Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 49

Computer, Electrical, Automation, Control and Information Engineering

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  • 49
    Hiding Data in Images Using PCP
    In recent years, everything is trending toward digitalization and with the rapid development of the Internet technologies, digital media needs to be transmitted conveniently over the network. Attacks, misuse or unauthorized access of information is of great concern today which makes the protection of documents through digital media a priority problem. This urges us to devise new data hiding techniques to protect and secure the data of vital significance. In this respect, steganography often comes to the fore as a tool for hiding information. Steganography is a process that involves hiding a message in an appropriate carrier like image or audio. It is of Greek origin and means "covered or hidden writing". The goal of steganography is covert communication. Here the carrier can be sent to a receiver without any one except the authenticated receiver only knows existence of the information. Considerable amount of work has been carried out by different researchers on steganography. In this work the authors propose a novel Steganographic method for hiding information within the spatial domain of the gray scale image. The proposed approach works by selecting the embedding pixels using some mathematical function and then finds the 8 neighborhood of the each selected pixel and map each bit of the secret message in each of the neighbor pixel coordinate position in a specified manner. Before embedding a checking has been done to find out whether the selected pixel or its neighbor lies at the boundary of the image or not. This solution is independent of the nature of the data to be hidden and produces a stego image with minimum degradation.
    Genetic Algorithm Based Wavelength Division Multiplexing Networks Planning
    This paper presents a new heuristic algorithm useful for long-term planning of survivable WDM networks. A multi-period model is formulated that combines network topology design and capacity expansion. The ability to determine network expansion schedules of this type becomes increasingly important to the telecommunications industry and to its customers. The solution technique consists of a Genetic Algorithm that allows generating several network alternatives for each time period simultaneously and shortest-path techniques to deduce from these alternatives a least-cost network expansion plan over all time periods. The multi-period planning approach is illustrated on a realistic network example. Extensive simulations on a wide range of problem instances are carried out to assess the cost savings that can be expected by choosing a multi-period planning approach instead of an iterative network expansion design method.
    A Tool for Checking Conformance of UML Specification
    Unified Modeling Language (UML) is a standard language for modeling of a system. UML is used to visually specify the structure and behavior of a system. The system requirements are captured and then converted into UML specification. UML specification uses a set of rules and notations, and diagrams to specify the system requirements. In this paper, we present a tool for developing the UML specification. The tool will ease the use of the notations and diagrams for UML specification as well as increase the understanding and familiarity of the UML specification. The tool will also be able to check the conformance of the diagrams against each other for basic compliance of UML specification.
    Improving Quality of Business Networks for Information Systems
    Computer networks are essential part in computerbased information systems. The performance of these networks has a great influence on the whole information system. Measuring the usability criteria and customers satisfaction on small computer network is very important. In this article, an effective approach for measuring the usability of business network in an information system is introduced. The usability process for networking provides us with a flexible and a cost-effective way to assess the usability of a network and its products. In addition, the proposed approach can be used to certify network product usability late in the development cycle. Furthermore, it can be used to help in developing usable interfaces very early in the cycle and to give a way to measure, track, and improve usability. Moreover, a new approach for fast information processing over computer networks is presented. The entire data are collected together in a long vector and then tested as a one input pattern. Proposed fast time delay neural networks (FTDNNs) use cross correlation in the frequency domain between the tested data and the input weights of neural networks. It is proved mathematically and practically that the number of computation steps required for the presented time delay neural networks is less than that needed by conventional time delay neural networks (CTDNNs). Simulation results using MATLAB confirm the theoretical computations.
    Edge Detection in Digital Images Using Fuzzy Logic Technique
