Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 49

Computer, Electrical, Automation, Control and Information Engineering

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  • 49
    A Materialized View Approach to Support Aggregation Operations over Long Periods in Sensor Networks
    The increasing interest on processing data created by sensor networks has evolved into approaches to implement sensor networks as databases. The aggregation operator, which calculates a value from a large group of data such as computing averages or sums, etc. is an essential function that needs to be provided when implementing such sensor network databases. This work proposes to add the DURING clause into TinySQL to calculate values during a specific long period and suggests a way to implement the aggregation service in sensor networks by applying materialized view and incremental view maintenance techniques that is used in data warehouses. In sensor networks, data values are passed from child nodes to parent nodes and an aggregation value is computed at the root node. As such root nodes need to be memory efficient and low powered, it becomes a problem to recompute aggregate values from all past and current data. Therefore, applying incremental view maintenance techniques can reduce the memory consumption and support fast computation of aggregate values.
    An Improved Learning Algorithm based on the Conjugate Gradient Method for Back Propagation Neural Networks
    The conjugate gradient optimization algorithm usually used for nonlinear least squares is presented and is combined with the modified back propagation algorithm yielding a new fast training multilayer perceptron (MLP) algorithm (CGFR/AG). The approaches presented in the paper consist of three steps: (1) Modification on standard back propagation algorithm by introducing gain variation term of the activation function, (2) Calculating the gradient descent on error with respect to the weights and gains values and (3) the determination of the new search direction by exploiting the information calculated by gradient descent in step (2) as well as the previous search direction. The proposed method improved the training efficiency of back propagation algorithm by adaptively modifying the initial search direction. Performance of the proposed method is demonstrated by comparing to the conjugate gradient algorithm from neural network toolbox for the chosen benchmark. The results show that the number of iterations required by the proposed method to converge is less than 20% of what is required by the standard conjugate gradient and neural network toolbox algorithm.
    Compression of Semistructured Documents
    EGOTHOR is a search engine that indexes the Web and allows us to search the Web documents. Its hit list contains URL and title of the hits, and also some snippet which tries to shortly show a match. The snippet can be almost always assembled by an algorithm that has a full knowledge of the original document (mostly HTML page). It implies that the search engine is required to store the full text of the documents as a part of the index. Such a requirement leads us to pick up an appropriate compression algorithm which would reduce the space demand. One of the solutions could be to use common compression methods, for instance gzip or bzip2, but it might be preferable if we develop a new method which would take advantage of the document structure, or rather, the textual character of the documents. There already exist a special compression text algorithms and methods for a compression of XML documents. The aim of this paper is an integration of the two approaches to achieve an optimal level of the compression ratio
    Specification of Agent Explicit Knowledge in Cryptographic Protocols
    Cryptographic protocols are widely used in various applications to provide secure communications. They are usually represented as communicating agents that send and receive messages. These agents use their knowledge to exchange information and communicate with other agents involved in the protocol. An agent knowledge can be partitioned into explicit knowledge and procedural knowledge. The explicit knowledge refers to the set of information which is either proper to the agent or directly obtained from other agents through communication. The procedural knowledge relates to the set of mechanisms used to get new information from what is already available to the agent. In this paper, we propose a mathematical framework which specifies the explicit knowledge of an agent involved in a cryptographic protocol. Modelling this knowledge is crucial for the specification, analysis, and implementation of cryptographic protocols. We also, report on a prototype tool that allows the representation and the manipulation of the explicit knowledge.
    Research on IBR-Driven Distributed Collaborative Visualization System
    Image-based Rendering(IBR) techniques recently reached in broad fields which leads to a critical challenge to build up IBR-Driven visualization platform where meets requirement of high performance, large bounds of distributed visualization resource aggregation and concentration, multiple operators deploying and CSCW design employing. This paper presents an unique IBR-based visualization dataflow model refer to specific characters of IBR techniques and then discusses prominent feature of IBR-Driven distributed collaborative visualization (DCV) system before finally proposing an novel prototype. The prototype provides a well-defined three level modules especially work as Central Visualization Server, Local Proxy Server and Visualization Aid Environment, by which data and control for collaboration move through them followed the previous dataflow model. With aid of this triple hierarchy architecture of that, IBR oriented application construction turns to be easy. The employed augmented collaboration strategy not only achieve convenient multiple users synchronous control and stable processing management, but also is extendable and scalable.
    A Similarity Metric for Assessment of Image Fusion Algorithms
    In this paper, we present a novel objective nonreference performance assessment algorithm for image fusion. It takes into account local measurements to estimate how well the important information in the source images is represented by the fused image. The metric is based on the Universal Image Quality Index and uses the similarity between blocks of pixels in the input images and the fused image as the weighting factors for the metrics. Experimental results confirm that the values of the proposed metrics correlate well with the subjective quality of the fused images, giving a significant improvement over standard measures based on mean squared error and mutual information.
    Learning Classifier Systems Approach for Automated Discovery of Censored Production Rules
