Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 41

Computer, Electrical, Automation, Control and Information Engineering

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  • 41
    532
    Fuzzy Join Dependency in Fuzzy Relational Databases
    Abstract:
    The join dependency provides the basis for obtaining lossless join decomposition in a classical relational schema. The existence of Join dependency shows that that the tables always represent the correct data after being joined. Since the classical relational databases cannot handle imprecise data, they were extended to fuzzy relational databases so that uncertain, ambiguous, imprecise and partially known information can also be stored in databases in a formal way. However like classical databases, the fuzzy relational databases also undergoes decomposition during normalization, the issue of joining the decomposed fuzzy relations remains intact. Our effort in the present paper is to emphasize on this issue. In this paper we define fuzzy join dependency in the framework of type-1 fuzzy relational databases & type-2 fuzzy relational databases using the concept of fuzzy equality which is defined using fuzzy functions. We use the fuzzy equi-join operator for computing the fuzzy equality of two attribute values. We also discuss the dependency preservation property on execution of this fuzzy equi- join and derive the necessary condition for the fuzzy functional dependencies to be preserved on joining the decomposed fuzzy relations. We also derive the conditions for fuzzy join dependency to exist in context of both type-1 and type-2 fuzzy relational databases. We find that unlike the classical relational databases even the existence of a trivial join dependency does not ensure lossless join decomposition in type-2 fuzzy relational databases. Finally we derive the conditions for the fuzzy equality to be non zero and the qualification of an attribute for fuzzy key.
    40
    975
    Simulation and 40 Years of Object-Oriented Programming
    Abstract:

    2007 is a jubilee year: in 1967, programming language SIMULA 67 was presented, which contained all aspects of what was later called object-oriented programming. The present paper contains a description of the development unto the objectoriented programming, the role of simulation in this development and other tools that appeared in SIMULA 67 and that are nowadays called super-object-oriented programming.

    39
    2241
    Application of Computational Intelligence for Sensor Fault Detection and Isolation
    Abstract:

    The new idea of this research is application of a new fault detection and isolation (FDI) technique for supervision of sensor networks in transportation system. In measurement systems, it is necessary to detect all types of faults and failures, based on predefined algorithm. Last improvements in artificial neural network studies (ANN) led to using them for some FDI purposes. In this paper, application of new probabilistic neural network features for data approximation and data classification are considered for plausibility check in temperature measurement. For this purpose, two-phase FDI mechanism was considered for residual generation and evaluation.

    38
    2477
    Spectral Entropy Employment in Speech Enhancement based on Wavelet Packet
    Abstract:

    In this work, we are interested in developing a speech denoising tool by using a discrete wavelet packet transform (DWPT). This speech denoising tool will be employed for applications of recognition, coding and synthesis. For noise reduction, instead of applying the classical thresholding technique, some wavelet packet nodes are set to zero and the others are thresholded. To estimate the non stationary noise level, we employ the spectral entropy. A comparison of our proposed technique to classical denoising methods based on thresholding and spectral subtraction is made in order to evaluate our approach. The experimental implementation uses speech signals corrupted by two sorts of noise, white and Volvo noises. The obtained results from listening tests show that our proposed technique is better than spectral subtraction. The obtained results from SNR computation show the superiority of our technique when compared to the classical thresholding method using the modified hard thresholding function based on u-law algorithm.