    The fuzzy technique is an operator introduced in order to simulate at a mathematical level the compensatory behavior in process of decision making or subjective evaluation. The following paper introduces such operators on hand of computer vision application. In this paper a novel method based on fuzzy logic reasoning strategy is proposed for edge detection in digital images without determining the threshold value. The proposed approach begins by segmenting the images into regions using floating 3x3 binary matrix. The edge pixels are mapped to a range of values distinct from each other. The robustness of the proposed method results for different captured images are compared to those obtained with the linear Sobel operator. It is gave a permanent effect in the lines smoothness and straightness for the straight lines and good roundness for the curved lines. In the same time the corners get sharper and can be defined easily.
    Comparison between Higher-Order SVD and Third-order Orthogonal Tensor Product Expansion
    In digital signal processing it is important to approximate multi-dimensional data by the method called rank reduction, in which we reduce the rank of multi-dimensional data from higher to lower. For 2-dimennsional data, singular value decomposition (SVD) is one of the most known rank reduction techniques. Additional, outer product expansion expanded from SVD was proposed and implemented for multi-dimensional data, which has been widely applied to image processing and pattern recognition. However, the multi-dimensional outer product expansion has behavior of great computation complex and has not orthogonally between the expansion terms. Therefore we have proposed an alterative method, Third-order Orthogonal Tensor Product Expansion short for 3-OTPE. 3-OTPE uses the power method instead of nonlinear optimization method for decreasing at computing time. At the same time the group of B. D. Lathauwer proposed Higher-Order SVD (HOSVD) that is also developed with SVD extensions for multi-dimensional data. 3-OTPE and HOSVD are similarly on the rank reduction of multi-dimensional data. Using these two methods we can obtain computation results respectively, some ones are the same while some ones are slight different. In this paper, we compare 3-OTPE to HOSVD in accuracy of calculation and computing time of resolution, and clarify the difference between these two methods.
    Minimizing Examinee Collusion with a Latin- Square Treatment Structure
    Cheating on standardized tests has been a major concern as it potentially minimizes measurement precision. One major way to reduce cheating by collusion is to administer multiple forms of a test. Even with this approach, potential collusion is still quite large. A Latin-square treatment structure for distributing multiple forms is proposed to further reduce the colluding potential. An index to measure the extent of colluding potential is also proposed. Finally, with a simple algorithm, the various Latin-squares were explored to find the best structure to keep the colluding potential to a minimum.
    Application of Biometrics to Obtain High Entropy Cryptographic Keys
    In this paper, a two factor scheme is proposed to generate cryptographic keys directly from biometric data, which unlike passwords, are strongly bound to the user. Hash value of the reference iris code is used as a cryptographic key and its length depends only on the hash function, being independent of any other parameter. The entropy of such keys is 94 bits, which is much higher than any other comparable system. The most important and distinct feature of this scheme is that it regenerates the reference iris code by providing a genuine iris sample and the correct user password. Since iris codes obtained from two images of the same eye are not exactly the same, error correcting codes (Hadamard code and Reed-Solomon code) are used to deal with the variability. The scheme proposed here can be used to provide keys for a cryptographic system and/or for user authentication. The performance of this system is evaluated on two publicly available databases for iris biometrics namely CBS and ICE databases. The operating point of the system (values of False Acceptance Rate (FAR) and False Rejection Rate (FRR)) can be set by properly selecting the error correction capacity (ts) of the Reed- Solomon codes, e.g., on the ICE database, at ts = 15, FAR is 0.096% and FRR is 0.76%.
    EAAC: Energy-Aware Admission Control Scheme for Ad Hoc Networks
    The decisions made by admission control algorithms are based on the availability of network resources viz. bandwidth, energy, memory buffers, etc., without degrading the Quality-of-Service (QoS) requirement of applications that are admitted. In this paper, we present an energy-aware admission control (EAAC) scheme which provides admission control for flows in an ad hoc network based on the knowledge of the present and future residual energy of the intermediate nodes along the routing path. The aim of EAAC is to quantify the energy that the new flow will consume so that it can be decided whether the future residual energy of the nodes along the routing path can satisfy the energy requirement. In other words, this energy-aware routing admits a new flow iff any node in the routing path does not run out of its energy during the transmission of packets. The future residual energy of a node is predicted using the Multi-layer Neural Network (MNN) model. Simulation results shows that the proposed scheme increases the network lifetime. Also the performance of the MNN model is presented.
    Real-time Performance Study of EPA Periodic Data Transmission