    In the recent past Learning Classifier Systems have been successfully used for data mining. Learning Classifier System (LCS) is basically a machine learning technique which combines evolutionary computing, reinforcement learning, supervised or unsupervised learning and heuristics to produce adaptive systems. A LCS learns by interacting with an environment from which it receives feedback in the form of numerical reward. Learning is achieved by trying to maximize the amount of reward received. All LCSs models more or less, comprise four main components; a finite population of condition–action rules, called classifiers; the performance component, which governs the interaction with the environment; the credit assignment component, which distributes the reward received from the environment to the classifiers accountable for the rewards obtained; the discovery component, which is responsible for discovering better rules and improving existing ones through a genetic algorithm. The concatenate of the production rules in the LCS form the genotype, and therefore the GA should operate on a population of classifier systems. This approach is known as the 'Pittsburgh' Classifier Systems. Other LCS that perform their GA at the rule level within a population are known as 'Mitchigan' Classifier Systems. The most predominant representation of the discovered knowledge is the standard production rules (PRs) in the form of IF P THEN D. The PRs, however, are unable to handle exceptions and do not exhibit variable precision. The Censored Production Rules (CPRs), an extension of PRs, were proposed by Michalski and Winston that exhibit variable precision and supports an efficient mechanism for handling exceptions. A CPR is an augmented production rule of the form: IF P THEN D UNLESS C, where Censor C is an exception to the rule. Such rules are employed in situations, in which conditional statement IF P THEN D holds frequently and the assertion C holds rarely. By using a rule of this type we are free to ignore the exception conditions, when the resources needed to establish its presence are tight or there is simply no information available as to whether it holds or not. Thus, the IF P THEN D part of CPR expresses important information, while the UNLESS C part acts only as a switch and changes the polarity of D to ~D. In this paper Pittsburgh style LCSs approach is used for automated discovery of CPRs. An appropriate encoding scheme is suggested to represent a chromosome consisting of fixed size set of CPRs. Suitable genetic operators are designed for the set of CPRs and individual CPRs and also appropriate fitness function is proposed that incorporates basic constraints on CPR. Experimental results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the proposed learning classifier system.
    Multi-algorithmic Iris Authentication System
    The paper proposes a novel technique for iris recognition using texture and phase features. Texture features are extracted on the normalized iris strip using Haar Wavelet while phase features are obtained using LOG Gabor Wavelet. The matching scores generated from individual modules are combined using sum of score technique. The system is tested on database obtained from Bath University and Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur and is giving an accuracy of 95.62% and 97.66% respectively. The FAR and FRR of the combined system is also reduced comparatively.
    Classifying Bio-Chip Data using an Ant Colony System Algorithm
    Bio-chips are used for experiments on genes and contain various information such as genes, samples and so on. The two-dimensional bio-chips, in which one axis represent genes and the other represent samples, are widely being used these days. Instead of experimenting with real genes which cost lots of money and much time to get the results, bio-chips are being used for biological experiments. And extracting data from the bio-chips with high accuracy and finding out the patterns or useful information from such data is very important. Bio-chip analysis systems extract data from various kinds of bio-chips and mine the data in order to get useful information. One of the commonly used methods to mine the data is classification. The algorithm that is used to classify the data can be various depending on the data types or number characteristics and so on. Considering that bio-chip data is extremely large, an algorithm that imitates the ecosystem such as the ant algorithm is suitable to use as an algorithm for classification. This paper focuses on finding the classification rules from the bio-chip data using the Ant Colony algorithm which imitates the ecosystem. The developed system takes in consideration the accuracy of the discovered rules when it applies it to the bio-chip data in order to predict the classes.
    Mining Association Rules from Unstructured Documents
    This paper presents a system for discovering association rules from collections of unstructured documents called EART (Extract Association Rules from Text). The EART system treats texts only not images or figures. EART discovers association rules amongst keywords labeling the collection of textual documents. The main characteristic of EART is that the system integrates XML technology (to transform unstructured documents into structured documents) with Information Retrieval scheme (TF-IDF) and Data Mining technique for association rules extraction. EART depends on word feature to extract association rules. It consists of four phases: structure phase, index phase, text mining phase and visualization phase. Our work depends on the analysis of the keywords in the extracted association rules through the co-occurrence of the keywords in one sentence in the original text and the existing of the keywords in one sentence without co-occurrence. Experiments applied on a collection of scientific documents selected from MEDLINE that are related to the outbreak of H5N1 avian influenza virus.
    A New Approach to Polynomial Neural Networks based on Genetic Algorithm
    Recently, a lot of attention has been devoted to advanced techniques of system modeling. PNN(polynomial neural network) is a GMDH-type algorithm (Group Method of Data Handling) which is one of the useful method for modeling nonlinear systems but PNN performance depends strongly on the number of input variables and the order of polynomial which are determined by trial and error. In this paper, we introduce GPNN (genetic polynomial neural network) to improve the performance of PNN. GPNN determines the number of input variables and the order of all neurons with GA (genetic algorithm). We use GA to search between all possible values for the number of input variables and the order of polynomial. GPNN performance is obtained by two nonlinear systems. the quadratic equation and the time series Dow Jones stock index are two case studies for obtaining the GPNN performance.
    Real-time 3D Feature Extraction without Explicit 3D Object Reconstruction
    For the communication between human and computer in an interactive computing environment, the gesture recognition is studied vigorously. Therefore, a lot of studies have proposed efficient methods about the recognition algorithm using 2D camera captured images. However, there is a limitation to these methods, such as the extracted features cannot fully represent the object in real world. Although many studies used 3D features instead of 2D features for more accurate gesture recognition, the problem, such as the processing time to generate 3D objects, is still unsolved in related researches. Therefore we propose a method to extract the 3D features combined with the 3D object reconstruction. This method uses the modified GPU-based visual hull generation algorithm which disables unnecessary processes, such as the texture calculation to generate three kinds of 3D projection maps as the 3D feature: a nearest boundary, a farthest boundary, and a thickness of the object projected on the base-plane. In the section of experimental results, we present results of proposed method on eight human postures: T shape, both hands up, right hand up, left hand up, hands front, stand, sit and bend, and compare the computational time of the proposed method with that of the previous methods.
    Comparison of Phylogenetic Trees of Multiple Protein Sequence Alignment Methods
    Multiple sequence alignment is a fundamental part in many bioinformatics applications such as phylogenetic analysis. Many alignment methods have been proposed. Each method gives a different result for the same data set, and consequently generates a different phylogenetic tree. Hence, the chosen alignment method affects the resulting tree. However in the literature, there is no evaluation of multiple alignment methods based on the comparison of their phylogenetic trees. This work evaluates the following eight aligners: ClustalX, T-Coffee, SAGA, MUSCLE, MAFFT, DIALIGN, ProbCons and Align-m, based on their phylogenetic trees (test trees) produced on a given data set. The Neighbor-Joining method is used to estimate trees. Three criteria, namely, the dNNI, the dRF and the Id_Tree are established to test the ability of different alignment methods to produce closer test tree compared to the reference one (true tree). Results show that the method which produces the most accurate alignment gives the nearest test tree to the reference tree. MUSCLE outperforms all aligners with respect to the three criteria and for all datasets, performing particularly better when sequence identities are within 10-20%. It is followed by T-Coffee at lower sequence identity (30%), trees scores of all methods become similar.
