maximum accuracy. Experiments have been carried on four well-known datasets1. The proposed method provides better results in comparison to the results found in the literature in terms of both classification accuracy and number of genes selected.

    31
    8866
    Storing OWL Ontologies in SQL Relational Databases
    Abstract:
    Relational databases are often used as a basis for persistent storage of ontologies to facilitate rapid operations such as search and retrieval, and to utilize the benefits of relational databases management systems such as transaction management, security and integrity control. On the other hand, there appear more and more OWL files that contain ontologies. Therefore, this paper proposes to extract ontologies from OWL files and then store them in relational databases. A prerequisite for this storing is transformation of ontologies to relational databases, which is the purpose of this paper.
    30
    9214
    Diffusion Analysis of a Scalable Feistel Network
    Abstract:

    A generalization of the concepts of Feistel Networks (FN), known as Extended Feistel Network (EFN) is examined. EFN splits the input blocks into n > 2 sub-blocks. Like conventional FN, EFN consists of a series of rounds whereby at least one sub-block is subjected to an F function. The function plays a key role in the diffusion process due to its completeness property. It is also important to note that in EFN the F-function is the most computationally expensive operation in a round. The aim of this paper is to determine a suitable type of EFN for a scalable cipher. This is done by analyzing the threshold number of rounds for different types of EFN to achieve the completeness property as well as the number of F-function required in the network. The work focuses on EFN-Type I, Type II and Type III only. In the analysis it is found that EFN-Type II and Type III diffuses at the same rate and both are faster than Type-I EFN. Since EFN-Type-II uses less F functions as compared to EFN-Type III, therefore Type II is the most suitable EFN for use in a scalable cipher.

    29
    9279
    Robot Path Planning in 3D Space Using Binary Integer Programming
    Abstract:
    This paper presents a novel algorithm for path planning of mobile robots in known 3D environments using Binary Integer Programming (BIP). In this approach the problem of path planning is formulated as a BIP with variables taken from 3D Delaunay Triangulation of the Free Configuration Space and solved to obtain an optimal channel made of connected tetrahedrons. The 3D channel is then partitioned into convex fragments which are used to build safe and short paths within from Start to Goal. The algorithm is simple, complete, does not suffer from local minima, and is applicable to different workspaces with convex and concave polyhedral obstacles. The noticeable feature of this algorithm is that it is simply extendable to n-D Configuration spaces.
    28
    9605
    A Web Pages Automatic Filtering System
    Abstract:
    This article describes a Web pages automatic filtering system. It is an open and dynamic system based on multi agents architecture. This system is built up by a set of agents having each a quite precise filtering task of to carry out (filtering process broken up into several elementary treatments working each one a partial solution). New criteria can be added to the system without stopping its execution or modifying its environment. We want to show applicability and adaptability of the multi-agents approach to the networks information automatic filtering. In practice, most of existing filtering systems are based on modular conception approaches which are limited to centralized applications which role is to resolve static data flow problems. Web pages filtering systems are characterized by a data flow which varies dynamically.
    27
    9621
    Hybrid Machine Learning Approach for Text Categorization
    Abstract:

    Text categorization - the assignment of natural language documents to one or more predefined categories based on their semantic content - is an important component in many information organization and management tasks. Performance of neural networks learning is known to be sensitive to the initial weights and architecture. This paper discusses the use multilayer neural network initialization with decision tree classifier for improving text categorization accuracy. An adaptation of the algorithm is proposed in which a decision tree from root node until a final leave is used for initialization of multilayer neural network. The experimental evaluation demonstrates this approach provides better classification accuracy with Reuters-21578 corpus, one of the standard benchmarks for text categorization tasks. We present results comparing the accuracy of this approach with multilayer neural network initialized with traditional random method and decision tree classifiers.