    37
    2659
    Palmprint based Cancelable Biometric Authentication System
    Abstract:
    A cancelable palmprint authentication system proposed in this paper is specifically designed to overcome the limitations of the contemporary biometric authentication system. In this proposed system, Geometric and pseudo Zernike moments are employed as feature extractors to transform palmprint image into a lower dimensional compact feature representation. Before moment computation, wavelet transform is adopted to decompose palmprint image into lower resolution and dimensional frequency subbands. This reduces the computational load of moment calculation drastically. The generated wavelet-moment based feature representation is used to generate cancelable verification key with a set of random data. This private binary key can be canceled and replaced. Besides that, this key also possesses high data capture offset tolerance, with highly correlated bit strings for intra-class population. This property allows a clear separation of the genuine and imposter populations, as well as zero Equal Error Rate achievement, which is hardly gained in the conventional biometric based authentication system.
    36
    3247
    Multi-Scale Gabor Feature Based Eye Localization
    Abstract:
    Eye localization is necessary for face recognition and related application areas. Most of eye localization algorithms reported so far still need to be improved about precision and computational time for successful applications. In this paper, we propose an eye location method based on multi-scale Gabor feature vectors, which is more robust with respect to initial points. The eye localization based on Gabor feature vectors first needs to constructs an Eye Model Bunch for each eye (left or right eye) which consists of n Gabor jets and average eye coordinates of each eyes obtained from n model face images, and then tries to localize eyes in an incoming face image by utilizing the fact that the true eye coordinates is most likely to be very close to the position where the Gabor jet will have the best Gabor jet similarity matching with a Gabor jet in the Eye Model Bunch. Similar ideas have been already proposed in such as EBGM (Elastic Bunch Graph Matching). However, the method used in EBGM is known to be not robust with respect to initial values and may need extensive search range for achieving the required performance, but extensive search ranges will cause much more computational burden. In this paper, we propose a multi-scale approach with a little increased computational burden where one first tries to localize eyes based on Gabor feature vectors in a coarse face image obtained from down sampling of the original face image, and then localize eyes based on Gabor feature vectors in the original resolution face image by using the eye coordinates localized in the coarse scaled image as initial points. Several experiments and comparisons with other eye localization methods reported in the other papers show the efficiency of our proposed method.
    35
    3448
    Improving Image Quality in Remote Sensing Satellites using Channel Coding
    Abstract:
    Among other factors that characterize satellite communication channels is their high bit error rate. We present a system for still image transmission over noisy satellite channels. The system couples image compression together with error control codes to improve the received image quality while maintaining its bandwidth requirements. The proposed system is tested using a high resolution satellite imagery simulated over the Rician fading channel. Evaluation results show improvement in overall system including image quality and bandwidth requirements compared to similar systems with different coding schemes.
    34
    3583
    Robust Face Recognition using AAM and Gabor Features
    Abstract:
    In this paper, we propose a face recognition algorithm using AAM and Gabor features. Gabor feature vectors which are well known to be robust with respect to small variations of shape, scaling, rotation, distortion, illumination and poses in images are popularly employed for feature vectors for many object detection and recognition algorithms. EBGM, which is prominent among face recognition algorithms employing Gabor feature vectors, requires localization of facial feature points where Gabor feature vectors are extracted. However, localization method employed in EBGM is based on Gabor jet similarity and is sensitive to initial values. Wrong localization of facial feature points affects face recognition rate. AAM is known to be successfully applied to localization of facial feature points. In this paper, we devise a facial feature point localization method which first roughly estimate facial feature points using AAM and refine facial feature points using Gabor jet similarity-based facial feature localization method with initial points set by the rough facial feature points obtained from AAM, and propose a face recognition algorithm using the devised localization method for facial feature localization and Gabor feature vectors. It is observed through experiments that such a cascaded localization method based on both AAM and Gabor jet similarity is more robust than the localization method based on only Gabor jet similarity. Also, it is shown that the proposed face recognition algorithm using this devised localization method and Gabor feature vectors performs better than the conventional face recognition algorithm using Gabor jet similarity-based localization method and Gabor feature vectors like EBGM.
    33
    3865
    Harmonic Parameters with HHT and Wavelet Transform for Automatic Sleep Stages Scoring
    Abstract:
    Previously, harmonic parameters (HPs) have been selected as features extracted from EEG signals for automatic sleep scoring. However, in previous studies, only one HP parameter was used, which were directly extracted from the whole epoch of EEG signal. In this study, two different transformations were applied to extract HPs from EEG signals: Hilbert-Huang transform (HHT) and wavelet transform (WT). EEG signals are decomposed by the two transformations; and features were extracted from different components. Twelve parameters (four sets of HPs) were extracted. Some of the parameters are highly diverse among different stages. Afterward, HPs from two transformations were used to building a rough sleep stages scoring model using the classifier SVM. The performance of this model is about 78% using the features obtained by our proposed extractions. Our results suggest that these features may be useful for automatic sleep stages scoring.
    32
    4197
    Feedback-Controlled Server for Scheduling Aperiodic Tasks
    Abstract:
    This paper proposes a scheduling scheme using feedback control to reduce the response time of aperiodic tasks with soft real-time constraints. We design an algorithm based on the proposed scheduling scheme and Total Bandwidth Server (TBS) that is a conventional server technique for scheduling aperiodic tasks. We then describe the feedback controller of the algorithm and give the control parameter tuning methods. The simulation study demonstrates that the algorithm can reduce the mean response time up to 26% compared to TBS in exchange for slight deadline misses.
    31
    4291
    A Supervised Text-Independent Speaker Recognition Approach
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    We provide a supervised speech-independent voice recognition technique in this paper. In the feature extraction stage we propose a mel-cepstral based approach. Our feature vector classification method uses a special nonlinear metric, derived from the Hausdorff distance for sets, and a minimum mean distance classifier.

