A Growing Natural Gas Approach for Evaluating Quality of Software Modules
The prediction of Software quality during development life cycle of software project helps the development organization to make efficient use of available resource to produce the product of highest quality. “Whether a module is faulty or not" approach can be used to predict quality of a software module. There are numbers of software quality prediction models described in the literature based upon genetic algorithms, artificial neural network and other data mining algorithms. One of the promising aspects for quality prediction is based on clustering techniques. Most quality prediction models that are based on clustering techniques make use of K-means, Mixture-of-Guassians, Self-Organizing Map, Neural Gas and fuzzy K-means algorithm for prediction. In all these techniques a predefined structure is required that is number of neurons or clusters should be known before we start clustering process. But in case of Growing Neural Gas there is no need of predetermining the quantity of neurons and the topology of the structure to be used and it starts with a minimal neurons structure that is incremented during training until it reaches a maximum number user defined limits for clusters. Hence, in this work we have used Growing Neural Gas as underlying cluster algorithm that produces the initial set of labeled cluster from training data set and thereafter this set of clusters is used to predict the quality of test data set of software modules. The best testing results shows 80% accuracy in evaluating the quality of software modules. Hence, the proposed technique can be used by programmers in evaluating the quality of modules during software development.
A Design and Implementation Model for Web Caching Using Server “URL Rewriting“
In order to make surfing the internet faster, and to save redundant processing load with each request for the same web page, many caching techniques have been developed to reduce latency of retrieving data on World Wide Web. In this paper we will give a quick overview of existing web caching techniques used for dynamic web pages then we will introduce a design and implementation model that take advantage of “URL Rewriting" feature in some popular web servers, e.g. Apache, to provide an effective approach of caching dynamic web pages.
An Efficient Obstacle Detection Algorithm Using Colour and Texture
This paper presents a new classification algorithm using colour and texture for obstacle detection. Colour information is computationally cheap to learn and process. However in many cases, colour alone does not provide enough information for classification. Texture information can improve classification performance but usually comes at an expensive cost. Our algorithm uses both colour and texture features but texture is only needed when colour is unreliable. During the training stage, texture features are learned specifically to improve the performance of a colour classifier. The algorithm learns a set of simple texture features and only the most effective features are used in the classification stage. Therefore our algorithm has a very good classification rate while is still fast enough to run on a limited computer platform. The proposed algorithm was tested with a challenging outdoor image set. Test result shows the algorithm achieves a much better trade-off between classification performance and efficiency than a typical colour classifier.
Crash Severity Modeling in Urban Highways Using Backward Regression Method
Identifying and classifying intersections according to
severity is very important for implementation of safety related
counter measures and effective models are needed to compare and
assess the severity. Highway safety organizations have considered
intersection safety among their priorities. In spite of significant
advances in highways safety, the large numbers of crashes with high
severities still occur in the highways. Investigation of influential
factors on crashes enables engineers to carry out calculations in order
to reduce crash severity. Previous studies lacked a model capable of
simultaneous illustration of the influence of human factors, road,
vehicle, weather conditions and traffic features including traffic
volume and flow speed on the crash severity. Thus, this paper is
aimed at developing the models to illustrate the simultaneous
influence of these variables on the crash severity in urban highways.
The models represented in this study have been developed using
binary Logit Models. SPSS software has been used to calibrate the
models. It must be mentioned that backward regression method in
SPSS was used to identify the significant variables in the model.
Consider to obtained results it can be concluded that the main
factor in increasing of crash severity in urban highways are driver
age, movement with reverse gear, technical defect of the vehicle,
vehicle collision with motorcycle and bicycle, bridge, frontal impact
collisions, frontal-lateral collisions and multi-vehicle crashes in
urban highways which always increase the crash severity in urban
Electricity Consumption Prediction Model using Neuro-Fuzzy System
In this paper the development of neural network based fuzzy inference system for electricity consumption prediction is considered. The electricity consumption depends on number of factors, such as number of customers, seasons, type-s of customers, number of plants, etc. It is nonlinear process and can be described by chaotic time-series. The structure and algorithms of neuro-fuzzy system for predicting future values of electricity consumption is described. To determine the unknown coefficients of the system, the supervised learning algorithm is used. As a result of learning, the rules of neuro-fuzzy system are formed. The developed system is applied for predicting future values of electricity consumption of Northern Cyprus. The simulation of neuro-fuzzy system has been performed.
