Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 81

Computer, Electrical, Automation, Control and Information Engineering

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  • 81
    274
    An Efficient Feature Extraction Algorithm for the Recognition of Handwritten Arabic Digits
    Abstract:
    In this paper, an efficient structural approach for recognizing on-line handwritten digits is proposed. After reading the digit from the user, the slope is estimated and normalized for adjacent nodes. Based on the changing of signs of the slope values, the primitives are identified and extracted. The names of these primitives are represented by strings, and then a finite state machine, which contains the grammars of the digits, is traced to identify the digit. Finally, if there is any ambiguity, it will be resolved. Experiments showed that this technique is flexible and can achieve high recognition accuracy for the shapes of the digits represented in this work.
    80
    362
    Towards an AS Level Network Performance Model
    Abstract:
    In order to research Internet quantificationally and better model the performance of network, this paper proposes a novel AS level network performance model (MNPM), it takes autonomous system (AS) as basic modeling unit, measures E2E performance between any two outdegrees of an AS and organizes measurement results into matrix form which called performance matrix (PM). Inter-AS performance calculation is defined according to performance information stored in PM. Simulation has been implemented to verify the correctness of MNPM and a practical application of MNPM (network congestion detection) is given.
    79
    382
    An Intelligent Fuzzy-Neural Diagnostic System for Osteoporosis Risk Assessment
    Abstract:
    In this article, we propose an Intelligent Medical Diagnostic System (IMDS) accessible through common web-based interface, to on-line perform initial screening for osteoporosis. The fundamental approaches which construct the proposed system are mainly based on the fuzzy-neural theory, which can exhibit superiority over other conventional technologies in many fields. In diagnosis process, users simply answer a series of directed questions to the system, and then they will immediately receive a list of results which represents the risk degrees of osteoporosis. According to clinical testing results, it is shown that the proposed system can provide the general public or even health care providers with a convenient, reliable, inexpensive approach to osteoporosis risk assessment.
    78
    449
    Meta Model Based EA for Complex Optimization
    Abstract:
    Evolutionary Algorithms are population-based, stochastic search techniques, widely used as efficient global optimizers. However, many real life optimization problems often require finding optimal solution to complex high dimensional, multimodal problems involving computationally very expensive fitness function evaluations. Use of evolutionary algorithms in such problem domains is thus practically prohibitive. An attractive alternative is to build meta models or use an approximation of the actual fitness functions to be evaluated. These meta models are order of magnitude cheaper to evaluate compared to the actual function evaluation. Many regression and interpolation tools are available to build such meta models. This paper briefly discusses the architectures and use of such meta-modeling tools in an evolutionary optimization context. We further present two evolutionary algorithm frameworks which involve use of meta models for fitness function evaluation. The first framework, namely the Dynamic Approximate Fitness based Hybrid EA (DAFHEA) model [14] reduces computation time by controlled use of meta-models (in this case approximate model generated by Support Vector Machine regression) to partially replace the actual function evaluation by approximate function evaluation. However, the underlying assumption in DAFHEA is that the training samples for the metamodel are generated from a single uniform model. This does not take into account uncertain scenarios involving noisy fitness functions. The second model, DAFHEA-II, an enhanced version of the original DAFHEA framework, incorporates a multiple-model based learning approach for the support vector machine approximator to handle noisy functions [15]. Empirical results obtained by evaluating the frameworks using several benchmark functions demonstrate their efficiency
    77
    568
    Neural Networks for Short Term Wind Speed Prediction
    Abstract:
    Predicting short term wind speed is essential in order to prevent systems in-action from the effects of strong winds. It also helps in using wind energy as an alternative source of energy, mainly for Electrical power generation. Wind speed prediction has applications in Military and civilian fields for air traffic control, rocket launch, ship navigation etc. The wind speed in near future depends on the values of other meteorological variables, such as atmospheric pressure, moisture content, humidity, rainfall etc. The values of these parameters are obtained from a nearest weather station and are used to train various forms of neural networks. The trained model of neural networks is validated using a similar set of data. The model is then used to predict the wind speed, using the same meteorological information. This paper reports an Artificial Neural Network model for short term wind speed prediction, which uses back propagation algorithm.
    76
    629
    Partial 3D Reconstruction using Evolutionary Algorithms
    Abstract:
    When reconstructing a scenario, it is necessary to know the structure of the elements present on the scene to have an interpretation. In this work we link 3D scenes reconstruction to evolutionary algorithms through the vision stereo theory. We consider vision stereo as a method that provides the reconstruction of a scene using only a couple of images of the scene and performing some computation. Through several images of a scene, captured from different positions, vision stereo can give us an idea about the threedimensional characteristics of the world. Vision stereo usually requires of two cameras, making an analogy to the mammalian vision system. In this work we employ only a camera, which is translated along a path, capturing images every certain distance. As we can not perform all computations required for an exhaustive reconstruction, we employ an evolutionary algorithm to partially reconstruct the scene in real time. The algorithm employed is the fly algorithm, which employ “flies" to reconstruct the principal characteristics of the world following certain evolutionary rules.
    75
    747
    Tool Tracker: A Toolkit Ensembling Useful Online Networking Tools for Efficient Management and Operation of a Network
    Abstract:

    Tool Tracker is a client-server based application. It is essentially a catalogue of various network monitoring and management tools that are available online. There is a database maintained on the server side that contains the information about various tools. Several clients can access this information simultaneously and utilize this information. The various categories of tools considered are packet sniffers, port mappers, port scanners, encryption tools, and vulnerability scanners etc for the development of this application. This application provides a front end through which the user can invoke any tool from a central repository for the purpose of packet sniffing, port scanning, network analysis etc. Apart from the tool, its description and the help files associated with it would also be stored in the central repository. This facility will enable the user to view the documentation pertaining to the tool without having to download and install the tool. The application would update the central repository with the latest versions of the tools. The application would inform the user about the availability of a newer version of the tool currently being used and give the choice of installing the newer version to the user. Thus ToolTracker provides any network administrator that much needed abstraction and ease-ofuse with respect to the tools that he can use to efficiently monitor a network.

    74
    1072
    A Case Study to Assess the Validity of Function Points
    Abstract:
    Many metrics were proposed to evaluate the characteristics of the analysis and design model of a given product which in turn help to assess the quality of the product. Function point metric is a measure of the 'functionality' delivery by the software. This paper presents an analysis of a set of programs of a project developed in Cµ through Function Points metric. Function points are measured for a Data Flow Diagram (DFD) of the case developed at initial stage. Lines of Codes (LOCs) and possible errors are calculated with the help of measured Function Points (FPs). The calculations are performed using suitable established functions. Calculated LOCs and errors are compared with actual LOCs and errors found at the time of analysis & design review, implementation and testing. It has been observed that actual found errors are more than calculated errors. On the basis of analysis and observations, authors conclude that function point provides useful insight and helps to analyze the drawbacks in the development process.
    73
    1111
    Exploiting Query Feedback for Efficient Query Routing in Unstructured Peer-to-peer Networks
    Abstract:
    Unstructured peer-to-peer networks are popular due to its robustness and scalability. Query schemes that are being used in unstructured peer-to-peer such as the flooding and interest-based shortcuts suffer various problems such as using large communication overhead long delay response. The use of routing indices has been a popular approach for peer-to-peer query routing. It helps the query routing processes to learn the routing based on the feedbacks collected. In an unstructured network where there is no global information available, efficient and low cost routing approach is needed for routing efficiency. In this paper, we propose a novel mechanism for query-feedback oriented routing indices to achieve routing efficiency in unstructured network at a minimal cost. The approach also applied information retrieval technique to make sure the content of the query is understandable and will make the routing process not just based to the query hits but also related to the query content. Experiments have shown that the proposed mechanism performs more efficient than flood-based routing.
    72
    1467
    Comparing Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) Coefficients Determination using Artificial Neural Networks with Other Techniques
    Abstract:

    Autoregressive Moving average (ARMA) is a parametric based method of signal representation. It is suitable for problems in which the signal can be modeled by explicit known source functions with a few adjustable parameters. Various methods have been suggested for the coefficients determination among which are Prony, Pade, Autocorrelation, Covariance and most recently, the use of Artificial Neural Network technique. In this paper, the method of using Artificial Neural network (ANN) technique is compared with some known and widely acceptable techniques. The comparisons is entirely based on the value of the coefficients obtained. Result obtained shows that the use of ANN also gives accurate in computing the coefficients of an ARMA system.