    EPA (Ethernet for Plant Automation) resolves the nondeterministic problem of standard Ethernet and accomplishes real-time communication by means of micro-segment topology and deterministic scheduling mechanism. This paper studies the real-time performance of EPA periodic data transmission from theoretical and experimental perspective. By analyzing information transmission characteristics and EPA deterministic scheduling mechanism, 5 indicators including delivery time, time synchronization accuracy, data-sending time offset accuracy, utilization percentage of configured timeslice and non-RTE bandwidth that can be used to specify the real-time performance of EPA periodic data transmission are presented and investigated. On this basis, the test principles and test methods of the indicators are respectively studied and some formulas for real-time performance of EPA system are derived. Furthermore, an experiment platform is developed to test the indicators of EPA periodic data transmission in a micro-segment. According to the analysis and the experiment, the methods to improve the real-time performance of EPA periodic data transmission including optimizing network structure, studying self-adaptive adjustment method of timeslice and providing data-sending time offset accuracy for configuration are proposed.

    A Weighted Sum Technique for the Joint Optimization of Performance and Power Consumption in Data Centers
    With data centers, end-users can realize the pervasiveness of services that will be one day the cornerstone of our lives. However, data centers are often classified as computing systems that consume the most amounts of power. To circumvent such a problem, we propose a self-adaptive weighted sum methodology that jointly optimizes the performance and power consumption of any given data center. Compared to traditional methodologies for multi-objective optimization problems, the proposed self-adaptive weighted sum technique does not rely on a systematical change of weights during the optimization procedure. The proposed technique is compared with the greedy and LR heuristics for large-scale problems, and the optimal solution for small-scale problems implemented in LINDO. the experimental results revealed that the proposed selfadaptive weighted sum technique outperforms both of the heuristics and projects a competitive performance compared to the optimal solution.
    Dynamic Coupling Metrics for Service – Oriented Software
    Service-oriented systems have become popular and presented many advantages in develop and maintain process. The coupling is the most important attribute of services when they are integrated into a system. In this paper, we propose a suite of metrics to evaluate service-s quality according to its ability of coupling. We use the coupling metrics to measure the maintainability, reliability, testability, and reusability of services. Our proposed metrics are operated in run-time which bring more exact results.
    An Efficient Algorithm for Reliability Lower Bound of Distributed Systems
    The reliability of distributed systems and computer networks have been modeled by a probabilistic network or a graph G. Computing the residual connectedness reliability (RCR), denoted by R(G), under the node fault model is very useful, but is an NP-hard problem. Since it may need exponential time of the network size to compute the exact value of R(G), it is important to calculate its tight approximate value, especially its lower bound, at a moderate calculation time. In this paper, we propose an efficient algorithm for reliability lower bound of distributed systems with unreliable nodes. We also applied our algorithm to several typical classes of networks to evaluate the lower bounds and show the effectiveness of our algorithm.
    A Bayesian Kernel for the Prediction of Protein- Protein Interactions
    Understanding proteins functions is a major goal in the post-genomic era. Proteins usually work in context of other proteins and rarely function alone. Therefore, it is highly relevant to study the interaction partners of a protein in order to understand its function. Machine learning techniques have been widely applied to predict protein-protein interactions. Kernel functions play an important role for a successful machine learning technique. Choosing the appropriate kernel function can lead to a better accuracy in a binary classifier such as the support vector machines. In this paper, we describe a Bayesian kernel for the support vector machine to predict protein-protein interactions. The use of Bayesian kernel can improve the classifier performance by incorporating the probability characteristic of the available experimental protein-protein interactions data that were compiled from different sources. In addition, the probabilistic output from the Bayesian kernel can assist biologists to conduct more research on the highly predicted interactions. The results show that the accuracy of the classifier has been improved using the Bayesian kernel compared to the standard SVM kernels. These results imply that protein-protein interaction can be predicted using Bayesian kernel with better accuracy compared to the standard SVM kernels.
    Modern Method for Solving Pure Integer Programming Models
    In this paper, all variables are supposed to be integer and positive. In this modern method, objective function is assumed to be maximized or minimized but constraints are always explained like less or equal to. In this method, choosing a dual combination of ideal nonequivalent and omitting one of variables. With continuing this act, finally, having one nonequivalent with (n-m+1) unknown quantities in which final nonequivalent, m is counter for constraints, n is counter for variables of decision.
    Performance Comparison of Particle Swarm Optimization with Traditional Clustering Algorithms used in Self-Organizing Map
    Self-organizing map (SOM) is a well known data reduction technique used in data mining. It can reveal structure in data sets through data visualization that is otherwise hard to detect from raw data alone. However, interpretation through visual inspection is prone to errors and can be very tedious. There are several techniques for the automatic detection of clusters of code vectors found by SOM, but they generally do not take into account the distribution of code vectors; this may lead to unsatisfactory clustering and poor definition of cluster boundaries, particularly where the density of data points is low. In this paper, we propose the use of an adaptive heuristic particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm for finding cluster boundaries directly from the code vectors obtained from SOM. The application of our method to several standard data sets demonstrates its feasibility. PSO algorithm utilizes a so-called U-matrix of SOM to determine cluster boundaries; the results of this novel automatic method compare very favorably to boundary detection through traditional algorithms namely k-means and hierarchical based approach which are normally used to interpret the output of SOM.
    A Reconfigurable Distributed Multiagent System Optimized for Scalability
    This paper proposes a novel solution for optimizing the size and communication overhead of a distributed multiagent system without compromising the performance. The proposed approach addresses the challenges of scalability especially when the multiagent system is large. A modified spectral clustering technique is used to partition a large network into logically related clusters. Agents are assigned to monitor dedicated clusters rather than monitor each device or node. The proposed scalable multiagent system is implemented using JADE (Java Agent Development Environment) for a large power system. The performance of the proposed topologyindependent decentralized multiagent system and the scalable multiagent system is compared by comprehensively simulating different fault scenarios. The time taken for reconfiguration, the overall computational complexity, and the communication overhead incurred are computed. The results of these simulations show that the proposed scalable multiagent system uses fewer agents efficiently, makes faster decisions to reconfigure when a fault occurs, and incurs significantly less communication overhead.
    Data Traffic Dynamics and Saturation on a Single Link
    The dynamics of User Datagram Protocol (UDP) traffic over Ethernet between two computers are analyzed using nonlinear dynamics which shows that there are two clear regimes in the data flow: free flow and saturated. The two most important variables affecting this are the packet size and packet flow rate. However, this transition is due to a transcritical bifurcation rather than phase transition in models such as in vehicle traffic or theorized large-scale computer network congestion. It is hoped this model will help lay the groundwork for further research on the dynamics of networks, especially computer networks.
    An Integrated Natural Language Processing Approach for Conversation System

    The main aim of this research is to investigate a novel technique for implementing a more natural and intelligent conversation system. Conversation systems are designed to converse like a human as much as their intelligent allows. Sometimes, we can think that they are the embodiment of Turing-s vision. It usually to return a predetermined answer in a predetermined order, but conversations abound with uncertainties of various kinds. This research will focus on an integrated natural language processing approach. This approach includes an integrated knowledge-base construction module, a conversation understanding and generator module, and a state manager module. We discuss effectiveness of this approach based on an experiment.