    30
    6027
    Extended Well-Founded Semantics in Bilattices
    Abstract:
    One of the most used assumptions in logic programming and deductive databases is the so-called Closed World Assumption (CWA), according to which the atoms that cannot be inferred from the programs are considered to be false (i.e. a pessimistic assumption). One of the most successful semantics of conventional logic programs based on the CWA is the well-founded semantics. However, the CWA is not applicable in all circumstances when information is handled. That is, the well-founded semantics, if conventionally defined, would behave inadequately in different cases. The solution we adopt in this paper is to extend the well-founded semantics in order for it to be based also on other assumptions. The basis of (default) negative information in the well-founded semantics is given by the so-called unfounded sets. We extend this concept by considering optimistic, pessimistic, skeptical and paraconsistent assumptions, used to complete missing information from a program. Our semantics, called extended well-founded semantics, expresses also imperfect information considered to be missing/incomplete, uncertain and/or inconsistent, by using bilattices as multivalued logics. We provide a method of computing the extended well-founded semantics and show that Kripke-Kleene semantics is captured by considering a skeptical assumption. We show also that the complexity of the computation of our semantics is polynomial time.
    29
    6044
    2D Gabor Functions and FCMI Algorithm for Flaws Detection in Ultrasonic Images
    Abstract:
    In this paper we present a new approach to detecting a flaw in T.O.F.D (Time Of Flight Diffraction) type ultrasonic image based on texture features. Texture is one of the most important features used in recognizing patterns in an image. The paper describes texture features based on 2D Gabor functions, i.e., Gaussian shaped band-pass filters, with dyadic treatment of the radial spatial frequency range and multiple orientations, which represent an appropriate choice for tasks requiring simultaneous measurement in both space and frequency domains. The most relevant features are used as input data on a Fuzzy c-mean clustering classifier. The classes that exist are only two: 'defects' or 'no defects'. The proposed approach is tested on the T.O.F.D image achieved at the laboratory and on the industrial field.
    28
    6079
    Power-Efficient AND-EXOR-INV Based Realization of Achilles' heel Logic Functions
    Abstract:

    This paper deals with a power-conscious ANDEXOR- Inverter type logic implementation for a complex class of Boolean functions, namely Achilles- heel functions. Different variants of the above function class have been considered viz. positive, negative and pure horn for analysis and simulation purposes. The proposed realization is compared with the decomposed implementation corresponding to an existing standard AND-EXOR logic minimizer; both result in Boolean networks with good testability attribute. It could be noted that an AND-OR-EXOR type logic network does not exist for the positive phase of this unique class of logic function. Experimental results report significant savings in all the power consumption components for designs based on standard cells pertaining to a 130nm UMC CMOS process The simulations have been extended to validate the savings across all three library corners (typical, best and worst case specifications).

