Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 34

Computer, Electrical, Automation, Control and Information Engineering

  • 2017
  • 2016
  • 2015
  • 2014
  • 2013
  • 2012
  • 2011
  • 2010
  • 2009
  • 2008
  • 2007
  • 34
    Web Service Providing Using Web Service Transformation
    In order to provide existing SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol)-based Web services with users who are familiar with REST (REpresentational State Transfer)-style Web services, this paper proposes Web service providing method using Web service transformation. This enables SOAP-based service providers to define rules for mapping from RESTful Web services to SOAP-based ones. Using these mapping rules, HTTP request messages for RESTful services are converted automatically into SOAP-based service invocations. Web service providers need not develop duplicate RESTful services and they can avoid programming mediation modules per service. Furthermore, they need not equip mediation middleware like ESB (Enterprise Service Bus) only for the purpose of transformation of two different Web service styles.
    Design of Liquids Mixing Control System using Fuzzy Time Control Discrete Event Model for Industrial Applications
    This paper presents a time control liquids mixing system in the tanks as an application of fuzzy time control discrete model. The system is designed for a wide range of industrial applications. The simulation design of control system has three inputs: volume, viscosity, and selection of product, along with the three external control adjustments for the system calibration or to take over the control of the system autonomously in local or distributed environment. There are four controlling elements: rotatory motor, grinding motor, heating and cooling units, and valves selection, each with time frame limit. The system consists of three controlled variables measurement through its sensing mechanism for feed back control. This design also facilitates the liquids mixing system to grind certain materials in tanks and mix with fluids under required temperature controlled environment to achieve certain viscous level. Design of: fuzzifier, inference engine, rule base, deffuzifiers, and discrete event control system, is discussed. Time control fuzzy rules are formulated, applied and tested using MATLAB simulation for the system.
    Analysis of Sequence Moves in Successful Chess Openings Using Data Mining with Association Rules
    Chess is one of the indoor games, which improves the level of human confidence, concentration, planning skills and knowledge. The main objective of this paper is to help the chess players to improve their chess openings using data mining techniques. Budding Chess Players usually do practices by analyzing various existing openings. When they analyze and correlate thousands of openings it becomes tedious and complex for them. The work done in this paper is to analyze the best lines of Blackmar- Diemer Gambit(BDG) which opens with White D4... using data mining analysis. It is carried out on the collection of winning games by applying association rules. The first step of this analysis is assigning variables to each different sequence moves. In the second step, the sequence association rules were generated to calculate support and confidence factor which help us to find the best subsequence chess moves that may lead to winning position.
    Intelligent Dynamic Decision-making Model Using in Robot's Movement

    This work develops a novel intelligent “model of dynamic decision-making" usingcell assemblies network architecture in robot's movement. The “model of dynamic decision-making" simulates human decision-making, and follows commands to make the correct decisions. The cell assemblies approach consisting of fLIF neurons was used to implement tasks for finding targets and avoiding obstacles. Experimental results show that the cell assemblies approach of can be employed to efficiently complete finding targets and avoiding obstacles tasks and can simulate the human thinking and the mode of information transactions.