Mining Sequential Patterns Using Hybrid Evolutionary Algorithm
Mining Sequential Patterns in large databases has become
an important data mining task with broad applications. It is
an important task in data mining field, which describes potential
sequenced relationships among items in a database. There are many
different algorithms introduced for this task. Conventional algorithms
can find the exact optimal Sequential Pattern rule but it takes a
long time, particularly when they are applied on large databases.
Nowadays, some evolutionary algorithms, such as Particle Swarm
Optimization and Genetic Algorithm, were proposed and have been
applied to solve this problem. This paper will introduce a new kind
of hybrid evolutionary algorithm that combines Genetic Algorithm
(GA) with Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) to mine Sequential
Pattern, in order to improve the speed of evolutionary algorithms
convergence. This algorithm is referred to as SP-GAPSO.
Ultrasonic Echo Image Adaptive Watermarking Using the Just-Noticeable Difference Estimation
Most of the image watermarking methods, using the properties of the human visual system (HVS), have been proposed in literature. The component of the visual threshold is usually related to either the spatial contrast sensitivity function (CSF) or the visual masking. Especially on the contrast masking, most methods have not mention to the effect near to the edge region. Since the HVS is sensitive what happens on the edge area. This paper proposes ultrasound image watermarking using the visual threshold corresponding to the HVS in which the coefficients in a DCT-block have been classified based on the texture, edge, and plain area. This classification method enables not only useful for imperceptibility when the watermark is insert into an image but also achievable a robustness of watermark detection. A comparison of the proposed method with other methods has been carried out which shown that the proposed method robusts to blockwise memoryless manipulations, and also robust against noise addition.
Protein Secondary Structure Prediction Using Parallelized Rule Induction from Coverings
Protein 3D structure prediction has always been an
important research area in bioinformatics. In particular, the
prediction of secondary structure has been a well-studied research
topic. Despite the recent breakthrough of combining multiple
sequence alignment information and artificial intelligence algorithms
to predict protein secondary structure, the Q3 accuracy of various
computational prediction algorithms rarely has exceeded 75%. In a
previous paper , this research team presented a rule-based method
called RT-RICO (Relaxed Threshold Rule Induction from Coverings)
to predict protein secondary structure. The average Q3 accuracy on
the sample datasets using RT-RICO was 80.3%, an improvement
over comparable computational methods. Although this demonstrated
that RT-RICO might be a promising approach for predicting
secondary structure, the algorithm-s computational complexity and
program running time limited its use. Herein a parallelized
implementation of a slightly modified RT-RICO approach is
presented. This new version of the algorithm facilitated the testing of
a much larger dataset of 396 protein domains . Parallelized RTRICO
achieved a Q3 score of 74.6%, which is higher than the
consensus prediction accuracy of 72.9% that was achieved for the
same test dataset by a combination of four secondary structure
prediction methods .
Real-time Target Tracking Using a Pan and Tilt Platform
In recent years, we see an increase of interest for efficient tracking systems in surveillance applications. Many of the proposed techniques are designed for static cameras environments. When the camera is moving, tracking moving objects become more difficult and many techniques fail to detect and track the desired targets. The problem becomes more complex when we want to track a specific object in real-time using a moving Pan and Tilt camera system to keep the target within the image. This type of tracking is of high importance in surveillance applications. When a target is detected at a certain zone, the possibility of automatically tracking it continuously and keeping it within the image until action is taken is very important for security personnel working in very sensitive sites. This work presents a real-time tracking system permitting the detection and continuous tracking of targets using a Pan and Tilt camera platform. A novel and efficient approach for dealing with occlusions is presented. Also a new intelligent forget factor is introduced in order to take into account target shape variations and avoid learning non desired objects. Tests conducted in outdoor operational scenarios show the efficiency and robustness of the proposed approach.