    27
    6122
    A Fuzzy Approach for Delay Proportion Differentiated Service
    Abstract:

    There are two paradigms proposed to provide QoS for Internet applications: Integrated service (IntServ) and Differentiated service (DiffServ).Intserv is not appropriate for large network like Internet. Because is very complex. Therefore, to reduce the complexity of QoS management, DiffServ was introduced to provide QoS within a domain using aggregation of flow and per- class service. In theses networks QoS between classes is constant and it allows low priority traffic to be effected from high priority traffic, which is not suitable. In this paper, we proposed a fuzzy controller, which reduced the effect of low priority class on higher priority ones. Our simulations shows that, our approach reduces the latency dependency of low priority class on higher priority ones, in an effective manner.

    26
    6288
    Formal Analysis of a Public-Key Algorithm
    Abstract:

    In this article, a formal specification and verification of the Rabin public-key scheme in a formal proof system is presented. The idea is to use the two views of cryptographic verification: the computational approach relying on the vocabulary of probability theory and complexity theory and the formal approach based on ideas and techniques from logic and programming languages. A major objective of this article is the presentation of the first computer-proved implementation of the Rabin public-key scheme in Isabelle/HOL. Moreover, we explicate a (computer-proven) formalization of correctness as well as a computer verification of security properties using a straight-forward computation model in Isabelle/HOL. The analysis uses a given database to prove formal properties of our implemented functions with computer support. The main task in designing a practical formalization of correctness as well as efficient computer proofs of security properties is to cope with the complexity of cryptographic proving. We reduce this complexity by exploring a light-weight formalization that enables both appropriate formal definitions as well as efficient formal proofs. Consequently, we get reliable proofs with a minimal error rate augmenting the used database, what provides a formal basis for more computer proof constructions in this area.

    25
    7266
    Extended Deductive Databases with Uncertain Information
    Abstract:
    The paper presents an approach for handling uncertain information in deductive databases using multivalued logics. Uncertainty means that database facts may be assigned logical values other than the conventional ones - true and false. The logical values represent various degrees of truth, which may be combined and propagated by applying the database rules. A corresponding multivalued database semantics is defined. We show that it extends successful conventional semantics as the well-founded semantics, and has a polynomial time data complexity.
    24
    8174
    A Modified Maximum Urgency First Scheduling Algorithm for Real-Time Tasks
    Abstract:
    This paper presents a modified version of the maximum urgency first scheduling algorithm. The maximum urgency algorithm combines the advantages of fixed and dynamic scheduling to provide the dynamically changing systems with flexible scheduling. This algorithm, however, has a major shortcoming due to its scheduling mechanism which may cause a critical task to fail. The modified maximum urgency first scheduling algorithm resolves the mentioned problem. In this paper, we propose two possible implementations for this algorithm by using either earliest deadline first or modified least laxity first algorithms for calculating the dynamic priorities. These two approaches are compared together by simulating the two algorithms. The earliest deadline first algorithm as the preferred implementation is then recommended. Afterwards, we make a comparison between our proposed algorithm and maximum urgency first algorithm using simulation and results are presented. It is shown that modified maximum urgency first is superior to maximum urgency first, since it usually has less task preemption and hence, less related overhead. It also leads to less failed non-critical tasks in overloaded situations.
    23
    8737
    Comparative Analysis of Mobility Support in Mobile IP and SIP
    Abstract:
    With the rapid usage of portable devices mobility in IP networks becomes more important issue in the recent years. IETF standardized Mobile IP that works in Network Layer, which involves tunneling of IP packets from HA to Foreign Agent. Mobile IP suffers many problems of Triangular Routing, conflict with private addressing scheme, increase in load in HA, need of permanent home IP address, tunneling itself, and so on. In this paper, we proposed mobility management in Application Layer protocol SIP and show some comparative analysis between Mobile IP and SIP in context of mobility.
    22
    8778
    A Logic Approach to Database Dynamic Updating
    Abstract:
    We introduce a logic-based framework for database updating under constraints. In our framework, the constraints are represented as an instantiated extended logic program. When performing an update, database consistency may be violated. We provide an approach of maintaining database consistency, and study the conditions under which the maintenance process is deterministic. We show that the complexity of the computations and decision problems presented in our framework is in each case polynomial time.
    21
    8874
    Use XML Format like a Model of Data Backup
    Abstract:

    Nowadays data backup format doesn-t cease to appear raising so the anxiety on their accessibility and their perpetuity. XML is one of the most promising formats to guarantee the integrity of data. This article suggests while showing one thing man can do with XML. Indeed XML will help to create a data backup model. The main task will consist in defining an application in JAVA able to convert information of a database in XML format and restore them later.