    26
    10459
    A Model of Network Security with Prevention Capability by Using Decoy Technique
    Abstract:

    This research work proposes a model of network security systems aiming to prevent production system in a data center from being attacked by intrusions. Conceptually, we introduce a decoy system as a part of the security system for luring intrusions, and apply network intrusion detection (NIDS), coupled with the decoy system to perform intrusion prevention. When NIDS detects an activity of intrusions, it will signal a redirection module to redirect all malicious traffics to attack the decoy system instead, and hence the production system is protected and safe. However, in a normal situation, traffic will be simply forwarded to the production system as usual. Furthermore, we assess the performance of the model with various bandwidths, packet sizes and inter-attack intervals (attacking frequencies).

    25
    10467
    Dynamic Load Balancing in PVM Using Intelligent Application
    Abstract:

    This paper deals with dynamic load balancing using PVM. In distributed environment Load Balancing and Heterogeneity are very critical issues and needed to drill down in order to achieve the optimal results and efficiency. Various techniques are being used in order to distribute the load dynamically among different nodes and to deal with heterogeneity. These techniques are using different approaches where Process Migration is basic concept with different optimal flavors. But Process Migration is not an easy job, it impose lot of burden and processing effort in order to track each process in nodes. We will propose a dynamic load balancing technique in which application will intelligently balance the load among different nodes, resulting in efficient use of system and have no overheads of process migration. It would also provide a simple solution to problem of load balancing in heterogeneous environment.

    24
    11333
    DWT Based Robust Watermarking Embed Using CRC-32 Techniques
    Abstract:

    As far as the latest technological improvements are concerned, digital systems more become popular than the past. Despite this growing demand to the digital systems, content copy and attack against the digital cinema contents becomes a serious problem. To solve the above security problem, we propose “traceable watermarking using Hash functions for digital cinema system. Digital Cinema is a great application for traceable watermarking since it uses watermarking technology during content play as well as content transmission. The watermark is embedded into the randomly selected movie frames using CRC-32 techniques. CRC-32 is a Hash function. Using it, the embedding position is distributed by Hash Function so that any party cannot break off the watermarking or will not be able to change. Finally, our experimental results show that proposed DWT watermarking method using CRC-32 is much better than the convenient watermarking techniques in terms of robustness, image quality and its simple but unbreakable algorithm.

    23
    11935
    Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols for High Density Ad Hoc Networks Based on Energy Consumption by GlomoSim Simulator
    Abstract:

    Ad hoc networks are characterized by multihop wireless connectivity, frequently changing network topology and the need for efficient dynamic routing protocols. We compare the performance of three routing protocols for mobile ad hoc networks: Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad Hoc On-Demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), location-aided routing (LAR1).Our evaluation is based on energy consumption in mobile ad hoc networks. The performance differentials are analyzed using varying network load, mobility, and network size. We simulate protocols with GLOMOSIM simulator. Based on the observations, we make recommendations about when the performance of either protocol can be best.

    22
    12060
    A Dual Digital-Image Watermarking Technique
    Abstract:
    Image watermarking has become an important tool for intellectual property protection and authentication. In this paper a watermarking technique is suggested that incorporates two watermarks in a host image for improved protection and robustness. A watermark, in form of a PN sequence (will be called the secondary watermark), is embedded in the wavelet domain of a primary watermark before being embedded in the host image. The technique has been tested using Lena image as a host and the camera man as the primary watermark. The embedded PN sequence was detectable through correlation among other five sequences where a PSNR of 44.1065 dB was measured. Furthermore, to test the robustness of the technique, the watermarked image was exposed to four types of attacks, namely compression, low pass filtering, salt and pepper noise and luminance change. In all cases the secondary watermark was easy to detect even when the primary one is severely distorted.
    21
    12448
    Specification of Attributes of a Multimedia Presentation for Presentation Manager
    Abstract:

    A multimedia presentation system refers to the integration of a multimedia database with a presentation manager which has the functionality of content selection, organization and playout of multimedia presentations. It requires high performance of involved system components. Starting from multimedia information capture until the presentation delivery, high performance tools are required for accessing, manipulating, storing and retrieving these segments, for transferring and delivering them in a presentation terminal according to a playout order. The organization of presentations is a complex task in that the display order of presentation contents (in time and space) must be specified. A multimedia presentation contains audio, video, images and text media types. The critical decisions for presentation construction include what the contents are, how the contents are organized, and once the decision is made on the organization of the contents of the presentation, it must be conveyed to the end user in the correct organizational order and in a timely fashion. This paper introduces a framework for specification of multimedia presentations and describes the design of sample presentations using this framework from a multimedia database.