Face Detection using Variance based Haar-Like feature and SVM
This paper proposes a new approach to perform the
problem of real-time face detection. The proposed method combines
primitive Haar-Like feature and variance value to construct a new
feature, so-called Variance based Haar-Like feature. Face in image
can be represented with a small quantity of features using this
new feature. We used SVM instead of AdaBoost for training and
classification. We made a database containing 5,000 face samples
and 10,000 non-face samples extracted from real images for learning
purposed. The 5,000 face samples contain many images which have
many differences of light conditions. And experiments showed that
face detection system using Variance based Haar-Like feature and
SVM can be much more efficient than face detection system using
primitive Haar-Like feature and AdaBoost. We tested our method on
two Face databases and one Non-Face database. We have obtained
96.17% of correct detection rate on YaleB face database, which is
higher 4.21% than that of using primitive Haar-Like feature and
View-Point Insensitive Human Pose Recognition using Neural Network and CUDA
Although lots of research work has been done for
human pose recognition, the view-point of cameras is still critical
problem of overall recognition system. In this paper, view-point
insensitive human pose recognition is proposed. The aims of the
proposed system are view-point insensitivity and real-time processing.
Recognition system consists of feature extraction module, neural
network and real-time feed forward calculation. First, histogram-based
method is used to extract feature from silhouette image and it is
suitable for represent the shape of human pose. To reduce the
dimension of feature vector, Principle Component Analysis(PCA) is
used. Second, real-time processing is implemented by using Compute
Unified Device Architecture(CUDA) and this architecture improves
the speed of feed-forward calculation of neural network. We
demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach with experiments on
Verification of Protocol Design using UML - SMV
In recent past, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) has become the de facto industry standard for object-oriented modeling of the software systems. The syntax and semantics rich UML has encouraged industry to develop several supporting tools including those capable of generating deployable product (code) from the UML models. As a consequence, ensuring the correctness of the model/design has become challenging and extremely important task. In this paper, we present an approach for automatic verification of protocol model/design. As a case study, Session Initiation Protocol (SIP) design is verified for the property, “the CALLER will not converse with the CALLEE before the connection is established between them ". The SIP is modeled using UML statechart diagrams and the desired properties are expressed in temporal logic. Our prototype verifier “UML-SMV" is used to carry out the verification. We subjected an erroneous SIP model to the UML-SMV, the verifier could successfully detect the error (in 76.26ms) and generate the error trace.
A New Divide and Conquer Software Process Model
The software system goes through a number of stages
during its life and a software process model gives a standard format
for planning, organizing and running a project. The article presents a
new software development process model named as “Divide and
Conquer Process Model", based on the idea first it divides the things
to make them simple and then gathered them to get the whole work
done. The article begins with the backgrounds of different software
process models and problems in these models. This is followed by a
new divide and conquer process model, explanation of its different
stages and at the end edge over other models is shown.
Image Retrieval: Techniques, Challenge, and Trend
This paper attempts to discuss the evolution of the
retrieval techniques focusing on development, challenges and trends
of the image retrieval. It highlights both the already addressed and
outstanding issues. The explosive growth of image data leads to the
need of research and development of Image Retrieval. However,
Image retrieval researches are moving from keyword, to low level
features and to semantic features. Drive towards semantic features is
due to the problem of the keywords which can be very subjective and
time consuming while low level features cannot always describe high
level concepts in the users- mind.
Adaptive Network Intrusion Detection Learning: Attribute Selection and Classification
In this paper, a new learning approach for network
intrusion detection using naïve Bayesian classifier and ID3 algorithm
is presented, which identifies effective attributes from the training
dataset, calculates the conditional probabilities for the best attribute
values, and then correctly classifies all the examples of training and
testing dataset. Most of the current intrusion detection datasets are
dynamic, complex and contain large number of attributes. Some of
the attributes may be redundant or contribute little for detection
making. It has been successfully tested that significant attribute
selection is important to design a real world intrusion detection
systems (IDS). The purpose of this study is to identify effective
attributes from the training dataset to build a classifier for network
intrusion detection using data mining algorithms. The experimental
results on KDD99 benchmark intrusion detection dataset demonstrate
that this new approach achieves high classification rates and reduce
false positives using limited computational resources.