    A Comparative Analysis of Performance and QoS Issues in MANETs
    Mobile Ad hoc networks (MANETs) are collections of wireless mobile nodes dynamically reconfiguring and collectively forming a temporary network. These types of networks assume existence of no fixed infrastructure and are often useful in battle-field tactical operations or emergency search-and-rescue type of operations where fixed infrastructure is neither feasible nor practical. They also find use in ad hoc conferences, campus networks and commercial recreational applications carrying multimedia traffic. All of the above applications of MANETs require guaranteed levels of performance as experienced by the end-user. This paper focuses on key challenges in provisioning predetermined levels of such Quality of Service (QoS). It also identifies functional areas where QoS models are currently defined and used. Evolving functional areas where performance and QoS provisioning may be applied are also identified and some suggestions are provided for further research in this area. Although each of the above functional areas have been discussed separately in recent research studies, since these QoS functional areas are highly correlated and interdependent, a comprehensive and comparative analysis of these areas and their interrelationships is desired. In this paper we have attempted to provide such an overview.
    Using Genetic Programming to Evolve a Team of Data Classifiers
    The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the ability of a genetic programming (GP) algorithm to evolve a team of data classification models. The GP algorithm used in this work is “multigene" in nature, i.e. there are multiple tree structures (genes) that are used to represent team members. Each team member assigns a data sample to one of a fixed set of output classes. A majority vote, determined using the mode (highest occurrence) of classes predicted by the individual genes, is used to determine the final class prediction. The algorithm is tested on a binary classification problem. For the case study investigated, compact classification models are obtained with comparable accuracy to alternative approaches.
    Detecting Interactions between Behavioral Requirements with OWL and SWRL
    High quality requirements analysis is one of the most crucial activities to ensure the success of a software project, so that requirements verification for software system becomes more and more important in Requirements Engineering (RE) and it is one of the most helpful strategies for improving the quality of software system. Related works show that requirement elicitation and analysis can be facilitated by ontological approaches and semantic web technologies. In this paper, we proposed a hybrid method which aims to verify requirements with structural and formal semantics to detect interactions. The proposed method is twofold: one is for modeling requirements with the semantic web language OWL, to construct a semantic context; the other is a set of interaction detection rules which are derived from scenario-based analysis and represented with semantic web rule language (SWRL). SWRL based rules are working with rule engines like Jess to reason in semantic context for requirements thus to detect interactions. The benefits of the proposed method lie in three aspects: the method (i) provides systematic steps for modeling requirements with an ontological approach, (ii) offers synergy of requirements elicitation and domain engineering for knowledge sharing, and (3)the proposed rules can systematically assist in requirements interaction detection.
    Development Techniques of Multi-Agents Based Autonomous Railway Vehicles Control Systems
    This paper presents the development techniques for a complete autonomous design model of an advanced train control system and gives a new approach for the implementation of multi-agents based system. This research work proposes to develop a novel control system to enhance the efficiency of the vehicles under constraints of various conditions, and contributes in stability and controllability issues, considering relevant safety and operational requirements with command control communication and various sensors to avoid accidents. The approach of speed scheduling, management and control in local and distributed environment is given to fulfill the dire needs of modern trend and enhance the vehicles control systems in automation. These techniques suggest the state of the art microelectronic technology with accuracy and stability as forefront goals.
    Eye Location Based on Structure Feature for Driver Fatigue Monitoring
    One of the most important problems to solve is eye location for a driver fatigue monitoring system. This paper presents an efficient method to achieve fast and accurate eye location in grey level images obtained in the real-word driving conditions. The structure of eye region is used as a robust cue to find possible eye pairs. Candidates of eye pair at different scales are selected by finding regions which roughly match with the binary eye pair template. To obtain real one, all the eye pair candidates are then verified by using support vector machines. Finally, eyes are precisely located by using binary vertical projection and eye classifier in eye pair images. The proposed method is robust to deal with illumination changes, moderate rotations, glasses wearing and different eye states. Experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness.
    Multi-threshold Approach for License Plate Recognition System

    The objective of this paper is to propose an adaptive multi threshold for image segmentation precisely in object detection. Due to the different types of license plates being used, the requirement of an automatic LPR is rather different for each country. The proposed technique is applied on Malaysian LPR application. It is based on Multi Layer Perceptron trained by back propagation. The proposed adaptive threshold is introduced to find the optimum threshold values. The technique relies on the peak value from the graph of the number object versus specific range of threshold values. The proposed approach has improved the overall performance compared to current optimal threshold techniques. Further improvement on this method is in progress to accommodate real time system specification.

    A Study of Cooperative Co-evolutionary Genetic Algorithm for Solving Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem
    Flexible Job Shop Problem (FJSP) is an extension of classical Job Shop Problem (JSP). The FJSP extends the routing flexibility of the JSP, i.e assigning machine to an operation. Thus it makes it more difficult than the JSP. In this study, Cooperative Coevolutionary Genetic Algorithm (CCGA) is presented to solve the FJSP. Makespan (time needed to complete all jobs) is used as the performance evaluation for CCGA. In order to test performance and efficiency of our CCGA the benchmark problems are solved. Computational result shows that the proposed CCGA is comparable with other approaches.
    Privacy Issues in Pervasive Healthcare Monitoring System: A Review
    Privacy issues commonly discussed among researchers, practitioners, and end-users in pervasive healthcare. Pervasive healthcare systems are applications that can support patient-s need anytime and anywhere. However, pervasive healthcare raises privacy concerns since it can lead to situations where patients may not be aware that their private information is being shared and becomes vulnerable to threat. We have systematically analyzed the privacy issues and present a summary in tabular form to show the relationship among the issues. The six issues identified are medical information misuse, prescription leakage, medical information eavesdropping, social implications for the patient, patient difficulties in managing privacy settings, and lack of support in designing privacy-sensitive applications. We narrow down the issues and chose to focus on the issue of 'lack of support in designing privacysensitive applications' by proposing a privacy-sensitive architecture specifically designed for pervasive healthcare monitoring systems.
    Improving Fault Resilience and Reconstruction of Overlay Multicast Tree Using Leaving Time of Participants
    Network layer multicast, i.e. IP multicast, even after many years of research, development and standardization, is not deployed in large scale due to both technical (e.g. upgrading of routers) and political (e.g. policy making and negotiation) issues. Researchers looked for alternatives and proposed application/overlay multicast where multicast functions are handled by end hosts, not network layer routers. Member hosts wishing to receive multicast data form a multicast delivery tree. The intermediate hosts in the tree act as routers also, i.e. they forward data to the lower hosts in the tree. Unlike IP multicast, where a router cannot leave the tree until all members below it leave, in overlay multicast any member can leave the tree at any time thus disjoining the tree and disrupting the data dissemination. All the disrupted hosts have to rejoin the tree. This characteristic of the overlay multicast causes multicast tree unstable, data loss and rejoin overhead. In this paper, we propose that each node sets its leaving time from the tree and sends join request to a number of nodes in the tree. The nodes in the tree will reject the request if their leaving time is earlier than the requesting node otherwise they will accept the request. The node can join at one of the accepting nodes. This makes the tree more stable as the nodes will join the tree according to their leaving time, earliest leaving time node being at the leaf of the tree. Some intermediate nodes may not follow their leaving time and leave earlier than their leaving time thus disrupting the tree. For this, we propose a proactive recovery mechanism so that disrupted nodes can rejoin the tree at predetermined nodes immediately. We have shown by simulation that there is less overhead when joining the multicast tree and the recovery time of the disrupted nodes is much less than the previous works. Keywords
    A New Nonlinear PID Controller and its Parameter Design
    A new nonlinear PID controller and its stability analysis are presented in this paper. A nonlinear function is deduced from the similarities between the control effort and the electric-field effect of a capacitor. The conventional linear PID controller can be modified into a nonlinear one by this function. To analyze the stability of the nonlinear PID controlled system, an idea of energy equivalence is adapted to avoid the conservativeness which is usually arisen from some traditional theorems and Criterions. The energy equivalence is naturally related with the conceptions of Passivity and T-Passivity. As a result, an engineering guideline for the parameter design of the nonlinear PID controller is obtained. An inverted pendulum system is tested to verify the nonlinear PID control scheme.
    Nonlinear Model Predictive Control for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell System Based On Wiener Model