    A CTL Specification of Serializability for Transactions Accessing Uniform Data
    Existing work in temporal logic on representing the execution of infinitely many transactions, uses linear-time temporal logic (LTL) and only models two-step transactions. In this paper, we use the comparatively efficient branching-time computational tree logic CTL and extend the transaction model to a class of multistep transactions, by introducing distinguished propositional variables to represent the read and write steps of n multi-step transactions accessing m data items infinitely many times. We prove that the well known correspondence between acyclicity of conflict graphs and serializability for finite schedules, extends to infinite schedules. Furthermore, in the case of transactions accessing the same set of data items in (possibly) different orders, serializability corresponds to the absence of cycles of length two. This result is used to give an efficient encoding of the serializability condition into CTL.
    64 bit Computer Architectures for Space Applications – A study
    The more recent satellite projects/programs makes extensive usage of real – time embedded systems. 16 bit processors which meet the Mil-Std-1750 standard architecture have been used in on-board systems. Most of the Space Applications have been written in ADA. From a futuristic point of view, 32 bit/ 64 bit processors are needed in the area of spacecraft computing and therefore an effort is desirable in the study and survey of 64 bit architectures for space applications. This will also result in significant technology development in terms of VLSI and software tools for ADA (as the legacy code is in ADA). There are several basic requirements for a special processor for this purpose. They include Radiation Hardened (RadHard) devices, very low power dissipation, compatibility with existing operational systems, scalable architectures for higher computational needs, reliability, higher memory and I/O bandwidth, predictability, realtime operating system and manufacturability of such processors. Further on, these may include selection of FPGA devices, selection of EDA tool chains, design flow, partitioning of the design, pin count, performance evaluation, timing analysis etc. This project deals with a brief study of 32 and 64 bit processors readily available in the market and designing/ fabricating a 64 bit RISC processor named RISC MicroProcessor with added functionalities of an extended double precision floating point unit and a 32 bit signal processing unit acting as co-processors. In this paper, we emphasize the ease and importance of using Open Core (OpenSparc T1 Verilog RTL) and Open “Source" EDA tools such as Icarus to develop FPGA based prototypes quickly. Commercial tools such as Xilinx ISE for Synthesis are also used when appropriate.
    Mamdani Model based Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System and its Application
    Hybrid algorithm is the hot issue in Computational Intelligence (CI) study. From in-depth discussion on Simulation Mechanism Based (SMB) classification method and composite patterns, this paper presents the Mamdani model based Adaptive Neural Fuzzy Inference System (M-ANFIS) and weight updating formula in consideration with qualitative representation of inference consequent parts in fuzzy neural networks. M-ANFIS model adopts Mamdani fuzzy inference system which has advantages in consequent part. Experiment results of applying M-ANFIS to evaluate traffic Level of service show that M-ANFIS, as a new hybrid algorithm in computational intelligence, has great advantages in non-linear modeling, membership functions in consequent parts, scale of training data and amount of adjusted parameters.
    ILMI Approach for Robust Output Feedback Control of Induction Machine
    In this note, the robust static output feedback stabilisation of an induction machine is addressed. The machine is described by a non homogenous bilinear model with structural uncertainties, and the feedback gain is computed via an iterative LMI (ILMI) algorithm.
    Software Architecture and Support for Patient Tracking Systems in Critical Scenarios
    In this work a new platform for mobile-health systems is presented. System target application is providing decision support to rescue corps or military medical personnel in combat areas. Software architecture relies on a distributed client-server system that manages a wireless ad-hoc networks hierarchy in which several different types of client operate. Each client is characterized for different hardware and software requirements. Lower hierarchy levels rely in a network of completely custom devices that store clinical information and patient status and are designed to form an ad-hoc network operating in the 2.4 GHz ISM band and complying with the IEEE 802.15.4 standard (ZigBee). Medical personnel may interact with such devices, that are called MICs (Medical Information Carriers), by means of a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant) or a MDA (Medical Digital Assistant), and transmit the information stored in their local databases as well as issue a service request to the upper hierarchy levels by using IEEE 802.11 a/b/g standard (WiFi). The server acts as a repository that stores both medical evacuation forms and associated events (e.g., a teleconsulting request). All the actors participating in the diagnostic or evacuation process may access asynchronously to such repository and update its content or generate new events. The designed system pretends to optimise and improve information spreading and flow among all the system components with the aim of improving both diagnostic quality and evacuation process.
    Analysis and Research of Two-Level Scheduling Profile for Open Real-Time System