    3D Star Skeleton for Fast Human Posture Representation
    In this paper, we propose an improved 3D star skeleton technique, which is a suitable skeletonization for human posture representation and reflects the 3D information of human posture. Moreover, the proposed technique is simple and then can be performed in real-time. The existing skeleton construction techniques, such as distance transformation, Voronoi diagram, and thinning, focus on the precision of skeleton information. Therefore, those techniques are not applicable to real-time posture recognition since they are computationally expensive and highly susceptible to noise of boundary. Although a 2D star skeleton was proposed to complement these problems, it also has some limitations to describe the 3D information of the posture. To represent human posture effectively, the constructed skeleton should consider the 3D information of posture. The proposed 3D star skeleton contains 3D data of human, and focuses on human action and posture recognition. Our 3D star skeleton uses the 8 projection maps which have 2D silhouette information and depth data of human surface. And the extremal points can be extracted as the features of 3D star skeleton, without searching whole boundary of object. Therefore, on execution time, our 3D star skeleton is faster than the “greedy" 3D star skeleton using the whole boundary points on the surface. Moreover, our method can offer more accurate skeleton of posture than the existing star skeleton since the 3D data for the object is concerned. Additionally, we make a codebook, a collection of representative 3D star skeletons about 7 postures, to recognize what posture of constructed skeleton is.
    Real-Time Vision-based Korean Finger Spelling Recognition System
    Finger spelling is an art of communicating by signs made with fingers, and has been introduced into sign language to serve as a bridge between the sign language and the verbal language. Previous approaches to finger spelling recognition are classified into two categories: glove-based and vision-based approaches. The glove-based approach is simpler and more accurate recognizing work of hand posture than vision-based, yet the interfaces require the user to wear a cumbersome and carry a load of cables that connected the device to a computer. In contrast, the vision-based approaches provide an attractive alternative to the cumbersome interface, and promise more natural and unobtrusive human-computer interaction. The vision-based approaches generally consist of two steps: hand extraction and recognition, and two steps are processed independently. This paper proposes real-time vision-based Korean finger spelling recognition system by integrating hand extraction into recognition. First, we tentatively detect a hand region using CAMShift algorithm. Then fill factor and aspect ratio estimated by width and height estimated by CAMShift are used to choose candidate from database, which can reduce the number of matching in recognition step. To recognize the finger spelling, we use DTW(dynamic time warping) based on modified chain codes, to be robust to scale and orientation variations. In this procedure, since accurate hand regions, without holes and noises, should be extracted to improve the precision, we use graph cuts algorithm that globally minimize the energy function elegantly expressed by Markov random fields (MRFs). In the experiments, the computational times are less than 130ms, and the times are not related to the number of templates of finger spellings in database, as candidate templates are selected in extraction step.
    View-Point Insensitive Human Pose Recognition using Neural Network
    This paper proposes view-point insensitive human pose recognition system using neural network. Recognition system consists of silhouette image capturing module, data driven database, and neural network. The advantages of our system are first, it is possible to capture multiple view-point silhouette images of 3D human model automatically. This automatic capture module is helpful to reduce time consuming task of database construction. Second, we develop huge feature database to offer view-point insensitivity at pose recognition. Third, we use neural network to recognize human pose from multiple-view because every pose from each model have similar feature patterns, even though each model has different appearance and view-point. To construct database, we need to create 3D human model using 3D manipulate tools. Contour shape is used to convert silhouette image to feature vector of 12 degree. This extraction task is processed semi-automatically, which benefits in that capturing images and converting to silhouette images from the real capturing environment is needless. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach with experiments on virtual environment.
    A Novel Approach for Coin Identification using Eigenvalues of Covariance Matrix, Hough Transform and Raster Scan Algorithms
    In this paper we present a new method for coin identification. The proposed method adopts a hybrid scheme using Eigenvalues of covariance matrix, Circular Hough Transform (CHT) and Bresenham-s circle algorithm. The statistical and geometrical properties of the small and large Eigenvalues of the covariance matrix of a set of edge pixels over a connected region of support are explored for the purpose of circular object detection. Sparse matrix technique is used to perform CHT. Since sparse matrices squeeze zero elements and contain only a small number of non-zero elements, they provide an advantage of matrix storage space and computational time. Neighborhood suppression scheme is used to find the valid Hough peaks. The accurate position of the circumference pixels is identified using Raster scan algorithm which uses geometrical symmetry property. After finding circular objects, the proposed method uses the texture on the surface of the coins called texton, which are unique properties of coins, refers to the fundamental micro structure in generic natural images. This method has been tested on several real world images including coin and non-coin images. The performance is also evaluated based on the noise withstanding capability.
    A Monte Carlo Method to Data Stream Analysis
    Data stream analysis is the process of computing various summaries and derived values from large amounts of data which are continuously generated at a rapid rate. The nature of a stream does not allow a revisit on each data element. Furthermore, data processing must be fast to produce timely analysis results. These requirements impose constraints on the design of the algorithms to balance correctness against timely responses. Several techniques have been proposed over the past few years to address these challenges. These techniques can be categorized as either dataoriented or task-oriented. The data-oriented approach analyzes a subset of data or a smaller transformed representation, whereas taskoriented scheme solves the problem directly via approximation techniques. We propose a hybrid approach to tackle the data stream analysis problem. The data stream has been both statistically transformed to a smaller size and computationally approximated its characteristics. We adopt a Monte Carlo method in the approximation step. The data reduction has been performed horizontally and vertically through our EMR sampling method. The proposed method is analyzed by a series of experiments. We apply our algorithm on clustering and classification tasks to evaluate the utility of our approach.
    Holistic Face Recognition using Multivariate Approximation, Genetic Algorithms and AdaBoost Classifier: Preliminary Results