    20
    9118
    A Dynamic Time-Lagged Correlation based Method to Learn Multi-Time Delay Gene Networks
    Abstract:
    A gene network gives the knowledge of the regulatory relationships among the genes. Each gene has its activators and inhibitors that regulate its expression positively and negatively respectively. Genes themselves are believed to act as activators and inhibitors of other genes. They can even activate one set of genes and inhibit another set. Identifying gene networks is one of the most crucial and challenging problems in Bioinformatics. Most work done so far either assumes that there is no time delay in gene regulation or there is a constant time delay. We here propose a Dynamic Time- Lagged Correlation Based Method (DTCBM) to learn the gene networks, which uses time-lagged correlation to find the potential gene interactions, and then uses a post-processing stage to remove false gene interactions to common parents, and finally uses dynamic correlation thresholds for each gene to construct the gene network. DTCBM finds correlation between gene expression signals shifted in time, and therefore takes into consideration the multi time delay relationships among the genes. The implementation of our method is done in MATLAB and experimental results on Saccharomyces cerevisiae gene expression data and comparison with other methods indicate that it has a better performance.
    19
    9360
    Extraction of Significant Phrases from Text
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    Prospective readers can quickly determine whether a document is relevant to their information need if the significant phrases (or keyphrases) in this document are provided. Although keyphrases are useful, not many documents have keyphrases assigned to them, and manually assigning keyphrases to existing documents is costly. Therefore, there is a need for automatic keyphrase extraction. This paper introduces a new domain independent keyphrase extraction algorithm. The algorithm approaches the problem of keyphrase extraction as a classification task, and uses a combination of statistical and computational linguistics techniques, a new set of attributes, and a new machine learning method to distinguish keyphrases from non-keyphrases. The experiments indicate that this algorithm performs better than other keyphrase extraction tools and that it significantly outperforms Microsoft Word 2000-s AutoSummarize feature. The domain independence of this algorithm has also been confirmed in our experiments.