    71
    1511
    Fuzzy Mathematical Morphology approach in Image Processing
    Abstract:
    Morphological operators transform the original image into another image through the interaction with the other image of certain shape and size which is known as the structure element. Mathematical morphology provides a systematic approach to analyze the geometric characteristics of signals or images, and has been applied widely too many applications such as edge detection, objection segmentation, noise suppression and so on. Fuzzy Mathematical Morphology aims to extend the binary morphological operators to grey-level images. In order to define the basic morphological operations such as fuzzy erosion, dilation, opening and closing, a general method based upon fuzzy implication and inclusion grade operators is introduced. The fuzzy morphological operations extend the ordinary morphological operations by using fuzzy sets where for fuzzy sets, the union operation is replaced by a maximum operation, and the intersection operation is replaced by a minimum operation. In this work, it consists of two articles. In the first one, fuzzy set theory, fuzzy Mathematical morphology which is based on fuzzy logic and fuzzy set theory; fuzzy Mathematical operations and their properties will be studied in details. As a second part, the application of fuzziness in Mathematical morphology in practical work such as image processing will be discussed with the illustration problems.
    70
    1849
    Multilevel Classifiers in Recognition of Handwritten Kannada Numerals
    Abstract:
    The recognition of handwritten numeral is an important area of research for its applications in post office, banks and other organizations. This paper presents automatic recognition of handwritten Kannada numerals based on structural features. Five different types of features, namely, profile based 10-segment string, water reservoir; vertical and horizontal strokes, end points and average boundary length from the minimal bounding box are used in the recognition of numeral. The effect of each feature and their combination in the numeral classification is analyzed using nearest neighbor classifiers. It is common to combine multiple categories of features into a single feature vector for the classification. Instead, separate classifiers can be used to classify based on each visual feature individually and the final classification can be obtained based on the combination of separate base classification results. One popular approach is to combine the classifier results into a feature vector and leaving the decision to next level classifier. This method is extended to extract a better information, possibility distribution, from the base classifiers in resolving the conflicts among the classification results. Here, we use fuzzy k Nearest Neighbor (fuzzy k-NN) as base classifier for individual feature sets, the results of which together forms the feature vector for the final k Nearest Neighbor (k-NN) classifier. Testing is done, using different features, individually and in combination, on a database containing 1600 samples of different numerals and the results are compared with the results of different existing methods.
    69
    2162
    Mining News Sites to Create Special Domain News Collections
    Abstract:
    We present a method to create special domain collections from news sites. The method only requires a single sample article as a seed. No prior corpus statistics are needed and the method is applicable to multiple languages. We examine various similarity measures and the creation of document collections for English and Japanese. The main contributions are as follows. First, the algorithm can build special domain collections from as little as one sample document. Second, unlike other algorithms it does not require a second “general" corpus to compute statistics. Third, in our testing the algorithm outperformed others in creating collections made up of highly relevant articles.
    68
    2190
    Estimating an Optimal Neighborhood Size in the Spherical Self-Organizing Feature Map
    Abstract:
    This article presents a short discussion on optimum neighborhood size selection in a spherical selforganizing feature map (SOFM). A majority of the literature on the SOFMs have addressed the issue of selecting optimal learning parameters in the case of Cartesian topology SOFMs. However, the use of a Spherical SOFM suggested that the learning aspects of Cartesian topology SOFM are not directly translated. This article presents an approach on how to estimate the neighborhood size of a spherical SOFM based on the data. It adopts the L-curve criterion, previously suggested for choosing the regularization parameter on problems of linear equations where their right-hand-side is contaminated with noise. Simulation results are presented on two artificial 4D data sets of the coupled Hénon-Ikeda map.
    67
    3009
    An Ontology for Knowledge Representation and Applications
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    Ontology is a terminology which is used in artificial intelligence with different meanings. Ontology researching has an important role in computer science and practical applications, especially distributed knowledge systems. In this paper we present an ontology which is called Computational Object Knowledge Base Ontology. It has been used in designing some knowledge base systems for solving problems such as the system that supports studying knowledge and solving analytic geometry problems, the program for studying and solving problems in Plane Geometry, the knowledge system in linear algebra.
    66
    3015
    Increasing The Speed of Convergence of an Artificial Neural Network based ARMA Coefficients Determination Technique
    Abstract:
    In this paper, novel techniques in increasing the accuracy and speed of convergence of a Feed forward Back propagation Artificial Neural Network (FFBPNN) with polynomial activation function reported in literature is presented. These technique was subsequently used to determine the coefficients of Autoregressive Moving Average (ARMA) and Autoregressive (AR) system. The results obtained by introducing sequential and batch method of weight initialization, batch method of weight and coefficient update, adaptive momentum and learning rate technique gives more accurate result and significant reduction in convergence time when compared t the traditional method of back propagation algorithm, thereby making FFBPNN an appropriate technique for online ARMA coefficient determination.
    65
    3124
    A Text Mining Technique Using Association Rules Extraction
    Abstract:

    This paper describes text mining technique for automatically extracting association rules from collections of textual documents. The technique called, Extracting Association Rules from Text (EART). It depends on keyword features for discover association rules amongst keywords labeling the documents. In this work, the EART system ignores the order in which the words occur, but instead focusing on the words and their statistical distributions in documents. The main contributions of the technique are that it integrates XML technology with Information Retrieval scheme (TFIDF) (for keyword/feature selection that automatically selects the most discriminative keywords for use in association rules generation) and use Data Mining technique for association rules discovery. It consists of three phases: Text Preprocessing phase (transformation, filtration, stemming and indexing of the documents), Association Rule Mining (ARM) phase (applying our designed algorithm for Generating Association Rules based on Weighting scheme GARW) and Visualization phase (visualization of results). Experiments applied on WebPages news documents related to the outbreak of the bird flu disease. The extracted association rules contain important features and describe the informative news included in the documents collection. The performance of the EART system compared with another system that uses the Apriori algorithm throughout the execution time and evaluating extracted association rules.