    Several works regarding facial recognition have dealt with methods which identify isolated characteristics of the face or with templates which encompass several regions of it. In this paper a new technique which approaches the problem holistically dispensing with the need to identify geometrical characteristics or regions of the face is introduced. The characterization of a face is achieved by randomly sampling selected attributes of the pixels of its image. From this information we construct a set of data, which correspond to the values of low frequencies, gradient, entropy and another several characteristics of pixel of the image. Generating a set of “p" variables. The multivariate data set with different polynomials minimizing the data fitness error in the minimax sense (L∞ - Norm) is approximated. With the use of a Genetic Algorithm (GA) it is able to circumvent the problem of dimensionality inherent to higher degree polynomial approximations. The GA yields the degree and values of a set of coefficients of the polynomials approximating of the image of a face. By finding a family of characteristic polynomials from several variables (pixel characteristics) for each face (say Fi ) in the data base through a resampling process the system in use, is trained. A face (say F ) is recognized by finding its characteristic polynomials and using an AdaBoost Classifier from F -s polynomials to each of the Fi -s polynomials. The winner is the polynomial family closer to F -s corresponding to target face in data base.

    Deficiencies of Lung Segmentation Techniques using CT Scan Images for CAD
    Segmentation is an important step in medical image analysis and classification for radiological evaluation or computer aided diagnosis. This paper presents the problem of inaccurate lung segmentation as observed in algorithms presented by researchers working in the area of medical image analysis. The different lung segmentation techniques have been tested using the dataset of 19 patients consisting of a total of 917 images. We obtained datasets of 11 patients from Ackron University, USA and of 8 patients from AGA Khan Medical University, Pakistan. After testing the algorithms against datasets, the deficiencies of each algorithm have been highlighted.
    An Efficient Algorithm for Motion Detection Based Facial Expression Recognition using Optical Flow
    One of the popular methods for recognition of facial expressions such as happiness, sadness and surprise is based on deformation of facial features. Motion vectors which show these deformations can be specified by the optical flow. In this method, for detecting emotions, the resulted set of motion vectors are compared with standard deformation template that caused by facial expressions. In this paper, a new method is introduced to compute the quantity of likeness in order to make decision based on the importance of obtained vectors from an optical flow approach. For finding the vectors, one of the efficient optical flow method developed by Gautama and VanHulle[17] is used. The suggested method has been examined over Cohn-Kanade AU-Coded Facial Expression Database, one of the most comprehensive collections of test images available. The experimental results show that our method could correctly recognize the facial expressions in 94% of case studies. The results also show that only a few number of image frames (three frames) are sufficient to detect facial expressions with rate of success of about 83.3%. This is a significant improvement over the available methods.
    SVM-based Multiview Face Recognition by Generalization of Discriminant Analysis

    Identity verification of authentic persons by their multiview faces is a real valued problem in machine vision. Multiview faces are having difficulties due to non-linear representation in the feature space. This paper illustrates the usability of the generalization of LDA in the form of canonical covariate for face recognition to multiview faces. In the proposed work, the Gabor filter bank is used to extract facial features that characterized by spatial frequency, spatial locality and orientation. Gabor face representation captures substantial amount of variations of the face instances that often occurs due to illumination, pose and facial expression changes. Convolution of Gabor filter bank to face images of rotated profile views produce Gabor faces with high dimensional features vectors. Canonical covariate is then used to Gabor faces to reduce the high dimensional feature spaces into low dimensional subspaces. Finally, support vector machines are trained with canonical sub-spaces that contain reduced set of features and perform recognition task. The proposed system is evaluated with UMIST face database. The experiment results demonstrate the efficiency and robustness of the proposed system with high recognition rates.