    18
    9737
    Estimation of Buffer Size of Internet Gateway Server via G/M/1 Queuing Model
    Abstract:
    How to efficiently assign system resource to route the Client demand by Gateway servers is a tricky predicament. In this paper, we tender an enhanced proposal for autonomous recital of Gateway servers under highly vibrant traffic loads. We devise a methodology to calculate Queue Length and Waiting Time utilizing Gateway Server information to reduce response time variance in presence of bursty traffic. The most widespread contemplation is performance, because Gateway Servers must offer cost-effective and high-availability services in the elongated period, thus they have to be scaled to meet the expected load. Performance measurements can be the base for performance modeling and prediction. With the help of performance models, the performance metrics (like buffer estimation, waiting time) can be determined at the development process. This paper describes the possible queue models those can be applied in the estimation of queue length to estimate the final value of the memory size. Both simulation and experimental studies using synthesized workloads and analysis of real-world Gateway Servers demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed system.
    17
    9763
    On the Reduction of Side Effects in Tomography
    Abstract:
    As the Computed Tomography(CT) requires normally hundreds of projections to reconstruct the image, patients are exposed to more X-ray energy, which may cause side effects such as cancer. Even when the variability of the particles in the object is very less, Computed Tomography requires many projections for good quality reconstruction. In this paper, less variability of the particles in an object has been exploited to obtain good quality reconstruction. Though the reconstructed image and the original image have same projections, in general, they need not be the same. In addition to projections, if a priori information about the image is known, it is possible to obtain good quality reconstructed image. In this paper, it has been shown by experimental results why conventional algorithms fail to reconstruct from a few projections, and an efficient polynomial time algorithm has been given to reconstruct a bi-level image from its projections along row and column, and a known sub image of unknown image with smoothness constraints by reducing the reconstruction problem to integral max flow problem. This paper also discusses the necessary and sufficient conditions for uniqueness and extension of 2D-bi-level image reconstruction to 3D-bi-level image reconstruction.
    16
    10599
    Robot Task-Level Programming Language and Simulation
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    This paper presents the development of a software application for Off-line robot task programming and simulation. Such application is designed to assist in robot task planning and to direct manipulator motion on sensor based programmed motion. The concept of the designed programming application is to use the power of the knowledge base for task accumulation. In support of the programming means, an interactive graphical simulation for manipulator kinematics was also developed and integrated into the application as the complimentary factor to the robot programming media. The simulation provides the designer with useful, inexpensive, off-line tools for retain and testing robotics work cells and automated assembly lines for various industrial applications.
    15
    10821
    Data Annotation Models and Annotation Query Language
    Abstract:
    This paper presents data annotation models at five levels of granularity (database, relation, column, tuple, and cell) of relational data to address the problem of unsuitability of most relational databases to express annotations. These models do not require any structural and schematic changes to the underlying database. These models are also flexible, extensible, customizable, database-neutral, and platform-independent. This paper also presents an SQL-like query language, named Annotation Query Language (AnQL), to query annotation documents. AnQL is simple to understand and exploits the already-existent wide knowledge and skill set of SQL.
    14
    11831
    WiPoD Wireless Positioning System based on 802.11 WLAN Infrastructure
    Abstract:
    This paper describes WiPoD (Wireless Position Detector) which is a pure software based location determination and tracking (positioning) system. It uses empirical signal strength measurements from different wireless access points for mobile user positioning. It is designed to determine the location of users having 802.11 enabled mobile devices in an 802.11 WLAN infrastructure and track them in real time. WiPoD is the first main module in our LBS (Location Based Services) framework. We tested K-Nearest Neighbor and Triangulation algorithms to estimate the position of a mobile user. We also give the analysis results of these algorithms for real time operations. In this paper, we propose a supportable, i.e. understandable, maintainable, scalable and portable wireless positioning system architecture for an LBS framework. The WiPoD software has a multithreaded structure and was designed and implemented with paying attention to supportability features and real-time constraints and using object oriented design principles. We also describe the real-time software design issues of a wireless positioning system which will be part of an LBS framework.
    13
    11868
    Class Outliers Mining: Distance-Based Approach
    Abstract:
    In large datasets, identifying exceptional or rare cases with respect to a group of similar cases is considered very significant problem. The traditional problem (Outlier Mining) is to find exception or rare cases in a dataset irrespective of the class label of these cases, they are considered rare events with respect to the whole dataset. In this research, we pose the problem that is Class Outliers Mining and a method to find out those outliers. The general definition of this problem is “given a set of observations with class labels, find those that arouse suspicions, taking into account the class labels". We introduce a novel definition of Outlier that is Class Outlier, and propose the Class Outlier Factor (COF) which measures the degree of being a Class Outlier for a data object. Our work includes a proposal of a new algorithm towards mining of the Class Outliers, presenting experimental results applied on various domains of real world datasets and finally a comparison study with other related methods is performed.
    12
    11937
    Dynamic Clustering using Particle Swarm Optimization with Application in Unsupervised Image Classification
    Abstract:
    A new dynamic clustering approach (DCPSO), based on Particle Swarm Optimization, is proposed. This approach is applied to unsupervised image classification. The proposed approach automatically determines the "optimum" number of clusters and simultaneously clusters the data set with minimal user interference. The algorithm starts by partitioning the data set into a relatively large number of clusters to reduce the effects of initial conditions. Using binary particle swarm optimization the "best" number of clusters is selected. The centers of the chosen clusters is then refined via the Kmeans clustering algorithm. The experiments conducted show that the proposed approach generally found the "optimum" number of clusters on the tested images.
    11
    12045
    Contour Estimation in Synthetic and Real Weld Defect Images based on Maximum Likelihood
    Abstract:
    This paper describes a novel method for automatic estimation of the contours of weld defect in radiography images. Generally, the contour detection is the first operation which we apply in the visual recognition system. Our approach can be described as a region based maximum likelihood formulation of parametric deformable contours. This formulation provides robustness against the poor image quality, and allows simultaneous estimation of the contour parameters together with other parameters of the model. Implementation is performed by a deterministic iterative algorithm with minimal user intervention. Results testify for the very good performance of the approach especially in synthetic weld defect images.
    10
    12453
    Learning FCM by Tabu Search
    Abstract:

    Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) is a causal graph, which shows the relations between essential components in complex systems. Experts who are familiar with the system components and their relations can generate a related FCM. There is a big gap when human experts cannot produce FCM or even there is no expert to produce the related FCM. Therefore, a new mechanism must be used to bridge this gap. In this paper, a novel learning method is proposed to construct causal graph based on historical data and by using metaheuristic such Tabu Search (TS). The efficiency of the proposed method is shown via comparison of its results of some numerical examples with those of some other methods.

    9
    13150
    A Content Based Image Watermarking Scheme Resilient to Geometric Attacks
    Abstract:

    Multimedia security is an incredibly significant area of concern. The paper aims to discuss a robust image watermarking scheme, which can withstand geometric attacks. The source image is initially moment normalized in order to make it withstand geometric attacks. The moment normalized image is wavelet transformed. The first level wavelet transformed image is segmented into blocks if size 8x8. The product of mean and standard and standard deviation of each block is computed. The second level wavelet transformed image is divided into 8x8 blocks. The product of block mean and the standard deviation are computed. The difference between products in the two levels forms the watermark. The watermark is inserted by modulating the coefficients of the mid frequencies. The modulated image is inverse wavelet transformed and inverse moment normalized to generate the watermarked image. The watermarked image is now ready for transmission. The proposed scheme can be used to validate identification cards and financial instruments. The performance of this scheme has been evaluated using a set of parameters. Experimental results show the effectiveness of this scheme.

    8
    13494
    Recursive Algorithms for Image Segmentation Based on a Discriminant Criterion
    Abstract:

    In this study, a new criterion for determining the number of classes an image should be segmented is proposed. This criterion is based on discriminant analysis for measuring the separability among the segmented classes of pixels. Based on the new discriminant criterion, two algorithms for recursively segmenting the image into determined number of classes are proposed. The proposed methods can automatically and correctly segment objects with various illuminations into separated images for further processing. Experiments on the extraction of text strings from complex document images demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.1

    7
    14648
    A Perceptual Image Coding method of High Compression Rate
    Abstract:
    In the framework of the image compression by Wavelet Transforms, we propose a perceptual method by incorporating Human Visual System (HVS) characteristics in the quantization stage. Indeed, human eyes haven-t an equal sensitivity across the frequency bandwidth. Therefore, the clarity of the reconstructed images can be improved by weighting the quantization according to the Contrast Sensitivity Function (CSF). The visual artifact at low bit rate is minimized. To evaluate our method, we use the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and a new evaluating criteria witch takes into account visual criteria. The experimental results illustrate that our technique shows improvement on image quality at the same compression ratio.
    6
    14706
    LINUX Cluster Possibilities in 3-D PHOTO Quality Imaging and Animation
    Abstract:
    In this paper we present the PC cluster built at R.V. College of Engineering (with great help from the Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering). The structure of the cluster is described and the performance is evaluated by rendering of complex 3D Persistence of Vision (POV) images by the Ray-Tracing algorithm. Here, we propose an unexampled method to render such images, distributedly on a low cost scalable.
    5
    14719
    Optimizing Mobile Agents Migration Based on Decision Tree Learning
    Abstract:

    Mobile agents are a powerful approach to develop distributed systems since they migrate to hosts on which they have the resources to execute individual tasks. In a dynamic environment like a peer-to-peer network, Agents have to be generated frequently and dispatched to the network. Thus they will certainly consume a certain amount of bandwidth of each link in the network if there are too many agents migration through one or several links at the same time, they will introduce too much transferring overhead to the links eventually, these links will be busy and indirectly block the network traffic, therefore, there is a need of developing routing algorithms that consider about traffic load. In this paper we seek to create cooperation between a probabilistic manner according to the quality measure of the network traffic situation and the agent's migration decision making to the next hop based on decision tree learning algorithms.