    20
    12674
    Evaluation of Clustering Based on Preprocessing in Gene Expression Data
    Abstract:

    Microarrays have become the effective, broadly used tools in biological and medical research to address a wide range of problems, including classification of disease subtypes and tumors. Many statistical methods are available for analyzing and systematizing these complex data into meaningful information, and one of the main goals in analyzing gene expression data is the detection of samples or genes with similar expression patterns. In this paper, we express and compare the performance of several clustering methods based on data preprocessing including strategies of normalization or noise clearness. We also evaluate each of these clustering methods with validation measures for both simulated data and real gene expression data. Consequently, clustering methods which are common used in microarray data analysis are affected by normalization and degree of noise and clearness for datasets.

    19
    12980
    Context-Aware Querying in Multimedia Databases – A Futuristic Approach
    Abstract:

    Efficient retrieval of multimedia objects has gained enormous focus in recent years. A number of techniques have been suggested for retrieval of textual information; however, relatively little has been suggested for efficient retrieval of multimedia objects. In this paper we have proposed a generic architecture for contextaware retrieval of multimedia objects. The proposed framework combines the well-known approaches of text-based retrieval and context-aware retrieval to formulate architecture for accurate retrieval of multimedia data.

    18
    13244
    Enhanced Frame-based Video Coding to Support Content-based Functionalities
    Abstract:

    This paper presents the enhanced frame-based video coding scheme. The input source video to the enhanced frame-based video encoder consists of a rectangular-size video and shapes of arbitrarily-shaped objects on video frames. The rectangular frame texture is encoded by the conventional frame-based coding technique and the video object-s shape is encoded using the contour-based vertex coding. It is possible to achieve several useful content-based functionalities by utilizing the shape information in the bitstream at the cost of a very small overhead to the bitrate.

    17
    13258
    Attack Detection through Image Adaptive Self Embedding Watermarking
    Abstract:

    Now a days, a significant part of commercial and governmental organisations like museums, cultural organizations, libraries, commercial enterprises, etc. invest intensively in new technologies for image digitization, digital libraries, image archiving and retrieval. Hence image authorization, authentication and security has become prime need. In this paper, we present a semi-fragile watermarking scheme for color images. The method converts the host image into YIQ color space followed by application of orthogonal dual domains of DCT and DWT transforms. The DCT helps to separate relevant from irrelevant image content to generate silent image features. DWT has excellent spatial localisation to help aid in spatial tamper characterisation. Thus image adaptive watermark is generated based of image features which allows the sharp detection of microscopic changes to locate modifications in the image. Further, the scheme utilises the multipurpose watermark consisting of soft authenticator watermark and chrominance watermark. Which has been proved fragile to some predefined processing like intentinal fabrication of the image or forgery and robust to other incidental attacks caused in the communication channel.

    16
    13414
    On-line Lao Handwritten Recognition with Proportional Invariant Feature
    Abstract:

    This paper proposed high level feature for online Lao handwritten recognition. This feature must be high level enough so that the feature is not change when characters are written by different persons at different speed and different proportion (shorter or longer stroke, head, tail, loop, curve). In this high level feature, a character is divided in to sequence of curve segments where a segment start where curve reverse rotation (counter clockwise and clockwise). In each segment, following features are gathered cumulative change in direction of curve (- for clockwise), cumulative curve length, cumulative length of left to right, right to left, top to bottom and bottom to top ( cumulative change in X and Y axis of segment). This feature is simple yet robust for high accuracy recognition. The feature can be gather from parsing the original time sampling sequence X, Y point of the pen location without re-sampling. We also experiment on other segmentation point such as the maximum curvature point which was widely used by other researcher. Experiments results show that the recognition rates are at 94.62% in comparing to using maximum curvature point 75.07%. This is due to a lot of variations of turning points in handwritten.