    Optimal Control Strategies for Speed Control of Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives
    The permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) is very useful in many applications. Vector control of PMSM is popular kind of its control. In this paper, at first an optimal vector control for PMSM is designed and then results are compared with conventional vector control. Then, it is assumed that the measurements are noisy and linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) methodology is used to filter the noises. The results of noisy optimal vector control and filtered optimal vector control are compared to each other. Nonlinearity of PMSM and existence of inverter in its control circuit caused that the system is nonlinear and time-variant. With deriving average model, the system is changed to nonlinear time-invariant and then the nonlinear system is converted to linear system by linearization of model around average values. This model is used to optimize vector control then two optimal vector controls are compared to each other. Simulation results show that the performance and robustness to noise of the control system has been highly improved.
    Congestion Control for Internet Media Traffic
    In this paper we investigated a number of the Internet congestion control algorithms that has been developed in the last few years. It was obviously found that many of these algorithms were designed to deal with the Internet traffic merely as a train of consequent packets. Other few algorithms were specifically tailored to handle the Internet congestion caused by running media traffic that represents audiovisual content. This later set of algorithms is considered to be aware of the nature of this media content. In this context we briefly explained a number of congestion control algorithms and hence categorized them into the two following categories: i) Media congestion control algorithms. ii) Common congestion control algorithms. We hereby recommend the usage of the media congestion control algorithms for the reason of being media content-aware rather than the other common type of algorithms that blindly manipulates such traffic. We showed that the spread of such media content-aware algorithms over Internet will lead to better congestion control status in the coming years. This is due to the observed emergence of the era of digital convergence where the media traffic type will form the majority of the Internet traffic.
    Load Balancing in Heterogeneous P2P Systems using Mobile Agents
    Use of the Internet and the World-Wide-Web (WWW) has become widespread in recent years and mobile agent technology has proliferated at an equally rapid rate. In this scenario load balancing becomes important for P2P systems. Beside P2P systems can be highly heterogeneous, i.e., they may consists of peers that range from old desktops to powerful servers connected to internet through high-bandwidth lines. There are various loads balancing policies came into picture. Primitive one is Message Passing Interface (MPI). Its wide availability and portability make it an attractive choice; however the communication requirements are sometimes inefficient when implementing the primitives provided by MPI. In this scenario we use the concept of mobile agent because Mobile agent (MA) based approach have the merits of high flexibility, efficiency, low network traffic, less communication latency as well as highly asynchronous. In this study we present decentralized load balancing scheme using mobile agent technology in which when a node is overloaded, task migrates to less utilized nodes so as to share the workload. However, the decision of which nodes receive migrating task is made in real-time by defining certain load balancing policies. These policies are executed on PMADE (A Platform for Mobile Agent Distribution and Execution) in decentralized manner using JuxtaNet and various load balancing metrics are discussed.
    Application of Smooth Ergodic Hidden Markov Model in Text to Speech Systems
    In developing a text-to-speech system, it is well known that the accuracy of information extracted from a text is crucial to produce high quality synthesized speech. In this paper, a new scheme for converting text into its equivalent phonetic spelling is introduced and developed. This method is applicable to many applications in text to speech converting systems and has many advantages over other methods. The proposed method can also complement the other methods with a purpose of improving their performance. The proposed method is a probabilistic model and is based on Smooth Ergodic Hidden Markov Model. This model can be considered as an extension to HMM. The proposed method is applied to Persian language and its accuracy in converting text to speech phonetics is evaluated using simulations.
    ANN-Based Classification of Indirect Immuno Fluorescence Images

    In this paper we address the issue of classifying the fluorescent intensity of a sample in Indirect Immuno-Fluorescence (IIF). Since IIF is a subjective, semi-quantitative test in its very nature, we discuss a strategy to reliably label the image data set by using the diagnoses performed by different physicians. Then, we discuss image pre-processing, feature extraction and selection. Finally, we propose two ANN-based classifiers that can separate intrinsically dubious samples and whose error tolerance can be flexibly set. Measured performance shows error rates less than 1%, which candidates the method to be used in daily medical practice either to perform pre-selection of cases to be examined, or to act as a second reader.

    Dynamic Bayesian Networks Modeling for Inferring Genetic Regulatory Networks by Search Strategy: Comparison between Greedy Hill Climbing and MCMC Methods

    Using Dynamic Bayesian Networks (DBN) to model genetic regulatory networks from gene expression data is one of the major paradigms for inferring the interactions among genes. Averaging a collection of models for predicting network is desired, rather than relying on a single high scoring model. In this paper, two kinds of model searching approaches are compared, which are Greedy hill-climbing Search with Restarts (GSR) and Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods. The GSR is preferred in many papers, but there is no such comparison study about which one is better for DBN models. Different types of experiments have been carried out to try to give a benchmark test to these approaches. Our experimental results demonstrated that on average the MCMC methods outperform the GSR in accuracy of predicted network, and having the comparable performance in time efficiency. By proposing the different variations of MCMC and employing simulated annealing strategy, the MCMC methods become more efficient and stable. Apart from comparisons between these approaches, another objective of this study is to investigate the feasibility of using DBN modeling approaches for inferring gene networks from few snapshots of high dimensional gene profiles. Through synthetic data experiments as well as systematic data experiments, the experimental results revealed how the performances of these approaches can be influenced as the target gene network varies in the network size, data size, as well as system complexity.