A Technique for Execution of Written Values on Shared Variables
The current paper conceptualizes the technique of
release consistency indispensable with the concept of
synchronization that is user-defined. Programming model concreted
with object and class is illustrated and demonstrated. The essence of
the paper is phases, events and parallel computing execution .The
technique by which the values are visible on shared variables is
implemented. The second part of the paper consist of user defined
high level synchronization primitives implementation and system
architecture with memory protocols. There is a proposition of
techniques which are core in deciding the validating and invalidating
a stall page .
A Hybrid Technology for a Multiagent Consultation System in Obesity Domain
In this paper, the authors present architecture of a multi agent consultation system for obesity related problems, which hybrid the technology of an expert system (ES) and an intelligent agent (IA). The strength of the ES which is capable of pulling the expert knowledge is consulted and presented to the end user via the autonomous and friendly pushing environment of the intelligent agent.
Software Reengineering Tool for Traffic Accident Data
In today-s hip hop world where everyone is running
short of time and works hap hazardly,the similar scene is common on
the roads while in traffic.To do away with the fatal consequences of
such speedy traffics on rushy lanes, a software to analyse and keep
account of the traffic and subsequent conjestion is being used in the
developed countries. This software has being implemented and used
with the help of a suppprt tool called Critical Analysis Reporting
Environment.There has been two existing versions of this tool.The
current research paper involves examining the issues and probles
while using these two practically. Further a hybrid architecture is
proposed for the same that retains the quality and performance of
both and is better in terms of coupling of components , maintainence
and many other features.
An Improvement of PDLZW implementation with a Modified WSC Updating Technique on FPGA
In this paper, an improvement of PDLZW implementation
with a new dictionary updating technique is proposed. A
unique dictionary is partitioned into hierarchical variable word-width
dictionaries. This allows us to search through dictionaries in parallel.
Moreover, the barrel shifter is adopted for loading a new input string
into the shift register in order to achieve a faster speed. However,
the original PDLZW uses a simple FIFO update strategy, which is
not efficient. Therefore, a new window based updating technique
is implemented to better classify the difference in how often each
particular address in the window is referred. The freezing policy
is applied to the address most often referred, which would not be
updated until all the other addresses in the window have the same
priority. This guarantees that the more often referred addresses would
not be updated until their time comes. This updating policy leads
to an improvement on the compression efficiency of the proposed
algorithm while still keep the architecture low complexity and easy
Achieving Fair Share Objectives via Goal-Oriented Parallel Computer Job Scheduling Policies
Fair share is one of the scheduling objectives supported on many production systems. However, fair share has been shown to cause performance problems for some users, especially the users with difficult jobs. This work is focusing on extending goaloriented parallel computer job scheduling policies to cover the fair share objective. Goal-oriented parallel computer job scheduling policies have been shown to achieve good scheduling performances when conflicting objectives are required. Goal-oriented policies achieve such good performance by using anytime combinatorial search techniques to find a good compromised schedule within a time limit. The experimental results show that the proposed goal-oriented parallel computer job scheduling policy (namely Tradeofffs( Tw:avgX)) achieves good scheduling performances and also provides good fair share performance.
ECA-SCTP: Enhanced Cooperative ACK for SCTP Path Recovery in Concurrent Multiple Transfer
Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) has been
proposed to provide reliable transport of real-time communications.
Due to its attractive features, such as multi-streaming and multihoming,
the SCTP is often expected to be an alternative protocol
for TCP and UDP. In the original SCTP standard, the secondary path
is mainly regarded as a redundancy. Recently, most of researches
have focused on extending the SCTP to enable a host to send its
packets to a destination over multiple paths simultaneously. In order
to transfer packets concurrently over the multiple paths, the SCTP
should be well designed to avoid unnecessary fast retransmission
and the mis-estimation of congestion window size through the paths.