    15
    13472
    ASC – A Stream Cipher with Built – In MAC Functionality
    Abstract:

    In this paper we present the design of a new encryption scheme. The scheme we propose is a very exible encryption and authentication primitive. We build this scheme on two relatively new design principles: t-functions and fast pseudo hadamard transforms. We recapitulate the theory behind these principles and analyze their security properties and efficiency. In more detail we propose a streamcipher which outputs a message authentication tag along with theencrypted data stream with only little overhead. Moreover we proposesecurity-speed tradeoffs. Our scheme is faster than other comparablet-function based designs while offering the same security level.

    14
    13536
    A Genetic Algorithm for Clustering on Image Data
    Abstract:

    Clustering is the process of subdividing an input data set into a desired number of subgroups so that members of the same subgroup are similar and members of different subgroups have diverse properties. Many heuristic algorithms have been applied to the clustering problem, which is known to be NP Hard. Genetic algorithms have been used in a wide variety of fields to perform clustering, however, the technique normally has a long running time in terms of input set size. This paper proposes an efficient genetic algorithm for clustering on very large data sets, especially on image data sets. The genetic algorithm uses the most time efficient techniques along with preprocessing of the input data set. We test our algorithm on both artificial and real image data sets, both of which are of large size. The experimental results show that our algorithm outperforms the k-means algorithm in terms of running time as well as the quality of the clustering.

    13
    13794
    Cursor Position Estimation Model for Virtual Touch Screen Using Camera
    Abstract:

    Virtual touch screen using camera is an ordinary screen which uses a camera to imitate the touch screen by taking a picture of an indicator, e.g., finger, which is laid on the screen, converting the indicator tip position on the picture to the position on the screen, and moving the cursor on the screen to that position. In fact, the indicator is not laid on the screen directly, but it is intervened by the cover at some intervals. In spite of this gap, if the eye-indicator-camera angle is not large, the mapping from the indicator tip positions on the image to the corresponding cursor positions on the screen is not difficult and could be done with a little error. However, the larger the angle is, the bigger the error in the mapping occurs. This paper proposes cursor position estimation model for virtual touch screen using camera which could eliminate this kind of error. The proposed model (i) moves the on-screen pilot cursor to the screen position which locates on the screen at the position just behind the indicator tip when the indicator tip has been looked from the camera position, and then (ii) converts that pilot cursor position to the desirable cursor position (the position on the screen when it has been looked from the user-s eye through the indicator tip) by using the bilinear transformation. Simulation results show the correctness of the estimated cursor position by using the proposed model.

    12
    13800
    A Novel Hopfield Neural Network for Perfect Calculation of Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy
    Abstract:

    In this paper, an automatic determination algorithm for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the metabolites in the living body by magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) without human intervention or complicated calculations is presented. In such method, the problem of NMR spectrum determination is transformed into the determination of the parameters of a mathematical model of the NMR signal. To calculate these parameters efficiently, a new model called modified Hopfield neural network is designed. The main achievement of this paper over the work in literature [30] is that the speed of the modified Hopfield neural network is accelerated. This is done by applying cross correlation in the frequency domain between the input values and the input weights. The modified Hopfield neural network can accomplish complex dignals perfectly with out any additinal computation steps. This is a valuable advantage as NMR signals are complex-valued. In addition, a technique called “modified sequential extension of section (MSES)" that takes into account the damping rate of the NMR signal is developed to be faster than that presented in [30]. Simulation results show that the calculation precision of the spectrum improves when MSES is used along with the neural network. Furthermore, MSES is found to reduce the local minimum problem in Hopfield neural networks. Moreover, the performance of the proposed method is evaluated and there is no effect on the performance of calculations when using the modified Hopfield neural networks.