    A Watermarking Scheme for MP3 Audio Files
    In this work, we present for the first time in our perception an efficient digital watermarking scheme for mpeg audio layer 3 files that operates directly in the compressed data domain, while manipulating the time and subband/channel domain. In addition, it does not need the original signal to detect the watermark. Our scheme was implemented taking special care for the efficient usage of the two limited resources of computer systems: time and space. It offers to the industrial user the capability of watermark embedding and detection in time immediately comparable to the real music time of the original audio file that depends on the mpeg compression, while the end user/audience does not face any artifacts or delays hearing the watermarked audio file. Furthermore, it overcomes the disadvantage of algorithms operating in the PCMData domain to be vulnerable to compression/recompression attacks, as it places the watermark in the scale factors domain and not in the digitized sound audio data. The strength of our scheme, that allows it to be used with success in both authentication and copyright protection, relies on the fact that it gives to the users the enhanced capability their ownership of the audio file not to be accomplished simply by detecting the bit pattern that comprises the watermark itself, but by showing that the legal owner knows a hard to compute property of the watermark.
    A Graphical Environment for Petri Nets INA Tool Based on Meta-Modelling and Graph Grammars
    The Petri net tool INA is a well known tool by the Petri net community. However, it lacks a graphical environment to cerate and analyse INA models. Building a modelling tool for the design and analysis from scratch (for INA tool for example) is generally a prohibitive task. Meta-Modelling approach is useful to deal with such problems since it allows the modelling of the formalisms themselves. In this paper, we propose an approach based on the combined use of Meta-modelling and Graph Grammars to automatically generate a visual modelling tool for INA for analysis purposes. In our approach, the UML Class diagram formalism is used to define a meta-model of INA models. The meta-modelling tool ATOM3 is used to generate a visual modelling tool according to the proposed INA meta-model. We have also proposed a graph grammar to automatically generate INA description of the graphically specified Petri net models. This allows the user to avoid the errors when this description is done manually. Then the INA tool is used to perform the simulation and the analysis of the resulted INA description. Our environment is illustrated through an example.
    A Stereo Image Processing System for Visually Impaired
    This paper presents a review on vision aided systems and proposes an approach for visual rehabilitation using stereo vision technology. The proposed system utilizes stereo vision, image processing methodology and a sonification procedure to support blind navigation. The developed system includes a wearable computer, stereo cameras as vision sensor and stereo earphones, all moulded in a helmet. The image of the scene infront of visually handicapped is captured by the vision sensors. The captured images are processed to enhance the important features in the scene in front, for navigation assistance. The image processing is designed as model of human vision by identifying the obstacles and their depth information. The processed image is mapped on to musical stereo sound for the blind-s understanding of the scene infront. The developed method has been tested in the indoor and outdoor environments and the proposed image processing methodology is found to be effective for object identification.
    Time-Derivative Estimation of Noisy Movie Data using Adaptive Control Theory
    This paper presents an adaptive differentiator of sequential data based on the adaptive control theory. The algorithm is applied to detect moving objects by estimating a temporal gradient of sequential data at a specified pixel. We adopt two nonlinear intensity functions to reduce the influence of noises. The derivatives of the nonlinear intensity functions are estimated by an adaptive observer with σ-modification update law.
    Design and Implementation of Optimal Winner Determination Algorithm in Combinatorial e- Auctions
    The one of best robust search technique on large scale search area is heuristic and meta heuristic approaches. Especially in issue that the exploitation of combinatorial status in the large scale search area prevents the solution of the problem via classical calculating methods, so such problems is NP-complete. in this research, the problem of winner determination in combinatorial auctions have been formulated and by assessing older heuristic functions, we solve the problem by using of genetic algorithm and would show that this new method would result in better performance in comparison to other heuristic function such as simulated annealing greedy approach.
    Identification of Flexographic-printed Newspapers with NIR Spectral Imaging
    Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy is a widely used method for material identification for laboratory and industrial applications. While standard spectrometers only allow measurements at one sampling point at a time, NIR Spectral Imaging techniques can measure, in real-time, both the size and shape of an object as well as identify the material the object is made of. The online classification and sorting of recovered paper with NIR Spectral Imaging (SI) is used with success in the paper recycling industry throughout Europe. Recently, the globalisation of the recycling material streams caused that water-based flexographic-printed newspapers mainly from UK and Italy appear also in central Europe. These flexo-printed newspapers are not sufficiently de-inkable with the standard de-inking process originally developed for offset-printed paper. This de-inking process removes the ink from recovered paper and is the fundamental processing step to produce high-quality paper from recovered paper. Thus, the flexo-printed newspapers are a growing problem for the recycling industry as they reduce the quality of the produced paper if their amount exceeds a certain limit within the recovered paper material. This paper presents the results of a research project for the development of an automated entry inspection system for recovered paper that was jointly conducted by CTR AG (Austria) and PTS Papiertechnische Stiftung (Germany). Within the project an NIR SI prototype for the identification of flexo-printed newspaper has been developed. The prototype can identify and sort out flexoprinted newspapers in real-time and achieves a detection accuracy for flexo-printed newspaper of over 95%. NIR SI, the technology the prototype is based on, allows the development of inspection systems for incoming goods in a paper production facility as well as industrial sorting systems for recovered paper in the recycling industry in the near future.
    A New High Speed Neural Model for Fast Character Recognition Using Cross Correlation and Matrix Decomposition
    Neural processors have shown good results for detecting a certain character in a given input matrix. In this paper, a new idead to speed up the operation of neural processors for character detection is presented. Such processors are designed based on cross correlation in the frequency domain between the input matrix and the weights of neural networks. This approach is developed to reduce the computation steps required by these faster neural networks for the searching process. The principle of divide and conquer strategy is applied through image decomposition. Each image is divided into small in size sub-images and then each one is tested separately by using a single faster neural processor. Furthermore, faster character detection is obtained by using parallel processing techniques to test the resulting sub-images at the same time using the same number of faster neural networks. In contrast to using only faster neural processors, the speed up ratio is increased with the size of the input image when using faster neural processors and image decomposition. Moreover, the problem of local subimage normalization in the frequency domain is solved. The effect of image normalization on the speed up ratio of character detection is discussed. Simulation results show that local subimage normalization through weight normalization is faster than subimage normalization in the spatial domain. The overall speed up ratio of the detection process is increased as the normalization of weights is done off line.
    RBF modeling of Incipient Motion of Plane Sand Bed Channels