Therefore, we propose an Enhanced Cooperative ACK SCTP (ECASCTP)
to improve the path recovery efficiency of multi-homed host
which is under concurrent multiple transfer mode. We evaluated the
performance of our proposed scheme using ns-2 simulation in terms
of cwnd variation, path recovery time, and goodput. Our scheme
provides better performance in lossy and path asymmetric networks.
Privacy Threats in RFID Group Proof Schemes
RFID tag is a small and inexpensive microchip which is
capable of transmitting unique identifier through wireless network in a
short distance. If a group of RFID tags can be scanned simultaneously
by one reader, RFID Group proof could be generated. Group proof can
be used in various applications, such as good management which is
usually achieved using barcode system. A lot of RFID group proof
schemes have been proposed by many researchers. In this paper, we
introduce some existing group proof schemes and then analyze their
vulnerabilities to the privacy. Moreover, we propose a new attack
model, which threats the privacy of user by tracking tags in a group.
Practical Method for Digital Music Matching Robust to Various Sound Qualities
In this paper, we propose a practical digital music matching system that is robust to variation in sound qualities. The proposed system is subdivided into two parts: client and server. The client part consists of the input, preprocessing and feature extraction modules. The preprocessing module, including the music onset module, revises the value gap occurring on the time axis between identical songs of different formats. The proposed method uses delta-grouped Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCCs) to extract music features that are robust to changes in sound quality. According to the number of sound quality formats (SQFs) used, a music server is constructed with a feature database (FD) that contains different sub feature databases (SFDs). When the proposed system receives a music file, the selection module selects an appropriate SFD from a feature database; the selected SFD is subsequently used by the matching module. In this study, we used 3,000 queries for matching experiments in three cases with different FDs. In each case, we used 1,000 queries constructed by mixing 8 SQFs and 125 songs. The success rate of music matching improved from 88.6% when using single a single SFD to 93.2% when using quadruple SFDs. By this experiment, we proved that the proposed method is robust to various sound qualities.
A Metric Framework for Analysis of Quality of Object Oriented Design
The impact of OO design on software quality
characteristics such as defect density and rework by mean of
experimental validation. Encapsulation, inheritance, polymorphism,
reusability, Data hiding and message-passing are the major attribute
of an Object Oriented system. In order to evaluate the quality of an
Object oriented system the above said attributes can act as indicators.
The metrics are the well known quantifiable approach to express any
attribute. Hence, in this paper we tried to formulate a framework of
metrics representing the attributes of object oriented system.
Empirical Data is collected from three different projects based on
object oriented paradigms to calculate the metrics.
An Enhanced Key Management Scheme Based on Key Infection in Wireless Sensor Networks
We propose an enhanced key management scheme
based on Key Infection, which is lightweight scheme for tiny sensors.
The basic scheme, Key Infection, is perfectly secure against node
capture and eavesdropping if initial communications after node
deployment is secure. If, however, an attacker can eavesdrop on
the initial communications, they can take the session key. We use
common neighbors for each node to generate the session key. Each
node has own secret key and shares it with its neighbor nodes. Then
each node can establish the session key using common neighbors-
secret keys and a random number. Our scheme needs only a few
communications even if it uses neighbor nodes- information. Without
losing the lightness of basic scheme, it improves the resistance against
eavesdropping on the initial communications more than 30%.
Integrating Context Priors into a Decision Tree Classification Scheme
Scene interpretation systems need to match (often ambiguous)
low-level input data to concepts from a high-level ontology.
In many domains, these decisions are uncertain and benefit greatly
from proper context. This paper demonstrates the use of decision
trees for estimating class probabilities for regions described by feature
vectors, and shows how context can be introduced in order to improve
the matching performance.