    64
    3276
    Effective Sonar Target Classification via Parallel Structure of Minimal Resource Allocation Network
    Abstract:
    In this paper, the processing of sonar signals has been carried out using Minimal Resource Allocation Network (MRAN) and a Probabilistic Neural Network (PNN) in differentiation of commonly encountered features in indoor environments. The stability-plasticity behaviors of both networks have been investigated. The experimental result shows that MRAN possesses lower network complexity but experiences higher plasticity than PNN. An enhanced version called parallel MRAN (pMRAN) is proposed to solve this problem and is proven to be stable in prediction and also outperformed the original MRAN.
    63
    3599
    An Intelligent System for Phish Detection, using Dynamic Analysis and Template Matching
    Abstract:
    Phishing, or stealing of sensitive information on the web, has dealt a major blow to Internet Security in recent times. Most of the existing anti-phishing solutions fail to handle the fuzziness involved in phish detection, thus leading to a large number of false positives. This fuzziness is attributed to the use of highly flexible and at the same time, highly ambiguous HTML language. We introduce a new perspective against phishing, that tries to systematically prove, whether a given page is phished or not, using the corresponding original page as the basis of the comparison. It analyzes the layout of the pages under consideration to determine the percentage distortion between them, indicative of any form of malicious alteration. The system design represents an intelligent system, employing dynamic assessment which accurately identifies brand new phishing attacks and will prove effective in reducing the number of false positives. This framework could potentially be used as a knowledge base, in educating the internet users against phishing.
    62
    3799
    Meta Random Forests
    Abstract:
    Leo Breimans Random Forests (RF) is a recent development in tree based classifiers and quickly proven to be one of the most important algorithms in the machine learning literature. It has shown robust and improved results of classifications on standard data sets. Ensemble learning algorithms such as AdaBoost and Bagging have been in active research and shown improvements in classification results for several benchmarking data sets with mainly decision trees as their base classifiers. In this paper we experiment to apply these Meta learning techniques to the random forests. We experiment the working of the ensembles of random forests on the standard data sets available in UCI data sets. We compare the original random forest algorithm with their ensemble counterparts and discuss the results.
    61
    3978
    Delay Analysis of Sampled-Data Systems in Hard RTOS
    Abstract:
    In this paper, we have presented the effect of varying time-delays on performance and stability in the single-channel multirate sampled-data system in hard real-time (RT-Linux) environment. The sampling task require response time that might exceed the capacity of RT-Linux. So a straight implementation with RT-Linux is not feasible, because of the latency of the systems and hence, sampling period should be less to handle this task. The best sampling rate is chosen for the sampled-data system, which is the slowest rate meets all performance requirements. RT-Linux is consistent with its specifications and the resolution of the real-time is considered 0.01 seconds to achieve an efficient result. The test results of our laboratory experiment shows that the multi-rate control technique in hard real-time operating system (RTOS) can improve the stability problem caused by the random access delays and asynchronization.
    60
    4179
    A Middleware Transparent Framework for Applying MDA to SOA
    Abstract:
    Although Model Driven Architecture has taken successful steps toward model-based software development, this approach still faces complex situations and ambiguous questions while applying to real world software systems. One of these questions - which has taken the most interest and focus - is how model transforms between different abstraction levels, MDA proposes. In this paper, we propose an approach based on Story Driven Modeling and Aspect Oriented Programming to ease these transformations. Service Oriented Architecture is taken as the target model to test the proposed mechanism in a functional system. Service Oriented Architecture and Model Driven Architecture [1] are both considered as the frontiers of their own domain in the software world. Following components - which was the greatest step after object oriented - SOA is introduced, focusing on more integrated and automated software solutions. On the other hand - and from the designers' point of view - MDA is just initiating another evolution. MDA is considered as the next big step after UML in designing domain.
    59
    4385
    Development of A Meta Description Language for Software/Hardware Cooperative Design and Verification for Model-Checking Systems
    Abstract:
    Model-checking tools such as Symbolic Model Verifier (SMV) and NuSMV are available for checking hardware designs. These tools can automatically check the formal legitimacy of a design. However, NuSMV is too low level for describing a complete hardware design. It is therefore necessary to translate the system definition, as designed in a language such as Verilog or VHDL, into a language such as NuSMV for validation. In this paper, we present a meta hardware description language, Melasy, that contains a code generator for existing hardware description languages (HDLs) and languages for model checking that solve this problem.
    58
    4681
    Modelling Multiagent Systems
    Abstract:
    We propose a formal framework for the specification of the behavior of a system of agents, as well as those of the constituting agents. This framework allows us to model each agent-s effectoric capability including its interactions with the other agents. We also provide an algorithm based on Milner-s "observation equivalence" to derive an agent-s perception of its task domain situations from its effectoric capability, and use "system computations" to model the coordinated efforts of the agents in the system . Formal definitions of the concept of "behavior equivalence" of two agents and that of system computations equivalence for an agent are also provided.
    57
    4871
    Validity Domains of Beams Behavioural Models: Efficiency and Reduction with Artificial Neural Networks
    Abstract:

    In a particular case of behavioural model reduction by ANNs, a validity domain shortening has been found. In mechanics, as in other domains, the notion of validity domain allows the engineer to choose a valid model for a particular analysis or simulation. In the study of mechanical behaviour for a cantilever beam (using linear and non-linear models), Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) Backpropagation (BP) networks have been applied as model reduction technique. This reduced model is constructed to be more efficient than the non-reduced model. Within a less extended domain, the ANN reduced model estimates correctly the non-linear response, with a lower computational cost. It has been found that the neural network model is not able to approximate the linear behaviour while it does approximate the non-linear behaviour very well. The details of the case are provided with an example of the cantilever beam behaviour modelling.

    56
    5078
    Region-Based Segmentation of Generic Video Scenes Indexing
    Abstract:
    In this work we develop an object extraction method and propose efficient algorithms for object motion characterization. The set of proposed tools serves as a basis for development of objectbased functionalities for manipulation of video content. The estimators by different algorithms are compared in terms of quality and performance and tested on real video sequences. The proposed method will be useful for the latest standards of encoding and description of multimedia content – MPEG4 and MPEG7.
    55
    5202
    Application of Genetic Algorithms to Feature Subset Selection in a Farsi OCR
    Abstract:
    Dealing with hundreds of features in character recognition systems is not unusual. This large number of features leads to the increase of computational workload of recognition process. There have been many methods which try to remove unnecessary or redundant features and reduce feature dimensionality. Besides because of the characteristics of Farsi scripts, it-s not possible to apply other languages algorithms to Farsi directly. In this paper some methods for feature subset selection using genetic algorithms are applied on a Farsi optical character recognition (OCR) system. Experimental results show that application of genetic algorithms (GA) to feature subset selection in a Farsi OCR results in lower computational complexity and enhanced recognition rate.
    54
    5308
    Liveness Detection for Embedded Face Recognition System
    Abstract:
    To increase reliability of face recognition system, the system must be able to distinguish real face from a copy of face such as a photograph. In this paper, we propose a fast and memory efficient method of live face detection for embedded face recognition system, based on the analysis of the movement of the eyes. We detect eyes in sequential input images and calculate variation of each eye region to determine whether the input face is a real face or not. Experimental results show that the proposed approach is competitive and promising for live face detection.
    53
    5467
    Face Tracking using a Polling Strategy
    Abstract:
    The colors of the human skin represent a special category of colors, because they are distinctive from the colors of other natural objects. This category is found as a cluster in color spaces, and the skin color variations between people are mostly due to differences in the intensity. Besides, the face detection based on skin color detection is a faster method as compared to other techniques. In this work, we present a system to track faces by carrying out skin color detection in four different color spaces: HSI, YCbCr, YES and RGB. Once some skin color regions have been detected for each color space, we label each and get some characteristics such as size and position. We are supposing that a face is located in one the detected regions. Next, we compare and employ a polling strategy between labeled regions to determine the final region where the face effectively has been detected and located.
    52
    5818
    Analysis of DNA Microarray Data using Association Rules: A Selective Study
    Abstract:

    DNA microarrays allow the measurement of expression levels for a large number of genes, perhaps all genes of an organism, within a number of different experimental samples. It is very much important to extract biologically meaningful information from this huge amount of expression data to know the current state of the cell because most cellular processes are regulated by changes in gene expression. Association rule mining techniques are helpful to find association relationship between genes. Numerous association rule mining algorithms have been developed to analyze and associate this huge amount of gene expression data. This paper focuses on some of the popular association rule mining algorithms developed to analyze gene expression data.