    In an open real-time system environment, the coexistence of different kinds of real-time and non real-time applications makes the system scheduling mechanism face new requirements and challenges. One two-level scheduling scheme of the open real-time systems is introduced, and points out that hard and soft real-time applications are scheduled non-distinctively as the same type real-time applications, the Quality of Service (QoS) cannot be guaranteed. It has two flaws: The first, it can not differentiate scheduling priorities of hard and soft real-time applications, that is to say, it neglects characteristic differences between hard real-time applications and soft ones, so it does not suit a more complex real-time environment. The second, the worst case execution time of soft real-time applications cannot be predicted exactly, so it is not worth while to cost much spending in order to assure all soft real-time applications not to miss their deadlines, and doing that may cause resource wasting. In order to solve this problem, a novel two-level real-time scheduling mechanism (including scheduling profile and scheduling algorithm) which adds the process of dealing with soft real-time applications is proposed. Finally, we verify real-time scheduling mechanism from two aspects of theory and experiment. The results indicate that our scheduling mechanism can achieve the following objectives. (1) It can reflect the difference of priority when scheduling hard and soft real-time applications. (2) It can ensure schedulability of hard real-time applications, that is, their rate of missing deadline is 0. (3) The overall rate of missing deadline of soft real-time applications can be less than 1. (4) The deadline of a non-real-time application is not set, whereas the scheduling algorithm that server 0 S uses can avoid the “starvation" of jobs and increase QOS. By doing that, our scheduling mechanism is more compatible with different types of applications and it will be applied more widely.

    Standard Deviation of Mean and Variance of Rows and Columns of Images for CBIR

    This paper describes a novel and effective approach to content-based image retrieval (CBIR) that represents each image in the database by a vector of feature values called “Standard deviation of mean vectors of color distribution of rows and columns of images for CBIR". In many areas of commerce, government, academia, and hospitals, large collections of digital images are being created. This paper describes the approach that uses contents as feature vector for retrieval of similar images. There are several classes of features that are used to specify queries: colour, texture, shape, spatial layout. Colour features are often easily obtained directly from the pixel intensities. In this paper feature extraction is done for the texture descriptor that is 'variance' and 'Variance of Variances'. First standard deviation of each row and column mean is calculated for R, G, and B planes. These six values are obtained for one image which acts as a feature vector. Secondly we calculate variance of the row and column of R, G and B planes of an image. Then six standard deviations of these variance sequences are calculated to form a feature vector of dimension six. We applied our approach to a database of 300 BMP images. We have determined the capability of automatic indexing by analyzing image content: color and texture as features and by applying a similarity measure Euclidean distance.

    Agreement Options in Multi-person Decision on Optimizing High-Rise Building Columns
    This paper presents a conceptual model of agreement options for negotiation support in multi-person decision on optimizing high-rise building columns. The decision is complicated since many parties involved in choosing a single alternative from a set of solutions. There are different concern caused by differing preferences, experiences, and background. Such building columns as alternatives are referred to as agreement options which are determined by identifying the possible decision maker group, followed by determining the optimal solution for each group. The group in this paper is based on three-decision makers preferences that are designer, programmer, and construction manager. Decision techniques applied to determine the relative value of the alternative solutions for performing the function. Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) was applied for decision process and game theory based agent system for coalition formation. An n-person cooperative game is represented by the set of all players. The proposed coalition formation model enables each agent to select individually its allies or coalition. It further emphasizes the importance of performance evaluation in the design process and value-based decision.
    Extraction of Data from Web Pages: A Vision Based Approach

    With the explosive growth of information sources available on the World Wide Web, it has become increasingly difficult to identify the relevant pieces of information, since web pages are often cluttered with irrelevant content like advertisements, navigation-panels, copyright notices etc., surrounding the main content of the web page. Hence, tools for the mining of data regions, data records and data items need to be developed in order to provide value-added services. Currently available automatic techniques to mine data regions from web pages are still unsatisfactory because of their poor performance and tag-dependence. In this paper a novel method to extract data items from the web pages automatically is proposed. It comprises of two steps: (1) Identification and Extraction of the data regions based on visual clues information. (2) Identification of data records and extraction of data items from a data region. For step1, a novel and more effective method is proposed based on visual clues, which finds the data regions formed by all types of tags using visual clues. For step2 a more effective method namely, Extraction of Data Items from web Pages (EDIP), is adopted to mine data items. The EDIP technique is a list-based approach in which the list is a linear data structure. The proposed technique is able to mine the non-contiguous data records and can correctly identify data regions, irrespective of the type of tag in which it is bound. Our experimental results show that the proposed technique performs better than the existing techniques.