Research of Linear Camera Calibration Based on Planar Pattern
An important step in three-dimensional reconstruction
and computer vision is camera calibration, whose objective is to
estimate the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of each camera. In this
paper, two linear methods based on the different planes are given. In
both methods, the general plane is used to replace the calibration
object with very good precision. In the first method, after controlling
the camera to undergo five times- translation movements and taking
pictures of the orthogonal planes, a set of linear constraints of the
camera intrinsic parameters is then derived by means of homography
matrix. The second method is to get all camera parameters by taking
only one picture of a given radius circle. experiments on simulated
data and real images,indicate that our method is reasonable and is a
good supplement to camera calibration.
The Locker Problem with Empty Lockers
We consider a cooperative game played by n players against a referee. The players names are randomly distributed among n lockers, with one name per locker. Each player can open up to half the lockers and each player must find his name. Once the game starts the players may not communicate. It has been previously shown that, quite surprisingly, an optimal strategy exists for which the success probability is never worse than 1 − ln 2 ≈ 0.306. In this paper we consider an extension where the number of lockers is greater than the number of players, so that some lockers are empty. We show that the players may still win with positive probability even if there are a constant k number of empty lockers. We show that for each fixed probability p, there is a constant c so that the players can win with probability at least p if they are allowed to open cn lockers.
Analysis of Long-Term File System Activities on Cluster Systems
I/O workload is a critical and important factor to
analyze I/O pattern and to maximize file system performance.
However to measure I/O workload on running distributed parallel file
system is non-trivial due to collection overhead and large volume of
data. In this paper, we measured and analyzed file system activities on
two large-scale cluster systems which had TFlops level high
performance computation resources. By comparing file system
activities of 2009 with those of 2006, we analyzed the change of I/O
workloads by the development of system performance and high-speed
A Heuristics Approach for Fast Detecting Suspicious Money Laundering Cases in an Investment Bank
Today, money laundering (ML) poses a serious threat
not only to financial institutions but also to the nation. This criminal
activity is becoming more and more sophisticated and seems to have
moved from the cliché of drug trafficking to financing terrorism and
surely not forgetting personal gain. Most international financial
institutions have been implementing anti-money laundering solutions
(AML) to fight investment fraud. However, traditional investigative
techniques consume numerous man-hours. Recently, data mining
approaches have been developed and are considered as well-suited
techniques for detecting ML activities. Within the scope of a
collaboration project for the purpose of developing a new solution for
the AML Units in an international investment bank, we proposed a
data mining-based solution for AML. In this paper, we present a
heuristics approach to improve the performance for this solution. We
also show some preliminary results associated with this method on
analysing transaction datasets.
A New Traffic Pattern Matching for DDoS Traceback Using Independent Component Analysis
Recently, Denial of Service(DoS) attacks and Distributed DoS(DDoS) attacks which are stronger form of DoS attacks from plural hosts have become security threats on the Internet. It is important to identify the attack source and to block attack traffic as one of the measures against these attacks. In general, it is difficult to identify them because information about the attack source is falsified. Therefore a method of identifying the attack source by tracing the route of the attack traffic is necessary. A traceback method which uses traffic patterns, using changes in the number of packets over time as criteria for the attack traceback has been proposed. The traceback method using the traffic patterns can trace the attack by matching the shapes of input traffic patterns and the shape of output traffic pattern observed at a network branch point such as a router. The traffic pattern is a shapes of traffic and unfalsifiable information. The proposed trace methods proposed till date cannot obtain enough tracing accuracy, because they directly use traffic patterns which are influenced by non-attack traffics. In this paper, a new traffic pattern matching method using Independent Component Analysis(ICA) is proposed.
Bayesian Online Learning of Corresponding Points of Objects with Sequential Monte Carlo
This paper presents an online method that learns the
corresponding points of an object from un-annotated grayscale images
containing instances of the object. In the first image being
processed, an ensemble of node points is automatically selected
which is matched in the subsequent images. A Bayesian posterior
distribution for the locations of the nodes in the images is formed.