    51
    6889
    Feature Based Dense Stereo Matching using Dynamic Programming and Color
    Abstract:
    This paper presents a new feature based dense stereo matching algorithm to obtain the dense disparity map via dynamic programming. After extraction of some proper features, we use some matching constraints such as epipolar line, disparity limit, ordering and limit of directional derivative of disparity as well. Also, a coarseto- fine multiresolution strategy is used to decrease the search space and therefore increase the accuracy and processing speed. The proposed method links the detected feature points into the chains and compares some of the feature points from different chains, to increase the matching speed. We also employ color stereo matching to increase the accuracy of the algorithm. Then after feature matching, we use the dynamic programming to obtain the dense disparity map. It differs from the classical DP methods in the stereo vision, since it employs sparse disparity map obtained from the feature based matching stage. The DP is also performed further on a scan line, between any matched two feature points on that scan line. Thus our algorithm is truly an optimization method. Our algorithm offers a good trade off in terms of accuracy and computational efficiency. Regarding the results of our experiments, the proposed algorithm increases the accuracy from 20 to 70%, and reduces the running time of the algorithm almost 70%.
    50
    7014
    Modeling “Web of Trust“ with Web 2.0
    Abstract:
    “Web of Trust" is one of the recognized goals for Web 2.0. It aims to make it possible for the people to take responsibility for what they publish on the web, including organizations, businesses and individual users. These objectives, among others, drive most of the technologies and protocols recently standardized by the governing bodies. One of the great advantages of Web infrastructure is decentralization of publication. The primary motivation behind Web 2.0 is to assist the people to add contents for Collective Intelligence (CI) while providing mechanisms to link content with people for evaluations and accountability of information. Such structure of contents will interconnect users and contents so that users can use contents to find participants and vice versa. This paper proposes conceptual information storage and linking model, based on decentralized information structure, that links contents and people together. The model uses FOAF, Atom, RDF and RDFS and can be used as a blueprint to develop Web 2.0 applications for any e-domain. However, primary target for this paper is online trust evaluation domain. The proposed model targets to assist the individuals to establish “Web of Trust" in online trust domain.
    49
    7090
    A PSO-based End-Member Selection Method for Spectral Unmixing of Multispectral Satellite Images
    Abstract:

    An end-member selection method for spectral unmixing that is based on Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) is developed in this paper. The algorithm uses the K-means clustering algorithm and a method of dynamic selection of end-members subsets to find the appropriate set of end-members for a given set of multispectral images. The proposed algorithm has been successfully applied to test image sets from various platforms such as LANDSAT 5 MSS and NOAA's AVHRR. The experimental results of the proposed algorithm are encouraging. The influence of different values of the algorithm control parameters on performance is studied. Furthermore, the performance of different versions of PSO is also investigated.

    48
    7220
    Quality of Service in Multioperator GPON Access Networks with Triple-Play Services
    Abstract:
    Recently, in some places, optical-fibre access networks have been used with GPON technology belonging to organizations (in most cases public bodies) that act as neutral operators. These operators simultaneously provide network services to various telecommunications operators that offer integrated voice, data and television services. This situation creates new problems related to quality of service, since the interests of the users are intermingled with the interests of the operators. In this paper, we analyse this problem and consider solutions that make it possible to provide guaranteed quality of service for voice over IP, data services and interactive digital television.
    47
    7317
    Image Segmentation Based on Graph Theoretical Approach to Improve the Quality of Image Segmentation
    Abstract:
    Graph based image segmentation techniques are considered to be one of the most efficient segmentation techniques which are mainly used as time & space efficient methods for real time applications. How ever, there is need to focus on improving the quality of segmented images obtained from the earlier graph based methods. This paper proposes an improvement to the graph based image segmentation methods already described in the literature. We contribute to the existing method by proposing the use of a weighted Euclidean distance to calculate the edge weight which is the key element in building the graph. We also propose a slight modification of the segmentation method already described in the literature, which results in selection of more prominent edges in the graph. The experimental results show the improvement in the segmentation quality as compared to the methods that already exist, with a slight compromise in efficiency.
    46
    7427
    A Hybrid Method for Eyes Detection in Facial Images
    Abstract:
    This paper proposes a hybrid method for eyes localization in facial images. The novelty is in combining techniques that utilise colour, edge and illumination cues to improve accuracy. The method is based on the observation that eye regions have dark colour, high density of edges and low illumination as compared to other parts of face. The first step in the method is to extract connected regions from facial images using colour, edge density and illumination cues separately. Some of the regions are then removed by applying rules that are based on the general geometry and shape of eyes. The remaining connected regions obtained through these three cues are then combined in a systematic way to enhance the identification of the candidate regions for the eyes. The geometry and shape based rules are then applied again to further remove the false eye regions. The proposed method was tested using images from the PICS facial images database. The proposed method has 93.7% and 87% accuracies for initial blobs extraction and final eye detection respectively.
    45
    7452
    A Complexity Measure for Java Bean based Software Components
    Abstract:
    The traditional software product and process metrics are neither suitable nor sufficient in measuring the complexity of software components, which ultimately is necessary for quality and productivity improvement within organizations adopting CBSE. Researchers have proposed a wide range of complexity metrics for software systems. However, these metrics are not sufficient for components and component-based system and are restricted to the module-oriented systems and object-oriented systems. In this proposed study it is proposed to find the complexity of the JavaBean Software Components as a reflection of its quality and the component can be adopted accordingly to make it more reusable. The proposed metric involves only the design issues of the component and does not consider the packaging and the deployment complexity. In this way, the software components could be kept in certain limit which in turn help in enhancing the quality and productivity.
    44
    8360
    Discovery of Time Series Event Patterns based on Time Constraints from Textual Data
    Abstract:

    This paper proposes a method that discovers time series event patterns from textual data with time information. The patterns are composed of sequences of events and each event is extracted from the textual data, where an event is characteristic content included in the textual data such as a company name, an action, and an impression of a customer. The method introduces 7 types of time constraints based on the analysis of the textual data. The method also evaluates these constraints when the frequency of a time series event pattern is calculated. We can flexibly define the time constraints for interesting combinations of events and can discover valid time series event patterns which satisfy these conditions. The paper applies the method to daily business reports collected by a sales force automation system and verifies its effectiveness through numerical experiments.