    Impovement of a Label Extraction Method for a Risk Search System
    This paper proposes an improvement method of classification efficiency in a classification model. The model is used in a risk search system and extracts specific labels from articles posted at bulletin board sites. The system can analyze the important discussions composed of the articles. The improvement method introduces ensemble learning methods that use multiple classification models. Also, it introduces expressions related to the specific labels into generation of word vectors. The paper applies the improvement method to articles collected from three bulletin board sites selected by users and verifies the effectiveness of the improvement method.
    Analysis of Linked in Series Servers with Blocking, Priority Feedback Service and Threshold Policy
    The use of buffer thresholds, blocking and adequate service strategies are well-known techniques for computer networks traffic congestion control. This motivates the study of series queues with blocking, feedback (service under Head of Line (HoL) priority discipline) and finite capacity buffers with thresholds. In this paper, the external traffic is modelled using the Poisson process and the service times have been modelled using the exponential distribution. We consider a three-station network with two finite buffers, for which a set of thresholds (tm1 and tm2) is defined. This computer network behaves as follows. A task, which finishes its service at station B, gets sent back to station A for re-processing with probability o. When the number of tasks in the second buffer exceeds a threshold tm2 and the number of task in the first buffer is less than tm1, the fed back task is served under HoL priority discipline. In opposite case, for fed backed tasks, “no two priority services in succession" procedure (preventing a possible overflow in the first buffer) is applied. Using an open Markovian queuing schema with blocking, priority feedback service and thresholds, a closed form cost-effective analytical solution is obtained. The model of servers linked in series is very accurate. It is derived directly from a twodimensional state graph and a set of steady-state equations, followed by calculations of main measures of effectiveness. Consequently, efficient expressions of the low computational cost are determined. Based on numerical experiments and collected results we conclude that the proposed model with blocking, feedback and thresholds can provide accurate performance estimates of linked in series networks.
    Improved K-Modes for Categorical Clustering Using Weighted Dissimilarity Measure

    K-Modes is an extension of K-Means clustering algorithm, developed to cluster the categorical data, where the mean is replaced by the mode. The similarity measure proposed by Huang is the simple matching or mismatching measure. Weight of attribute values contribute much in clustering; thus in this paper we propose a new weighted dissimilarity measure for K-Modes, based on the ratio of frequency of attribute values in the cluster and in the data set. The new weighted measure is experimented with the data sets obtained from the UCI data repository. The results are compared with K-Modes and K-representative, which show that the new measure generates clusters with high purity.

    Towards an Automatic Translation of Colored Petri Nets to Maude Language
    Colored Petri Nets (CPN) are very known kind of high level Petri nets. With sound and complete semantics, rewriting logic is one of very powerful logics in description and verification of non-deterministic concurrent systems. Recently, CPN semantics are defined in terms of rewriting logic, allowing us to built models by formal reasoning. In this paper, we propose an automatic translation of CPN to the rewriting logic language Maude. This tool allows graphical editing and simulating CPN. The tool allows the user drawing a CPN graphically and automatic translating the graphical representation of the drawn CPN to Maude specification. Then, Maude language is used to perform the simulation of the resulted Maude specification. It is the first rewriting logic based environment for this category of Petri Nets.
    New Methods for E-Commerce Databases Designing in Semantic Web Systems (Modern Systems)
    The purpose of this paper is to study Database Models to use them efficiently in E-commerce websites. In this paper we are going to find a method which can save and retrieve information in Ecommerce websites. Thus, semantic web applications can work with, and we are also going to study different technologies of E-commerce databases and we know that one of the most important deficits in semantic web is the shortage of semantic data, since most of the information is still stored in relational databases, we present an approach to map legacy data stored in relational databases into the Semantic Web using virtually any modern RDF query language, as long as it is closed within RDF. To achieve this goal we study XML structures for relational data bases of old websites and eventually we will come up one level over XML and look for a map from relational model (RDM) to RDF. Noting that a large number of semantic webs get advantage of relational model, opening the ways which can be converted to XML and RDF in modern systems (semantic web) is important.
    Object-Oriented Cognitive-Spatial Complexity Measures
    Software maintenance and mainly software comprehension pose the largest costs in the software lifecycle. In order to assess the cost of software comprehension, various complexity measures have been proposed in the literature. This paper proposes new cognitive-spatial complexity measures, which combine the impact of spatial as well as architectural aspect of the software to compute the software complexity. The spatial aspect of the software complexity is taken into account using the lexical distances (in number of lines of code) between different program elements and the architectural aspect of the software complexity is taken into consideration using the cognitive weights of control structures present in control flow of the program. The proposed measures are evaluated using standard axiomatic frameworks and then, the proposed measures are compared with the corresponding existing cognitive complexity measures as well as the spatial complexity measures for object-oriented software. This study establishes that the proposed measures are better indicators of the cognitive effort required for software comprehension than the other existing complexity measures for object-oriented software.
    Visualization of Searching and Sorting Algorithms
    Sequences of execution of algorithms in an interactive manner using multimedia tools are employed in this paper. It helps to realize the concept of fundamentals of algorithms such as searching and sorting method in a simple manner. Visualization gains more attention than theoretical study and it is an easy way of learning process. We propose methods for finding runtime sequence of each algorithm in an interactive way and aims to overcome the drawbacks of the existing character systems. System illustrates each and every step clearly using text and animation. Comparisons of its time complexity have been carried out and results show that our approach provides better perceptive of algorithms.
    Unsupervised Feature Selection Using Feature Density Functions
    Since dealing with high dimensional data is computationally complex and sometimes even intractable, recently several feature reductions methods have been developed to reduce the dimensionality of the data in order to simplify the calculation analysis in various applications such as text categorization, signal processing, image retrieval, gene expressions and etc. Among feature reduction techniques, feature selection is one the most popular methods due to the preservation of the original features. In this paper, we propose a new unsupervised feature selection method which will remove redundant features from the original feature space by the use of probability density functions of various features. To show the effectiveness of the proposed method, popular feature selection methods have been implemented and compared. Experimental results on the several datasets derived from UCI repository database, illustrate the effectiveness of our proposed methods in comparison with the other compared methods in terms of both classification accuracy and the number of selected features.
    Categorical Data Modeling: Logistic Regression Software