The likelihood is formed from Gabor responses and the prior assumes
the mean shape of the node ensemble to be similar in a translation
and scale free space. An association model is applied for separating
the object nodes and background nodes. The posterior distribution is
sampled with Sequential Monte Carlo method. The matched object
nodes are inferred to be the corresponding points of the object
instances. The results show that our system matches the object nodes
as accurately as other methods that train the model with annotated
Adaptive Fuzzy Control of Stewart Platform under Actuator Saturation
A novel adaptive fuzzy trajectory tracking algorithm of Stewart platform based motion platform is proposed to compensate path deviation and degradation of controller-s performance due to actuator torque limit. The algorithm can be divided into two parts: the real-time trajectory shaping part and the joint space adaptive fuzzy controller part. For a reference trajectory in task space whenever any of the actuators is saturated, the desired acceleration of the reference trajectory is modified on-line by using dynamic model of motion platform. Meanwhile an additional action with respect to the difference between the nominal and modified trajectories is utilized in the non-saturated region of actuators to reduce the path error. Using modified trajectory as input, the joint space controller incorporates compute torque controller, leg velocity observer and fuzzy disturbance observer with saturation compensation. It can ensure stability and tracking performance of controller in present of external disturbance and position only measurement. Simulation results verify the effectiveness of proposed control scheme.
Face Reconstruction and Camera Pose Using Multi-dimensional Descent
This paper aims to propose a novel, robust, and simple method for obtaining a human 3D face model and camera pose (position and orientation) from a video sequence. Given a video sequence of a face recorded from an off-the-shelf digital camera, feature points used to define facial parts are tracked using the Active- Appearance Model (AAM). Then, the face-s 3D structure and camera pose of each video frame can be simultaneously calculated from the obtained point correspondences. This proposed method is primarily based on the combined approaches of Gradient Descent and Powell-s Multidimensional Minimization. Using this proposed method, temporarily occluded point including the case of self-occlusion does not pose a problem. As long as the point correspondences displayed in the video sequence have enough parallax, these missing points can still be reconstructed.
Probabilistic Bayesian Framework for Infrared Face Recognition
Face recognition in the infrared spectrum has attracted a lot of interest in recent years. Many of the techniques used in infrared are based on their visible counterpart, especially linear techniques like PCA and LDA. In this work, we introduce a probabilistic Bayesian framework for face recognition in the infrared spectrum. In the infrared spectrum, variations can occur between face images of the same individual due to pose, metabolic, time changes, etc. Bayesian approaches permit to reduce intrapersonal variation, thus making them very interesting for infrared face recognition. This framework is compared with classical linear techniques. Non linear techniques we developed recently for infrared face recognition are also presented and compared to the Bayesian face recognition framework. A new approach for infrared face extraction based on SVM is introduced. Experimental results show that the Bayesian technique is promising and lead to interesting results in the infrared spectrum when a sufficient number of face images is used in an intrapersonal learning process.
Syntax Sensitive and Language Independent Detection of Code Clones
This paper proposes a new technique to detect code
clones from the lexical and syntactic point of view, which is based
on PALEX source code representation. The PALEX code contains
the recorded parsing actions and also lexical formatting information
including white spaces and comments. We can record a list of parsing
actions (shift, reduce, and reading a token) during a compiling process
after a compiler finishes analyzing the source code. The proposed
technique has advantages for syntax sensitive approach and language
Matching Facial Images using Age Related Morphing Changes
Each year many people are reported missing in most of the countries in the world owing to various reasons. Arrangements have to be made to find these people after some time. So the investigating agencies are compelled to make out these people by using manpower. But in many cases, the investigations carried out to find out an absconding for a long time may not be successful. At a time like that it may be difficult to identify these people by examining their old photographs, because their facial appearance might have changed mainly due to the natural aging process. On some occasions in forensic medicine if a dead body is found, investigations should be held to make sure that this corpse belongs to the same person disappeared some time ago. With the passage of time the face of the person might have changed and there should be a mechanism to reveal the person-s identity. In order to make this process easy, we must guess and decide as to how he will look like by now. To address this problem this paper presents a way of synthesizing a facial image with the aging effects.