    11
    14036
    Multiple Sequence Alignment Using Optimization Algorithms
    Abstract:

    Proteins or genes that have similar sequences are likely to perform the same function. One of the most widely used techniques for sequence comparison is sequence alignment. Sequence alignment allows mismatches and insertion/deletion, which represents biological mutations. Sequence alignment is usually performed only on two sequences. Multiple sequence alignment, is a natural extension of two-sequence alignment. In multiple sequence alignment, the emphasis is to find optimal alignment for a group of sequences. Several applicable techniques were observed in this research, from traditional method such as dynamic programming to the extend of widely used stochastic optimization method such as Genetic Algorithms (GAs) and Simulated Annealing. A framework with combination of Genetic Algorithm and Simulated Annealing is presented to solve Multiple Sequence Alignment problem. The Genetic Algorithm phase will try to find new region of solution while Simulated Annealing can be considered as an alignment improver for any near optimal solution produced by GAs.

    10
    14400
    Dynamic Analyze of Snake Robot
    Abstract:
    Crawling movement as a motive mode seen in nature of some animals such as snakes possesses a specific syntactic and dynamic analysis. Serpentine robot designed by inspiration from nature and snake-s crawling motion, is regarded as a crawling robot. In this paper, a serpentine robot with spiral motion model will be analyzed. The purpose of this analysis is to calculate the vertical and tangential forces along snake-s body and to determine the parameters affecting on these forces. Two types of serpentine robots have been designed in order to examine the achieved relations explained below.
    9
    14631
    Online Control of Knitted Fabric Quality: Loop Length Control
    Abstract:
    Circular knitting machine makes the fabric with more than two knitting tools. Variation of yarn tension between different knitting tools causes different loop length of stitches duration knitting process. In this research, a new intelligent method is applied to control loop length of stitches in various tools based on ideal shape of stitches and real angle of stitches direction while different loop length of stitches causes stitches deformation and deviation those of angle. To measure deviation of stitch direction against variation of tensions, image processing technique was applied to pictures of different fabrics with constant front light. After that, the rate of deformation is translated to needed compensation of loop length cam degree to cure stitches deformation. A fuzzy control algorithm was applied to loop length modification in knitting tools. The presented method was experienced for different knitted fabrics of various structures and yarns. The results show that presented method is useable for control of loop length variation between different knitting tools based on stitch deformation for various knitted fabrics with different fabric structures, densities and yarn types.
    8
    14722
    Vector Space of the Extended Base-triplets over the Galois Field of five DNA Bases Alphabet
    Abstract:

    A plausible architecture of an ancient genetic code is derived from an extended base triplet vector space over the Galois field of the extended base alphabet {D, G, A, U, C}, where the letter D represent one or more hypothetical bases with unspecific pairing. We hypothesized that the high degeneration of a primeval genetic code with five bases and the gradual origin and improvements of a primitive DNA repair system could make possible the transition from the ancient to the modern genetic code. Our results suggest that the Watson-Crick base pairing and the non-specific base pairing of the hypothetical ancestral base D used to define the sum and product operations are enough features to determine the coding constraints of the primeval and the modern genetic code, as well as the transition from the former to the later. Geometrical and algebraic properties of this vector space reveal that the present codon assignment of the standard genetic code could be induced from a primeval codon assignment. Besides, the Fourier spectrum of the extended DNA genome sequences derived from the multiple sequence alignment suggests that the called period-3 property of the present coding DNA sequences could also exist in the ancient coding DNA sequences.