    To define or predict incipient motion in an alluvial channel, most of the investigators use a standard or modified form of Shields- diagram. Shields- diagram does give a process to determine the incipient motion parameters but an iterative one. To design properly (without iteration), one should have another equation for resistance. Absence of a universal resistance equation also magnifies the difficulties in defining the model. Neural network technique, which is particularly useful in modeling a complex processes, is presented as a tool complimentary to modeling incipient motion. Present work develops a neural network model employing the RBF network to predict the average velocity u and water depth y based on the experimental data on incipient condition. Based on the model, design curves have been presented for the field application.
    3D Rendering of American Sign Language Finger-Spelling: A Comparative Study of Two Animation Techniques
    In this paper we report a study aimed at determining the most effective animation technique for representing ASL (American Sign Language) finger-spelling. Specifically, in the study we compare two commonly used 3D computer animation methods (keyframe animation and motion capture) in order to ascertain which technique produces the most 'accurate', 'readable', and 'close to actual signing' (i.e. realistic) rendering of ASL finger-spelling. To accomplish this goal we have developed 20 animated clips of fingerspelled words and we have designed an experiment consisting of a web survey with rating questions. 71 subjects ages 19-45 participated in the study. Results showed that recognition of the words was correlated with the method used to animate the signs. In particular, keyframe technique produced the most accurate representation of the signs (i.e., participants were more likely to identify the words correctly in keyframed sequences rather than in motion captured ones). Further, findings showed that the animation method had an effect on the reported scores for readability and closeness to actual signing; the estimated marginal mean readability and closeness was greater for keyframed signs than for motion captured signs. To our knowledge, this is the first study aimed at measuring and comparing accuracy, readability and realism of ASL animations produced with different techniques.
    An Efficient Biometric Cryptosystem using Autocorrelators
    Cryptography provides the secure manner of information transmission over the insecure channel. It authenticates messages based on the key but not on the user. It requires a lengthy key to encrypt and decrypt the sending and receiving the messages, respectively. But these keys can be guessed or cracked. Moreover, Maintaining and sharing lengthy, random keys in enciphering and deciphering process is the critical problem in the cryptography system. A new approach is described for generating a crypto key, which is acquired from a person-s iris pattern. In the biometric field, template created by the biometric algorithm can only be authenticated with the same person. Among the biometric templates, iris features can efficiently be distinguished with individuals and produces less false positives in the larger population. This type of iris code distribution provides merely less intra-class variability that aids the cryptosystem to confidently decrypt messages with an exact matching of iris pattern. In this proposed approach, the iris features are extracted using multi resolution wavelets. It produces 135-bit iris codes from each subject and is used for encrypting/decrypting the messages. The autocorrelators are used to recall original messages from the partially corrupted data produced by the decryption process. It intends to resolve the repudiation and key management problems. Results were analyzed in both conventional iris cryptography system (CIC) and non-repudiation iris cryptography system (NRIC). It shows that this new approach provides considerably high authentication in enciphering and deciphering processes.
    Enabling Integration across Heterogeneous Care Networks
    The paper shows how the CASMAS modeling language, and its associated pervasive computing architecture, can be used to facilitate continuity of care by providing members of patientcentered communities of care with a support to cooperation and knowledge sharing through the usage of electronic documents and digital devices. We consider a scenario of clearly fragmented care to show how proper mechanisms can be defined to facilitate a better integration of practices and information across heterogeneous care networks. The scenario is declined in terms of architectural components and cooperation-oriented mechanisms that make the support reactive to the evolution of the context where these communities operate.
    A New Approach to Steganography using Sinc-Convolution Method
    Both image steganography and image encryption have advantages and disadvantages. Steganograhy allows us to hide a desired image containing confidential information in a covered or host image while image encryption is decomposing the desired image to a non-readable, non-comprehended manner. The encryption methods are usually much more robust than the steganographic ones. However, they have a high visibility and would provoke the attackers easily since it usually is obvious from an encrypted image that something is hidden! The combination of steganography and encryption will cover both of their weaknesses and therefore, it increases the security. In this paper an image encryption method based on sinc-convolution along with using an encryption key of 128 bit length is introduced. Then, the encrypted image is covered by a host image using a modified version of JSteg steganography algorithm. This method could be applied to almost all image formats including TIF, BMP, GIF and JPEG. The experiment results show that our method is able to hide a desired image with high security and low visibility.
    Glass Bottle Inspector Based on Machine Vision
    This text studies glass bottle intelligent inspector based machine vision instead of manual inspection. The system structure is illustrated in detail in this paper. The text presents the method based on watershed transform methods to segment the possible defective regions and extract features of bottle wall by rules. Then wavelet transform are used to exact features of bottle finish from images. After extracting features, the fuzzy support vector machine ensemble is putted forward as classifier. For ensuring that the fuzzy support vector machines have good classification ability, the GA based ensemble method is used to combining the several fuzzy support vector machines. The experiments demonstrate that using this inspector to inspect glass bottles, the accuracy rate may reach above 97.5%.
    HSV Image Watermarking Scheme Based on Visual Cryptography
    In this paper a simple watermarking method for color images is proposed. The proposed method is based on watermark embedding for the histograms of the HSV planes using visual cryptography watermarking. The method has been proved to be robust for various image processing operations such as filtering, compression, additive noise, and various geometrical attacks such as rotation, scaling, cropping, flipping, and shearing.
    Novel Approach for Promoting the Generalization Ability of Neural Networks
    A new approach to promote the generalization ability of neural networks is presented. It is based on the point of view of fuzzy theory. This approach is implemented through shrinking or magnifying the input vector, thereby reducing the difference between training set and testing set. It is called “shrinking-magnifying approach" (SMA). At the same time, a new algorithm; α-algorithm is presented to find out the appropriate shrinking-magnifying-factor (SMF) α and obtain better generalization ability of neural networks. Quite a few simulation experiments serve to study the effect of SMA and α-algorithm. The experiment results are discussed in detail, and the function principle of SMA is analyzed in theory. The results of experiments and analyses show that the new approach is not only simpler and easier, but also is very effective to many neural networks and many classification problems. In our experiments, the proportions promoting the generalization ability of neural networks have even reached 90%.
    Using Dempster-Shafer Theory in XML Information Retrieval
    XML is a markup language which is becoming the standard format for information representation and data exchange. A major purpose of XML is the explicit representation of the logical structure of a document. Much research has been performed to exploit logical structure of documents in information retrieval in order to precisely extract user information need from large collections of XML documents. In this paper, we describe an XML information retrieval weighting scheme that tries to find the most relevant elements in XML documents in response to a user query. We present this weighting model for information retrieval systems that utilize plausible inferences to infer the relevance of elements in XML documents. We also add to this model the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence to express the uncertainty in plausible inferences and Dempster-Shafer rule of combination to combine evidences derived from different inferences.
    Data Embedding Based on Better Use of Bits in Image Pixels