A Genetic Algorithm Based Classification Approach for Finding Fault Prone Classes
Fault-proneness of a software module is the
probability that the module contains faults. A correlation exists
between the fault-proneness of the software and the measurable
attributes of the code (i.e. the static metrics) and of the testing (i.e.
the dynamic metrics). Early detection of fault-prone software
components enables verification experts to concentrate their time and
resources on the problem areas of the software system under
development. This paper introduces Genetic Algorithm based
software fault prediction models with Object-Oriented metrics. The
contribution of this paper is that it has used Metric values of JEdit
open source software for generation of the rules for the classification
of software modules in the categories of Faulty and non faulty
modules and thereafter empirically validation is performed. The
results shows that Genetic algorithm approach can be used for
finding the fault proneness in object oriented software components.
Video-based Face Recognition: A Survey
During the past several years, face recognition in video
has received significant attention. Not only the wide range of
commercial and law enforcement applications, but also the availability
of feasible technologies after several decades of research contributes
to the trend. Although current face recognition systems have reached a
certain level of maturity, their development is still limited by the
conditions brought about by many real applications. For example,
recognition images of video sequence acquired in an open
environment with changes in illumination and/or pose and/or facial
occlusion and/or low resolution of acquired image remains a largely
unsolved problem. In other words, current algorithms are yet to be
developed. This paper provides an up-to-date survey of video-based
face recognition research. To present a comprehensive survey, we
categorize existing video based recognition approaches and present
detailed descriptions of representative methods within each category.
In addition, relevant topics such as real time detection, real time
tracking for video, issues such as illumination, pose, 3D and low
resolution are covered.
Data Placement in Heterogeneous Storage of Short Videos
The overall service performance of I/O intensive
system depends mainly on workload on its storage system. In
heterogeneous storage environment where storage elements from
different vendors with different capacity and performance are put
together, workload should be distributed according to storage
capability. This paper addresses data placement issue in short video
sharing website. Workload contributed by a video is estimated by the
number of views and life time span of existing videos in same
category. Experiment was conducted on 42,000 video titles in six
weeks. Result showed that the proposed algorithm distributed
workload and maintained balance better than round robin and random
Implementation of an Improved Secure System Detection for E-passport by using EPC RFID Tags
Current proposals for E-passport or ID-Card is similar to a regular passport with the addition of tiny contactless integrated circuit (computer chip) inserted in the back cover, which will act as a secure storage device of the same data visually displayed on the photo page of the passport. In addition, it will include a digital photograph that will enable biometric comparison, through the use of facial recognition technology at international borders. Moreover, the e-passport will have a new interface, incorporating additional antifraud and security features. However, its problems are reliability, security and privacy. Privacy is a serious issue since there is no encryption between the readers and the E-passport. However, security issues such as authentication, data protection and control techniques cannot be embedded in one process. In this paper, design and prototype implementation of an improved E-passport reader is presented. The passport holder is authenticated online by using GSM network. The GSM network is the main interface between identification center and the e-passport reader. The communication data is protected between server and e-passport reader by using AES to encrypt data for protection will transferring through GSM network. Performance measurements indicate a 19% improvement in encryption cycles versus previously reported results.
Real Time Detection, Tracking and Recognition of Medication Intake
In this paper, the detection and tracking of face, mouth, hands and medication bottles in the context of medication intake monitoring with a camera is presented. This is aimed at recognizing medication intake for elderly in their home setting to avoid an inappropriate use. Background subtraction is used to isolate moving objects, and then, skin and bottle segmentations are done in the RGB normalized color space. We use a minimum displacement distance criterion to track skin color regions and the R/G ratio to detect the mouth. The color-labeled medication bottles are simply tracked based on the color space distance to their mean color vector. For the recognition of medication intake, we propose a three-level hierarchal approach, which uses activity-patterns to recognize the normal medication intake activity. The proposed method was tested with three persons, with different medication intake scenarios, and gave an overall precision of over 98%.