    7
    15070
    Fuzzy Scan Method to Detect Clusters
    Abstract:
    The classical temporal scan statistic is often used to identify disease clusters. In recent years, this method has become as a very popular technique and its field of application has been notably increased. Many bioinformatic problems have been solved with this technique. In this paper a new scan fuzzy method is proposed. The behaviors of classic and fuzzy scan techniques are studied with simulated data. ROC curves are calculated, being demonstrated the superiority of the fuzzy scan technique.
    6
    15152
    Simultaneous Segmentation and Recognition of Arabic Characters in an Unconstrained On-Line Cursive Handwritten Document
    Abstract:

    The last two decades witnessed some advances in the development of an Arabic character recognition (CR) system. Arabic CR faces technical problems not encountered in any other language that make Arabic CR systems achieve relatively low accuracy and retards establishing them as market products. We propose the basic stages towards a system that attacks the problem of recognizing online Arabic cursive handwriting. Rule-based methods are used to perform simultaneous segmentation and recognition of word portions in an unconstrained cursively handwritten document using dynamic programming. The output of these stages is in the form of a ranked list of the possible decisions. A new technique for text line separation is also used.

    5
    15176
    Surface Defects Detection for Ceramic Tiles UsingImage Processing and Morphological Techniques
    Abstract:

    Quality control in ceramic tile manufacturing is hard, labor intensive and it is performed in a harsh industrial environment with noise, extreme temperature and humidity. It can be divided into color analysis, dimension verification, and surface defect detection, which is the main purpose of our work. Defects detection is still based on the judgment of human operators while most of the other manufacturing activities are automated so, our work is a quality control enhancement by integrating a visual control stage using image processing and morphological operation techniques before the packing operation to improve the homogeneity of batches received by final users.

    4
    15346
    Robust Control of a High-Speed Manipulator in State Space
    Abstract:

    A robust control approach is proposed for a high speed manipulator using a hybrid computed torque control approach in the state space. The high-speed manipulator is driven by permanent magnet dc motors to track a trajectory in the joint space in the presence of disturbances. Tracking problem is analyzed in the state space where the completed models are considered for actuators. The proposed control approach can guarantee the stability and a satisfactory tracking performance. A two-link elbow manipulator driven by electrical actuators is simulated and results are shown to satisfy conditions under technical specifications.

    3
    15442
    Interconnection of Autonomous PROFIBUS Segments through IEEE 802.16 WMAN
    Abstract:

    PROFIBUS (PROcess FIeld BUS) which is defined with international standarts (IEC61158, EN50170) is the most popular fieldbus, and provides a communication between industrial applications which are located in different control environment and location in manufacturing, process and building automation. Its communication speed is from 9.6 Kbps to 12 Mbps over distances from 100 to 1200 meters, and so it is to be often necessary to interconnect them in order to break these limits. Unfortunately this interconnection raises several issues and the solutions found so far are not very satisfactory. In this paper, we propose a new solution to interconnect PROFIBUS segments, which uses a wireless MAN based on the IEEE 802.16 standard as a backbone system. Also, the solution which is described a model for internetworking unit integrates the traffic generated by PROFIBUS segments into IEEE 802.16 wireless MAN using encapsulation technique.

    2
    15884
    Stroke Extraction and Approximation with Interpolating Lagrange Curves
    Abstract:

    This paper proposes a stroke extraction method for use in off-line signature verification. After giving a brief overview of the current ongoing researches an algorithm is introduced for detecting and following strokes in static images of signatures. Problems like the handling of junctions and variations in line width and line intensity are discussed in detail. Results are validated by both using an existing on-line signature database and by employing image registration methods.

    1
    15977
    Fast Document Segmentation Using Contourand X-Y Cut Technique
    Abstract:

    This paper describes fast and efficient method for page segmentation of document containing nonrectangular block. The segmentation is based on edge following algorithm using small window of 16 by 32 pixels. This segmentation is very fast since only border pixels of paragraph are used without scanning the whole page. Still, the segmentation may contain error if the space between them is smaller than the window used in edge following. Consequently, this paper reduce this error by first identify the missed segmentation point using direction information in edge following then, using X-Y cut at the missed segmentation point to separate the connected columns. The advantage of the proposed method is the fast identification of missed segmentation point. This methodology is faster with fewer overheads than other algorithms that need to access much more pixel of a document.