    In this study, a novel approach of image embedding is introduced. The proposed method consists of three main steps. First, the edge of the image is detected using Sobel mask filters. Second, the least significant bit LSB of each pixel is used. Finally, a gray level connectivity is applied using a fuzzy approach and the ASCII code is used for information hiding. The prior bit of the LSB represents the edged image after gray level connectivity, and the remaining six bits represent the original image with very little difference in contrast. The proposed method embeds three images in one image and includes, as a special case of data embedding, information hiding, identifying and authenticating text embedded within the digital images. Image embedding method is considered to be one of the good compression methods, in terms of reserving memory space. Moreover, information hiding within digital image can be used for security information transfer. The creation and extraction of three embedded images, and hiding text information is discussed and illustrated, in the following sections.

    Mimicking Morphogenesis for Robust Behaviour of Cellular Architectures

    Morphogenesis is the process that underpins the selforganised development and regeneration of biological systems. The ability to mimick morphogenesis in artificial systems has great potential for many engineering applications, including production of biological tissue, design of robust electronic systems and the co-ordination of parallel computing. Previous attempts to mimick these complex dynamics within artificial systems have relied upon the use of evolutionary algorithms that have limited their size and complexity. This paper will present some insight into the underlying dynamics of morphogenesis, then show how to, without the assistance of evolutionary algorithms, design cellular architectures that converge to complex patterns.

    Graph-based High Level Motion Segmentation using Normalized Cuts
    Motion capture devices have been utilized in producing several contents, such as movies and video games. However, since motion capture devices are expensive and inconvenient to use, motions segmented from captured data was recycled and synthesized to utilize it in another contents, but the motions were generally segmented by contents producers in manual. Therefore, automatic motion segmentation is recently getting a lot of attentions. Previous approaches are divided into on-line and off-line, where on-line approaches segment motions based on similarities between neighboring frames and off-line approaches segment motions by capturing the global characteristics in feature space. In this paper, we propose a graph-based high-level motion segmentation method. Since high-level motions consist of several repeated frames within temporal distances, we consider all similarities among all frames within the temporal distance. This is achieved by constructing a graph, where each vertex represents a frame and the edges between the frames are weighted by their similarity. Then, normalized cuts algorithm is used to partition the constructed graph into several sub-graphs by globally finding minimum cuts. In the experiments, the results using the proposed method showed better performance than PCA-based method in on-line and GMM-based method in off-line, as the proposed method globally segment motions from the graph constructed based similarities between neighboring frames as well as similarities among all frames within temporal distances.
    Application of Fuzzy Neural Network for Image Tumor Description

    This paper used a fuzzy kohonen neural network for medical image segmentation. Image segmentation plays a important role in the many of medical imaging applications by automating or facilitating the diagnostic. The paper analyses the tumor by extraction of the features of (area, entropy, means and standard deviation).These measurements gives a description for a tumor.

    DACS3: Embedding Individual Ant Behavior in Ant Colony System
    Ants are fascinating creatures that demonstrate the ability to find food and bring it back to their nest. Their ability as a colony, to find paths to food sources has inspired the development of algorithms known as Ant Colony Systems (ACS). The principle of cooperation forms the backbone of such algorithms, commonly used to find solutions to problems such as the Traveling Salesman Problem (TSP). Ants communicate to each other through chemical substances called pheromones. Modeling individual ants- ability to manipulate this substance can help an ACS find the best solution. This paper introduces a Dynamic Ant Colony System with threelevel updates (DACS3) that enhance an existing ACS. Experiments were conducted to observe single ant behavior in a colony of Malaysian House Red Ants. Such behavior was incorporated into the DACS3 algorithm. We benchmark the performance of DACS3 versus DACS on TSP instances ranging from 14 to 100 cities. The result shows that the DACS3 algorithm can achieve shorter distance in most cases and also performs considerably faster than DACS.