    A Matlab based software for logistic regression is developed to enhance the process of teaching quantitative topics and assist researchers with analyzing wide area of applications where categorical data is involved. The software offers an option of performing stepwise logistic regression to select the most significant predictors. The software includes a feature to detect influential observations in data, and investigates the effect of dropping or misclassifying an observation on a predictor variable. The input data may consist either as a set of individual responses (yes/no) with the predictor variables or as grouped records summarizing various categories for each unique set of predictor variables' values. Graphical displays are used to output various statistical results and to assess the goodness of fit of the logistic regression model. The software recognizes possible convergence constraints when present in data, and the user is notified accordingly.

    GeoSEMA: A Modelling Platform, Emerging “GeoSpatial-based Evolutionary and Mobile Agents“
    Spatial and mobile computing evolves. This paper describes a smart modeling platform called “GeoSEMA". This approach tends to model multidimensional GeoSpatial Evolutionary and Mobile Agents. Instead of 3D and location-based issues, there are some other dimensions that may characterize spatial agents, e.g. discrete-continuous time, agent behaviors. GeoSEMA is seen as a devoted design pattern motivating temporal geographic-based applications; it is a firm foundation for multipurpose and multidimensional special-based applications. It deals with multipurpose smart objects (buildings, shapes, missiles, etc.) by stimulating geospatial agents. Formally, GeoSEMA refers to geospatial, spatio-evolutive and mobile space constituents where a conceptual geospatial space model is given in this paper. In addition to modeling and categorizing geospatial agents, the model incorporates the concept of inter-agents event-based protocols. Finally, a rapid software-architecture prototyping GeoSEMA platform is also given. It will be implemented/ validated in the next phase of our work.
    PI Control for Second Order Delay System with Tuning Parameter Optimization
    In this paper, we consider the control of time delay system by Proportional-Integral (PI) controller. By Using the Hermite- Biehler theorem, which is applicable to quasi-polynomials, we seek a stability region of the controller for first order delay systems. The essence of this work resides in the extension of this approach to second order delay system, in the determination of its stability region and the computation of the PI optimum parameters. We have used the genetic algorithms to lead the complexity of the optimization problem.
    Optimizing Dialogue Strategy Learning Using Learning Automata
    Modeling the behavior of the dialogue management in the design of a spoken dialogue system using statistical methodologies is currently a growing research area. This paper presents a work on developing an adaptive learning approach to optimize dialogue strategy. At the core of our system is a method formalizing dialogue management as a sequential decision making under uncertainty whose underlying probabilistic structure has a Markov Chain. Researchers have mostly focused on model-free algorithms for automating the design of dialogue management using machine learning techniques such as reinforcement learning. But in model-free algorithms there exist a dilemma in engaging the type of exploration versus exploitation. Hence we present a model-based online policy learning algorithm using interconnected learning automata for optimizing dialogue strategy. The proposed algorithm is capable of deriving an optimal policy that prescribes what action should be taken in various states of conversation so as to maximize the expected total reward to attain the goal and incorporates good exploration and exploitation in its updates to improve the naturalness of humancomputer interaction. We test the proposed approach using the most sophisticated evaluation framework PARADISE for accessing to the railway information system.
    An Efficient Algorithm for Delay Delay-variation Bounded Least Cost Multicast Routing
    Many multimedia communication applications require a source to transmit messages to multiple destinations subject to quality of service (QoS) delay constraint. To support delay constrained multicast communications, computer networks need to guarantee an upper bound end-to-end delay from the source node to each of the destination nodes. This is known as multicast delay problem. On the other hand, if the same message fails to arrive at each destination node at the same time, there may arise inconsistency and unfairness problem among users. This is related to multicast delayvariation problem. The problem to find a minimum cost multicast tree with delay and delay-variation constraints has been proven to be NP-Complete. In this paper, we propose an efficient heuristic algorithm, namely, Economic Delay and Delay-Variation Bounded Multicast (EDVBM) algorithm, based on a novel heuristic function, to construct an economic delay and delay-variation bounded multicast tree. A noteworthy feature of this algorithm is that it has very high probability of finding the optimal solution in polynomial time with low computational complexity.
    Computation of Probability Coefficients using Binary Decision Diagram and their Application in Test Vector Generation
    This paper deals with efficient computation of probability coefficients which offers computational simplicity as compared to spectral coefficients. It eliminates the need of inner product evaluations in determination of signature of a combinational circuit realizing given Boolean function. The method for computation of probability coefficients using transform matrix, fast transform method and using BDD is given. Theoretical relations for achievable computational advantage in terms of required additions in computing all 2n probability coefficients of n variable function have been developed. It is shown that for n ≥ 5, only 50% additions are needed to compute all probability coefficients as compared to spectral coefficients. The fault detection techniques based on spectral signature can be used with probability signature also to offer computational advantage.