    43
    8525
    A New Type of Integration Error and its Influence on Integration Testing Techniques
    Abstract:
    Testing is an activity that is required both in the development and maintenance of the software development life cycle in which Integration Testing is an important activity. Integration testing is based on the specification and functionality of the software and thus could be called black-box testing technique. The purpose of integration testing is testing integration between software components. In function or system testing, the concern is with overall behavior and whether the software meets its functional specifications or performance characteristics or how well the software and hardware work together. This explains the importance and necessity of IT for which the emphasis is on interactions between modules and their interfaces. Software errors should be discovered early during IT to reduce the costs of correction. This paper introduces a new type of integration error, presenting an overview of Integration Testing techniques with comparison of each technique and also identifying which technique detects what type of error.
    42
    8531
    Exponential Particle Swarm Optimization Approach for Improving Data Clustering
    Abstract:
    In this paper we use exponential particle swarm optimization (EPSO) to cluster data. Then we compare between (EPSO) clustering algorithm which depends on exponential variation for the inertia weight and particle swarm optimization (PSO) clustering algorithm which depends on linear inertia weight. This comparison is evaluated on five data sets. The experimental results show that EPSO clustering algorithm increases the possibility to find the optimal positions as it decrease the number of failure. Also show that (EPSO) clustering algorithm has a smaller quantization error than (PSO) clustering algorithm, i.e. (EPSO) clustering algorithm more accurate than (PSO) clustering algorithm.
    41
    8967
    Estimation of Skew Angle in Binary Document Images Using Hough Transform
    Abstract:
    This paper includes two novel techniques for skew estimation of binary document images. These algorithms are based on connected component analysis and Hough transform. Both these methods focus on reducing the amount of input data provided to Hough transform. In the first method, referred as word centroid approach, the centroids of selected words are used for skew detection. In the second method, referred as dilate & thin approach, the selected characters are blocked and dilated to get word blocks and later thinning is applied. The final image fed to Hough transform has the thinned coordinates of word blocks in the image. The methods have been successful in reducing the computational complexity of Hough transform based skew estimation algorithms. Promising experimental results are also provided to prove the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
    40
    9202
    Hand Gesture Recognition: Sign to Voice System (S2V)
    Abstract:
    Hand gesture is one of the typical methods used in sign language for non-verbal communication. It is most commonly used by people who have hearing or speech problems to communicate among themselves or with normal people. Various sign language systems have been developed by manufacturers around the globe but they are neither flexible nor cost-effective for the end users. This paper presents a system prototype that is able to automatically recognize sign language to help normal people to communicate more effectively with the hearing or speech impaired people. The Sign to Voice system prototype, S2V, was developed using Feed Forward Neural Network for two-sequence signs detection. Different sets of universal hand gestures were captured from video camera and utilized to train the neural network for classification purpose. The experimental results have shown that neural network has achieved satisfactory result for sign-to-voice translation.
    39
    9497
    Text Summarization for Oil and Gas Drilling Topic
    Abstract:

    Information sharing and gathering are important in the rapid advancement era of technology. The existence of WWW has caused rapid growth of information explosion. Readers are overloaded with too many lengthy text documents in which they are more interested in shorter versions. Oil and gas industry could not escape from this predicament. In this paper, we develop an Automated Text Summarization System known as AutoTextSumm to extract the salient points of oil and gas drilling articles by incorporating statistical approach, keywords identification, synonym words and sentence-s position. In this study, we have conducted interviews with Petroleum Engineering experts and English Language experts to identify the list of most commonly used keywords in the oil and gas drilling domain. The system performance of AutoTextSumm is evaluated using the formulae of precision, recall and F-score. Based on the experimental results, AutoTextSumm has produced satisfactory performance with F-score of 0.81.

    38
    9558
    ReSeT : Reverse Engineering System Requirements Tool
    Abstract:
    Reverse Engineering is a very important process in Software Engineering. It can be performed backwards from system development life cycle (SDLC) in order to get back the source data or representations of a system through analysis of its structure, function and operation. We use reverse engineering to introduce an automatic tool to generate system requirements from its program source codes. The tool is able to accept the Cµ programming source codes, scan the source codes line by line and parse the codes to parser. Then, the engine of the tool will be able to generate system requirements for that specific program to facilitate reuse and enhancement of the program. The purpose of producing the tool is to help recovering the system requirements of any system when the system requirements document (SRD) does not exist due to undocumented support of the system.
    37
    9597
    Hippocratic Database: A Privacy-Aware Database
    Abstract:

    Nowadays, organizations and business has several motivating factors to protect an individual-s privacy. Confidentiality refers to type of sharing information to third parties. This is always referring to private information, especially for personal information that usually needs to keep as a private. Because of the important of privacy concerns today, we need to design a database system that suits with privacy. Agrawal et. al. has introduced Hippocratic Database also we refer here as a privacy-aware database. This paper will explain how HD can be a future trend for web-based application to enhance their privacy level of trustworthiness among internet users.

    36
    9639
    Maya Semantic Technique: A Mathematical Technique Used to Determine Partial Semantics for Declarative Sentences
    Abstract:

    This research uses computational linguistics, an area of study that employs a computer to process natural language, and aims at discerning the patterns that exist in declarative sentences used in technical texts. The approach is mathematical, and the focus is on instructional texts found on web pages. The technique developed by the author and named the MAYA Semantic Technique is used here and organized into four stages. In the first stage, the parts of speech in each sentence are identified. In the second stage, the subject of the sentence is determined. In the third stage, MAYA performs a frequency analysis on the remaining words to determine the verb and its object. In the fourth stage, MAYA does statistical analysis to determine the content of the web page. The advantage of the MAYA Semantic Technique lies in its use of mathematical principles to represent grammatical operations which assist processing and accuracy if performed on unambiguous text. The MAYA Semantic Technique is part of a proposed architecture for an entire web-based intelligent tutoring system. On a sample set of sentences, partial semantics derived using the MAYA Semantic Technique were approximately 80% accurate. The system currently processes technical text in one domain, namely Cµ programming. In this domain all the keywords and programming concepts are known and understood.

    35
    9892
    A Classification Scheme for Game Input and Output
    Abstract:
    Computer game industry has experienced exponential growth in recent years. A game is a recreational activity involving one or more players. Game input is information such as data, commands, etc., which is passed to the game system at run time from an external source. Conversely, game outputs are information which are generated by the game system and passed to an external target, but which is not used internally by the game. This paper identifies a new classification scheme for game input and output, which is based on player-s input and output. Using this, relationship table for game input classifier and output classifier is developed.
    34
    10088
    RB-Matcher: String Matching Technique
    Abstract:
    All Text processing systems allow their users to search a pattern of string from a given text. String matching is fundamental to database and text processing applications. Every text editor must contain a mechanism to search the current document for arbitrary strings. Spelling checkers scan an input text for words in the dictionary and reject any strings that do not match. We store our information in data bases so that later on we can retrieve the same and this retrieval can be done by using various string matching algorithms. This paper is describing a new string matching algorithm for various applications. A new algorithm has been designed with the help of Rabin Karp Matcher, to improve string matching process.
    33
    10208
    UML Modeling for Instruction Pipeline Design
    Abstract:
    Unified Modeling language (UML) is one of the important modeling languages used for the visual representation of the research problem. In the present paper, UML model is designed for the Instruction pipeline which is used for the evaluation of the instructions of software programs. The class and sequence diagrams are designed & performance is evaluated for instructions of a sample program through a case study.
    32
    10253
    The Labeled Classification and its Application
    Abstract:
    This paper presents and evaluates a new classification method that aims to improve classifiers performances and speed up their training process. The proposed approach, called labeled classification, seeks to improve convergence of the BP (Back propagation) algorithm through the addition of an extra feature (labels) to all training examples. To classify every new example, tests will be carried out each label. The simplicity of implementation is the main advantage of this approach because no modifications are required in the training algorithms. Therefore, it can be used with others techniques of acceleration and stabilization. In this work, two models of the labeled classification are proposed: the LMLP (Labeled Multi Layered Perceptron) and the LNFC (Labeled Neuro Fuzzy Classifier). These models are tested using Iris, wine, texture and human thigh databases to evaluate their performances.
    31
    10441
    Optimized Delay Constrained QoS Routing
    Abstract:
    QoS Routing aims to find paths between senders and receivers satisfying the QoS requirements of the application which efficiently using the network resources and underlying routing algorithm to be able to find low-cost paths that satisfy given QoS constraints. The problem of finding least-cost routing is known to be NP-hard or complete and some algorithms have been proposed to find a near optimal solution. But these heuristics or algorithms either impose relationships among the link metrics to reduce the complexity of the problem which may limit the general applicability of the heuristic, or are too costly in terms of execution time to be applicable to large networks. In this paper, we concentrate an algorithm that finds a near-optimal solution fast and we named this algorithm as optimized Delay Constrained Routing (ODCR), which uses an adaptive path weight function together with an additional constraint imposed on the path cost, to restrict search space and hence ODCR finds near optimal solution in much quicker time.
    30
    10647
    A Intelligent Inference Model about Complex Systems- Stability: Inspiration from Nature
    Abstract:
    A logic model for analyzing complex systems- stability is very useful to many areas of sciences. In the real world, we are enlightened from some natural phenomena such as “biosphere", “food chain", “ecological balance" etc. By research and practice, and taking advantage of the orthogonality and symmetry defined by the theory of multilateral matrices, we put forward a logic analysis model of stability of complex systems with three relations, and prove it by means of mathematics. This logic model is usually successful in analyzing stability of a complex system. The structure of the logic model is not only clear and simple, but also can be easily used to research and solve many stability problems of complex systems. As an application, some examples are given.
    29
    10674
    Thematic Role Extraction Using Shallow Parsing
    Abstract:
    Extracting thematic (semantic) roles is one of the major steps in representing text meaning. It refers to finding the semantic relations between a predicate and syntactic constituents in a sentence. In this paper we present a rule-based approach to extract semantic roles from Persian sentences. The system exploits a twophase architecture to (1) identify the arguments and (2) label them for each predicate. For the first phase we developed a rule based shallow parser to chunk Persian sentences and for the second phase we developed a knowledge-based system to assign 16 selected thematic roles to the chunks. The experimental results of testing each phase are shown at the end of the paper.
    28
    10711
    Optimal Model Order Selection for Transient Error Autoregressive Moving Average (TERA) MRI Reconstruction Method
    Abstract:
    An alternative approach to the use of Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) reconstruction is the use of parametric modeling technique. This method is suitable for problems in which the image can be modeled by explicit known source functions with a few adjustable parameters. Despite the success reported in the use of modeling technique as an alternative MRI reconstruction technique, two important problems constitutes challenges to the applicability of this method, these are estimation of Model order and model coefficient determination. In this paper, five of the suggested method of evaluating the model order have been evaluated, these are: The Final Prediction Error (FPE), Akaike Information Criterion (AIC), Residual Variance (RV), Minimum Description Length (MDL) and Hannan and Quinn (HNQ) criterion. These criteria were evaluated on MRI data sets based on the method of Transient Error Reconstruction Algorithm (TERA). The result for each criterion is compared to result obtained by the use of a fixed order technique and three measures of similarity were evaluated. Result obtained shows that the use of MDL gives the highest measure of similarity to that use by a fixed order technique.
    27
    10722
    An Improved Conjugate Gradient Based Learning Algorithm for Back Propagation Neural Networks
    Abstract:

    The conjugate gradient optimization algorithm is combined with the modified back propagation algorithm to yield a computationally efficient algorithm for training multilayer perceptron (MLP) networks (CGFR/AG). The computational efficiency is enhanced by adaptively modifying initial search direction as described in the following steps: (1) Modification on standard back propagation algorithm by introducing a gain variation term in the activation function, (2) Calculation of the gradient descent of error with respect to the weights and gains values and (3) the determination of a new search direction by using information calculated in step (2). The performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing accuracy and computation time with the conjugate gradient algorithm used in MATLAB neural network toolbox. The results show that the computational efficiency of the proposed method was better than the standard conjugate gradient algorithm.

    26
    10738
    Estimating Word Translation Probabilities for Thai – English Machine Translation using EM Algorithm
    Abstract:
    Selecting the word translation from a set of target language words, one that conveys the correct sense of source word and makes more fluent target language output, is one of core problems in machine translation. In this paper we compare the 3 methods of estimating word translation probabilities for selecting the translation word in Thai – English Machine Translation. The 3 methods are (1) Method based on frequency of word translation, (2) Method based on collocation of word translation, and (3) Method based on Expectation Maximization (EM) algorithm. For evaluation we used Thai – English parallel sentences generated by NECTEC. The method based on EM algorithm is the best method in comparison to the other methods and gives the satisfying results.
    25
    10742
    Bandwidth, Area Efficient and Target Device Independent DDR SDRAM Controller
    Abstract:
    The application of the synchronous dynamic random access memory (SDRAM) has gone beyond the scope of personal computers for quite a long time. It comes into hand whenever a big amount of low price and still high speed memory is needed. Most of the newly developed stand alone embedded devices in the field of image, video and sound processing take more and more use of it. The big amount of low price memory has its trade off – the speed. In order to take use of the full potential of the memory, an efficient controller is needed. Efficient stands for maximum random accesses to the memory both for reading and writing and less area after implementation. This paper proposes a target device independent DDR SDRAM pipelined controller and provides performance comparison with available solutions.
    24
    10929
    A Middleware System between WEB and Database Servers
    Abstract:
    This paper aims at improving web server performance by establishing a middleware layer between web and database servers, which minimizes the overload on the database server. A middleware system has been developed as a service mainly to improve the performance. This system manages connection accesses in a way that would result in reducing the overload on the database server. In addition to the connection management, this system acts as an object-oriented model for best utilization of operating system resources. A web developer can use this Service Broker to improve web server performance.
    23
    11084
    Parallel and Distributed Mining of Association Rule on Knowledge Grid
    Abstract:
    In Virtual organization, Knowledge Discovery (KD) service contains distributed data resources and computing grid nodes. Computational grid is integrated with data grid to form Knowledge Grid, which implements Apriori algorithm for mining association rule on grid network. This paper describes development of parallel and distributed version of Apriori algorithm on Globus Toolkit using Message Passing Interface extended with Grid Services (MPICHG2). The creation of Knowledge Grid on top of data and computational grid is to support decision making in real time applications. In this paper, the case study describes design and implementation of local and global mining of frequent item sets. The experiments were conducted on different configurations of grid network and computation time was recorded for each operation. We analyzed our result with various grid configurations and it shows speedup of computation time is almost superlinear.
    22
    11090
    Constraint Based Frequent Pattern Mining Technique for Solving GCS Problem
    Abstract:
    Generalized Center String (GCS) problem are generalized from Common Approximate Substring problem and Common substring problems. GCS are known to be NP-hard allowing the problems lies in the explosion of potential candidates. Finding longest center string without concerning the sequence that may not contain any motifs is not known in advance in any particular biological gene process. GCS solved by frequent pattern-mining techniques and known to be fixed parameter tractable based on the fixed input sequence length and symbol set size. Efficient method known as Bpriori algorithms can solve GCS with reasonable time/space complexities. Bpriori 2 and Bpriori 3-2 algorithm are been proposed of any length and any positions of all their instances in input sequences. In this paper, we reduced the time/space complexity of Bpriori algorithm by Constrained Based Frequent Pattern mining (CBFP) technique which integrates the idea of Constraint Based Mining and FP-tree mining. CBFP mining technique solves the GCS problem works for all center string of any length, but also for the positions of all their mutated copies of input sequence. CBFP mining technique construct TRIE like with FP tree to represent the mutated copies of center string of any length, along with constraints to restraint growth of the consensus tree. The complexity analysis for Constrained Based FP mining technique and Bpriori algorithm is done based on the worst case and average case approach. Algorithm's correctness compared with the Bpriori algorithm using artificial data is shown.
    21
    11954
    Robust Artificial Neural Network Architectures
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    Many artificial intelligence (AI) techniques are inspired by problem-solving strategies found in nature. Robustness is a key feature in many natural systems. This paper studies robustness in artificial neural networks (ANNs) and proposes several novel, nature inspired ANN architectures. The paper includes encouraging results from experimental studies on these networks showing increased robustness.
    20
    12275
    Using Data Mining for Learning and Clustering FCM
    Abstract:
    Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCMs) have successfully been applied in numerous domains to show relations between essential components. In some FCM, there are more nodes, which related to each other and more nodes means more complex in system behaviors and analysis. In this paper, a novel learning method used to construct FCMs based on historical data and by using data mining and DEMATEL method, a new method defined to reduce nodes number. This method cluster nodes in FCM based on their cause and effect behaviors.
    19
    12429
    Distributional Semantics Approach to Thai Word Sense Disambiguation
    Abstract:

    Word sense disambiguation is one of the most important open problems in natural language processing applications such as information retrieval and machine translation. Many approach strategies can be employed to resolve word ambiguity with a reasonable degree of accuracy. These strategies are: knowledgebased, corpus-based, and hybrid-based. This paper pays attention to the corpus-based strategy that employs an unsupervised learning method for disambiguation. We report our investigation of Latent Semantic Indexing (LSI), an information retrieval technique and unsupervised learning, to the task of Thai noun and verbal word sense disambiguation. The Latent Semantic Indexing has been shown to be efficient and effective for Information Retrieval. For the purposes of this research, we report experiments on two Thai polysemous words, namely  /hua4/ and /kep1/ that are used as a representative of Thai nouns and verbs respectively. The results of these experiments demonstrate the effectiveness and indicate the potential of applying vector-based distributional information measures to semantic disambiguation.

    18
    13213
    Genetic-Based Planning with Recursive Subgoals
    Abstract:
    In this paper, we introduce an effective strategy for subgoal division and ordering based upon recursive subgoals and combine this strategy with a genetic-based planning approach. This strategy can be applied to domains with conjunctive goals. The main idea is to recursively decompose a goal into a set of serializable subgoals and to specify a strict ordering among the subgoals. Empirical results show that the recursive subgoal strategy reduces the size of the search space and improves the quality of solutions to planning problems.
    17
    13260
    Architecture of Speech-based Registration System
    Abstract:

    In this era of technology, fueled by the pervasive usage of the internet, security is a prime concern. The number of new attacks by the so-called “bots", which are automated programs, is increasing at an alarming rate. They are most likely to attack online registration systems. Technology, called “CAPTCHA" (Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Humans Apart) do exist, which can differentiate between automated programs and humans and prevent replay attacks. Traditionally CAPTCHA-s have been implemented with the challenge involved in recognizing textual images and reproducing the same. We propose an approach where the visual challenge has to be read out from which randomly selected keywords are used to verify the correctness of spoken text and in turn detect the presence of human. This is supplemented with a speaker recognition system which can identify the speaker also. Thus, this framework fulfills both the objectives – it can determine whether the user is a human or not and if it is a human, it can verify its identity.

    16
    13757
    MRI Reconstruction Using Discrete Fourier Transform: A tutorial
    Abstract:

    The use of Inverse Discrete Fourier Transform (IDFT) implemented in the form of Inverse Fourier Transform (IFFT) is one of the standard method of reconstructing Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) from uniformly sampled K-space data. In this tutorial, three of the major problems associated with the use of IFFT in MRI reconstruction are highlighted. The tutorial also gives brief introduction to MRI physics; MRI system from instrumentation point of view; K-space signal and the process of IDFT and IFFT for One and two dimensional (1D and 2D) data.

    15
    13886
    Bayesian Decision Approach to Protection on the Flood Event in Upper Ayeyarwady River, Myanmar
    Abstract:

    This paper introduces the foundations of Bayesian probability theory and Bayesian decision method. The main goal of Bayesian decision theory is to minimize the expected loss of a decision or minimize the expected risk. The purposes of this study are to review the decision process on the issue of flood occurrences and to suggest possible process for decision improvement. This study examines the problem structure of flood occurrences and theoretically explicates the decision-analytic approach based on Bayesian decision theory and application to flood occurrences in Environmental Engineering. In this study, we will discuss about the flood occurrences upon an annual maximum water level in cm, 43-year record available from 1965 to 2007 at the gauging station of Sagaing on the Ayeyarwady River with the drainage area - 120193 sq km by using Bayesian decision method. As a result, we will discuss the loss and risk of vast areas of agricultural land whether which will be inundated or not in the coming year based on the two standard maximum water levels during 43 years. And also we forecast about that lands will be safe from flood water during the next 10 years.

    14
    13983
    Cluster Algorithm for Genetic Diversity
    Abstract:
    With the hardware technology advancing, the cost of storing is decreasing. Thus there is an urgent need for new techniques and tools that can intelligently and automatically assist us in transferring this data into useful knowledge. Different techniques of data mining are developed which are helpful for handling these large size databases [7]. Data mining is also finding its role in the field of biotechnology. Pedigree means the associated ancestry of a crop variety. Genetic diversity is the variation in the genetic composition of individuals within or among species. Genetic diversity depends upon the pedigree information of the varieties. Parents at lower hierarchic levels have more weightage for predicting genetic diversity as compared to the upper hierarchic levels. The weightage decreases as the level increases. For crossbreeding, the two varieties should be more and more genetically diverse so as to incorporate the useful characters of the two varieties in the newly developed variety. This paper discusses the searching and analyzing of different possible pairs of varieties selected on the basis of morphological characters, Climatic conditions and Nutrients so as to obtain the most optimal pair that can produce the required crossbreed variety. An algorithm was developed to determine the genetic diversity between the selected wheat varieties. Cluster analysis technique is used for retrieving the results.
    13
    14198
    A Genetic Algorithm with Priority Selection for the Traveling Salesman Problem
    Abstract:
    The conventional GA combined with a local search algorithm, such as the 2-OPT, forms a hybrid genetic algorithm(HGA) for the traveling salesman problem (TSP). However, the geometric properties which are problem specific knowledge can be used to improve the search process of the HGA. Some tour segments (edges) of TSPs are fine while some maybe too long to appear in a short tour. This knowledge could constrain GAs to work out with fine tour segments without considering long tour segments as often. Consequently, a new algorithm is proposed, called intelligent-OPT hybrid genetic algorithm (IOHGA), to improve the GA and the 2-OPT algorithm in order to reduce the search time for the optimal solution. Based on the geometric properties, all the tour segments are assigned 2-level priorities to distinguish between good and bad genes. A simulation study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the IOHGA. The experimental results indicate that in general the IOHGA could obtain near-optimal solutions with less time and better accuracy than the hybrid genetic algorithm with simulated annealing algorithm (HGA(SA)).
    12
    14252
    Formal Modeling and Verification of Software Models
    Abstract:
    Graph transformation has recently become more and more popular as a general visual modeling language to formally state the dynamic semantics of the designed models. Especially, it is a very natural formalism for languages which basically are graph (e.g. UML). Using this technique, we present a highly understandable yet precise approach to formally model and analyze the behavioral semantics of UML 2.0 Activity diagrams. In our proposal, AGG is used to design Activities, then using our previous approach to model checking graph transformation systems, designers can verify and analyze designed Activity diagrams by checking the interesting properties as combination of graph rules and LTL (Linear Temporal Logic) formulas on the Activities.
    11
    14905
    Information Retrieval in the Semantic LIFE Personal Digital Memory Framework
    Abstract:
    Ever increasing capacities of contemporary storage devices inspire the vision to accumulate (personal) information without the need of deleting old data over a long time-span. Hence the target of SemanticLIFE project is to create a Personal Information Management system for a human lifetime data. One of the most important characteristics of the system is its dedication to retrieve information in a very efficient way. By adopting user demands regarding the reduction of ambiguities, our approach aims at a user-oriented and yet powerful enough system with a satisfactory query performance. We introduce the query system of SemanticLIFE, the Virtual Query System, which uses emerging Semantic Web technologies to fulfill users- requirements.
    10
    15004
    Neural Networks: From Black Box towards Transparent Box Application to Evapotranspiration Modeling
    Abstract:
    Neural networks are well known for their ability to model non linear functions, but as statistical methods usually does, they use a no parametric approach thus, a priori knowledge is not obvious to be taken into account no more than the a posteriori knowledge. In order to deal with these problematics, an original way to encode the knowledge inside the architecture is proposed. This method is applied to the problem of the evapotranspiration inside karstic aquifer which is a problem of huge utility in order to deal with water resource.
    9
    15012
    Design of an SNMP Agent for OSGi Service Platforms
    Abstract:
    On one hand, SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) allows integrating different enterprise elements connected through Internet into a standardized remote management. On the other hand, as a consequence of the success of Intelligent Houses they can be connected through Internet now by means of a residential gateway according to a common standard called OSGi (Open Services Gateway initiative). Due to the specifics of OSGi Service Platforms and their dynamic nature, specific design criterions should be defined to implement SNMP Agents for OSGi in order to integrate them into the SNMP remote management. Based on the analysis of the relation between both standards (SNMP and OSGi), this paper shows how OSGi Service Platforms can be included into the SNMP management of a global enterprise, giving implementation details about an SNMP Agent solution and the definition of a new MIB (Management Information Base) for managing OSGi platforms that takes into account the specifics and dynamic nature of OSGi.
    8
    15086
    Modeling Language for Constructing Solvers in Machine Learning: Reductionist Perspectives
    Abstract:

    For a given specific problem an efficient algorithm has been the matter of study. However, an alternative approach orthogonal to this approach comes out, which is called a reduction. In general for a given specific problem this reduction approach studies how to convert an original problem into subproblems. This paper proposes a formal modeling language to support this reduction approach in order to make a solver quickly. We show three examples from the wide area of learning problems. The benefit is a fast prototyping of algorithms for a given new problem. It is noted that our formal modeling language is not intend for providing an efficient notation for data mining application, but for facilitating a designer who develops solvers in machine learning.

    7
    15151
    Improved C-Fuzzy Decision Tree for Intrusion Detection
    Abstract:
    As the number of networked computers grows, intrusion detection is an essential component in keeping networks secure. Various approaches for intrusion detection are currently being in use with each one has its own merits and demerits. This paper presents our work to test and improve the performance of a new class of decision tree c-fuzzy decision tree to detect intrusion. The work also includes identifying best candidate feature sub set to build the efficient c-fuzzy decision tree based Intrusion Detection System (IDS). We investigated the usefulness of c-fuzzy decision tree for developing IDS with a data partition based on horizontal fragmentation. Empirical results indicate the usefulness of our approach in developing the efficient IDS.
    6
    15438
    A Comparison of Grey Model and Fuzzy Predictive Model for Time Series
    Abstract:
    The prediction of meteorological parameters at a meteorological station is an interesting and open problem. A firstorder linear dynamic model GM(1,1) is the main component of the grey system theory. The grey model requires only a few previous data points in order to make a real-time forecast. In this paper, we consider the daily average ambient temperature as a time series and the grey model GM(1,1) applied to local prediction (short-term prediction) of the temperature. In the same case study we use a fuzzy predictive model for global prediction. We conclude the paper with a comparison between local and global prediction schemes.
    5
    15544
    Improvements in Navy Data Networks and Tactical Communication Systems
    Abstract:
    This paper considers the benefits gained by using an efficient quality of service management such as DiffServ technique to improve the performance of military communications. Low delay and no blockage must be achieved especially for real time tactical data. All traffic flows generated by different applications do not need same bandwidth, same latency, same error ratio and this scalable technique of packet management based on priority levels is analysed. End to end architectures supporting various traffic flows and including lowbandwidth and high-delay HF or SHF military links as well as unprotected Internet sub domains are studied. A tuning of Diffserv parameters is proposed in accordance with different loads of various traffic and different operational situations.
    4
    15658
    Multivariate High Order Fuzzy Time Series Forecasting for Car Road Accidents
    Abstract:
    In this paper, we have presented a new multivariate fuzzy time series forecasting method. This method assumes mfactors with one main factor of interest. History of past three years is used for making new forecasts. This new method is applied in forecasting total number of car accidents in Belgium using four secondary factors. We also make comparison of our proposed method with existing methods of fuzzy time series forecasting. Experimentally, it is shown that our proposed method perform better than existing fuzzy time series forecasting methods. Practically, actuaries are interested in analysis of the patterns of causalities in road accidents. Thus using fuzzy time series, actuaries can define fuzzy premium and fuzzy underwriting of car insurance and life insurance for car insurance. National Institute of Statistics, Belgium provides region of risk classification for each road. Thus using this risk classification, we can predict premium rate and underwriting of insurance policy holders.
    3
    15663
    Restoration of Noisy Document Images with an Efficient Bi-Level Adaptive Thresholding
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    An effective approach for extracting document images from a noisy background is introduced. The entire scheme is divided into three sub- stechniques – the initial preprocessing operations for noise cluster tightening, introduction of a new thresholding method by maximizing the ratio of stan- dard deviations of the combined effect on the image to the sum of weighted classes and finally the image restoration phase by image binarization utiliz- ing the proposed optimum threshold level. The proposed method is found to be efficient compared to the existing schemes in terms of computational complexity as well as speed with better noise rejection.

    2
    15714
    Feature Subset Selection approach based on Maximizing Margin of Support Vector Classifier
    Abstract:
    Identification of cancer genes that might anticipate the clinical behaviors from different types of cancer disease is challenging due to the huge number of genes and small number of patients samples. The new method is being proposed based on supervised learning of classification like support vector machines (SVMs).A new solution is described by the introduction of the Maximized Margin (MM) in the subset criterion, which permits to get near the least generalization error rate. In class prediction problem, gene selection is essential to improve the accuracy and to identify genes for cancer disease. The performance of the new method was evaluated with real-world data experiment. It can give the better accuracy for classification.
    1
    15939
    On the Parameter Optimization of Fuzzy Inference Systems
    Abstract:
    Nowadays, more engineering systems are using some kind of Artificial Intelligence (AI) for the development of their processes. Some well-known AI techniques include artificial neural nets, fuzzy inference systems, and neuro-fuzzy inference systems among others. Furthermore, many decision-making applications base their intelligent processes on Fuzzy Logic; due to the Fuzzy Inference Systems (FIS) capability to deal with problems that are based on user knowledge and experience. Also, knowing that users have a wide variety of distinctiveness, and generally, provide uncertain data, this information can be used and properly processed by a FIS. To properly consider uncertainty and inexact system input values, FIS normally use Membership Functions (MF) that represent a degree of user satisfaction on certain conditions and/or constraints. In order to define the parameters of the MFs, the knowledge from experts in the field is very important. This knowledge defines the MF shape to process the user inputs and through fuzzy reasoning and inference mechanisms, the FIS can provide an “appropriate" output. However an important issue immediately arises: How can it be assured that the obtained output is the optimum solution? How can it be guaranteed that each MF has an optimum shape? A viable solution to these questions is through the MFs parameter optimization. In this Paper a novel parameter optimization process is presented. The process for FIS parameter optimization consists of the five simple steps that can be easily realized off-line. Here the proposed process of FIS parameter optimization it is demonstrated by its implementation on an Intelligent Interface section dealing with the on-line customization / personalization of internet portals applied to E-commerce.