    4
    14879
    Network Anomaly Detection using Soft Computing
    Abstract:
    One main drawback of intrusion detection system is the inability of detecting new attacks which do not have known signatures. In this paper we discuss an intrusion detection method that proposes independent component analysis (ICA) based feature selection heuristics and using rough fuzzy for clustering data. ICA is to separate these independent components (ICs) from the monitored variables. Rough set has to decrease the amount of data and get rid of redundancy and Fuzzy methods allow objects to belong to several clusters simultaneously, with different degrees of membership. Our approach allows us to recognize not only known attacks but also to detect activity that may be the result of a new, unknown attack. The experimental results on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining- (KDDCup 1999) dataset.
    3
    14984
    Progressive AAM Based Robust Face Alignment
    Abstract:
    AAM has been successfully applied to face alignment, but its performance is very sensitive to initial values. In case the initial values are a little far distant from the global optimum values, there exists a pretty good possibility that AAM-based face alignment may converge to a local minimum. In this paper, we propose a progressive AAM-based face alignment algorithm which first finds the feature parameter vector fitting the inner facial feature points of the face and later localize the feature points of the whole face using the first information. The proposed progressive AAM-based face alignment algorithm utilizes the fact that the feature points of the inner part of the face are less variant and less affected by the background surrounding the face than those of the outer part (like the chin contour). The proposed algorithm consists of two stages: modeling and relation derivation stage and fitting stage. Modeling and relation derivation stage first needs to construct two AAM models: the inner face AAM model and the whole face AAM model and then derive relation matrix between the inner face AAM parameter vector and the whole face AAM model parameter vector. In the fitting stage, the proposed algorithm aligns face progressively through two phases. In the first phase, the proposed algorithm will find the feature parameter vector fitting the inner facial AAM model into a new input face image, and then in the second phase it localizes the whole facial feature points of the new input face image based on the whole face AAM model using the initial parameter vector estimated from using the inner feature parameter vector obtained in the first phase and the relation matrix obtained in the first stage. Through experiments, it is verified that the proposed progressive AAM-based face alignment algorithm is more robust with respect to pose, illumination, and face background than the conventional basic AAM-based face alignment algorithm.
    2
    15751
    The Performance of the Character-Access on the Checking Phase in String Searching Algorithms
    Abstract:
    A new algorithm called Character-Comparison to Character-Access (CCCA) is developed to test the effect of both: 1) converting character-comparison and number-comparison into character-access and 2) the starting point of checking on the performance of the checking operation in string searching. An experiment is performed; the results are compared with five algorithms, namely, Naive, BM, Inf_Suf_Pref, Raita, and Circle. With the CCCA algorithm, the results suggest that the evaluation criteria of the average number of comparisons are improved up to 74.0%. Furthermore, the results suggest that the clock time required by the other algorithms is improved in range from 28% to 68% by the new CCCA algorithm
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    16019
    Learning Flexible Neural Networks for Pattern Recognition
    Abstract:
    Learning the gradient of neuron's activity function like the weight of links causes a new specification which is flexibility. In flexible neural networks because of supervising and controlling the operation of neurons, all the burden of the learning is not dedicated to the weight of links, therefore in each period of learning of each neuron, in fact the gradient of their activity function, cooperate in order to achieve the goal of learning thus the number of learning will be decreased considerably. Furthermore, learning neurons parameters immunes them against changing in their inputs and factors which cause such changing. Likewise initial selecting of weights, type of activity function, selecting the initial gradient of activity function and selecting a fixed amount which is multiplied by gradient of error to calculate the weight changes and gradient of activity function, has a direct affect in convergence of network for learning.