    A Novel Steganographic Method for Gray-Level Images
    In this work we propose a novel Steganographic method for hiding information within the spatial domain of the gray scale image. The proposed approach works by dividing the cover into blocks of equal sizes and then embeds the message in the edge of the block depending on the number of ones in left four bits of the pixel. The proposed approach is tested on a database consists of 100 different images. Experimental results, compared with other methods, showed that the proposed approach hide more large information and gave a good visual quality stego-image that can be seen by human eyes.
    A Technique for Reachability Graph Generation for the Petri Net Models of Parallel Processes
    Reachability graph (RG) generation suffers from the problem of exponential space and time complexity. To alleviate the more critical problem of time complexity, this paper presents the new approach for RG generation for the Petri net (PN) models of parallel processes. Independent RGs for each parallel process in the PN structure are generated in parallel and cross-product of these RGs turns into the exhaustive state space from which the RG of given parallel system is determined. The complexity analysis of the presented algorithm illuminates significant decrease in the time complexity cost of RG generation. The proposed technique is applicable to parallel programs having multiple threads with the synchronization problem.
    Optimal Document Archiving and Fast Information Retrieval
    In this paper, an intelligent algorithm for optimal document archiving is presented. It is kown that electronic archives are very important for information system management. Minimizing the size of the stored data in electronic archive is a main issue to reduce the physical storage area. Here, the effect of different types of Arabic fonts on electronic archives size is discussed. Simulation results show that PDF is the best file format for storage of the Arabic documents in electronic archive. Furthermore, fast information detection in a given PDF file is introduced. Such approach uses fast neural networks (FNNs) implemented in the frequency domain. The operation of these networks relies on performing cross correlation in the frequency domain rather than spatial one. It is proved mathematically and practically that the number of computation steps required for the presented FNNs is less than that needed by conventional neural networks (CNNs). Simulation results using MATLAB confirm the theoretical computations.
    An Empirical Analysis of Arabic WebPages Classification using Fuzzy Operators
    In this study, a fuzzy similarity approach for Arabic web pages classification is presented. The approach uses a fuzzy term-category relation by manipulating membership degree for the training data and the degree value for a test web page. Six measures are used and compared in this study. These measures include: Einstein, Algebraic, Hamacher, MinMax, Special case fuzzy and Bounded Difference approaches. These measures are applied and compared using 50 different Arabic web pages. Einstein measure was gave best performance among the other measures. An analysis of these measures and concluding remarks are drawn in this study.
    Secure Data Aggregation Using Clusters in Sensor Networks
    Wireless sensor network can be applied to both abominable and military environments. A primary goal in the design of wireless sensor networks is lifetime maximization, constrained by the energy capacity of batteries. One well-known method to reduce energy consumption in such networks is data aggregation. Providing efcient data aggregation while preserving data privacy is a challenging problem in wireless sensor networks research. In this paper, we present privacy-preserving data aggregation scheme for additive aggregation functions. The Cluster-based Private Data Aggregation (CPDA)leverages clustering protocol and algebraic properties of polynomials. It has the advantage of incurring less communication overhead. The goal of our work is to bridge the gap between collaborative data collection by wireless sensor networks and data privacy. We present simulation results of our schemes and compare their performance to a typical data aggregation scheme TAG, where no data privacy protection is provided. Results show the efficacy and efficiency of our schemes.
    Coerced Delay and Multi Additive Constraints QoS Routing Schemes
    IP networks are evolving from data communication infrastructure into many real-time applications such as video conferencing, IP telephony and require stringent Quality of Service (QoS) requirements. A rudimentary issue in QoS routing is to find a path between a source-destination pair that satisfies two or more endto- end constraints and termed to be NP hard or complete. In this context, we present an algorithm Multi Constraint Path Problem Version 3 (MCPv3), where all constraints are approximated and return a feasible path in much quicker time. We present another algorithm namely Delay Coerced Multi Constrained Routing (DCMCR) where coerce one constraint and approximate the remaining constraints. Our algorithm returns a feasible path, if exists, in polynomial time between a source-destination pair whose first weight satisfied by the first constraint and every other weight is bounded by remaining constraints by a predefined approximation factor (a). We present our experimental results with different topologies and network conditions.
    Pattern Recognition of Biological Signals
    This paper presents an evolutionary method for designing electronic circuits and numerical methods associated with monitoring systems. The instruments described here have been used in studies of weather and climate changes due to global warming, and also in medical patient supervision. Genetic Programming systems have been used both for designing circuits and sensors, and also for determining sensor parameters. The authors advance the thesis that the software side of such a system should be written in computer languages with a strong mathematical and logic background in order to prevent software obsolescence, and achieve program correctness.