    In this paper, we consider Wiener nonlinear model for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC). The Wiener model of the SOFC consists of a linear dynamic block and a static output non-linearity followed by the block, in which linear part is approximated by state-space model and the nonlinear part is identified by a polynomial form. To control the SOFC system, we have to consider various view points such as operating conditions, another constraint conditions, change of load current and so on. A change of load current is the significant one of these for good performance of the SOFC system. In order to keep the constant stack terminal voltage by changing load current, the nonlinear model predictive control (MPC) is proposed in this paper. After primary control method is designed to guarantee the fuel utilization as a proper constant, a nonlinear model predictive control based on the Wiener model is developed to control the stack terminal voltage of the SOFC system. Simulation results verify the possibility of the proposed Wiener model and MPC method to control of SOFC system.

    Development of User Interface for Path Planning System for Bus Network and On-demand Bus Reservation System

    Route bus system is one of fundamental transportation device for aged people and students, and has an important role in every province. However, passengers decrease year by year, therefore the authors have developed the system called "Bus-Net" as a web application to sustain the public transport. But there are two problems in Bus-Net. One is the user interface that does not consider the variety of the device, and the other is the path planning system that dose not correspond to the on-demand bus. Then, Bus-Net was improved to be able to utilize the variety of the device, and a new function corresponding to the on-demand bus was developed.

    Classification of Fuzzy Petri Nets, and Their Applications

    Petri Net (PN) has proven to be effective graphical, mathematical, simulation, and control tool for Discrete Event Systems (DES). But, with the growth in the complexity of modern industrial, and communication systems, PN found themselves inadequate to address the problems of uncertainty, and imprecision in data. This gave rise to amalgamation of Fuzzy logic with Petri nets and a new tool emerged with the name of Fuzzy Petri Nets (FPN). Although there had been a lot of research done on FPN and a number of their applications have been anticipated, but their basic types and structure are still ambiguous. Therefore, in this research, an effort is made to categorize FPN according to their structure and algorithms Further, literature review of the applications of FPN in the light of their classifications has been done.

    Predicting Protein Interaction Sites Based on a New Integrated Radial Basis Functional Neural Network
    Interactions among proteins are the basis of various life events. So, it is important to recognize and research protein interaction sites. A control set that contains 149 protein molecules were used here. Then 10 features were extracted and 4 sample sets that contained 9 sliding windows were made according to features. These 4 sample sets were calculated by Radial Basis Functional neutral networks which were optimized by Particle Swarm Optimization respectively. Then 4 groups of results were obtained. Finally, these 4 groups of results were integrated by decision fusion (DF) and Genetic Algorithm based Selected Ensemble (GASEN). A better accuracy was got by DF and GASEN. So, the integrated methods were proved to be effective.
    A Simulation Software for DNA Computing Algorithms Implementation
    The capturing of gel electrophoresis image represents the output of a DNA computing algorithm. Before this image is being captured, DNA computing involves parallel overlap assembly (POA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) that is the main of this computing algorithm. However, the design of the DNA oligonucleotides to represent a problem is quite complicated and is prone to errors. In order to reduce these errors during the design stage before the actual in-vitro experiment is carried out; a simulation software capable of simulating the POA and PCR processes is developed. This simulation software capability is unlimited where problem of any size and complexity can be simulated, thus saving cost due to possible errors during the design process. Information regarding the DNA sequence during the computing process as well as the computing output can be extracted at the same time using the simulation software.
    Multirate Neural Control for AUV's Increased Situational Awareness during Diving Tasks Using Stochastic Model

    This paper focuses on a critical component of the situational awareness (SA), the neural control of depth flight of an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). Constant depth flight is a challenging but important task for AUVs to achieve high level of autonomy under adverse conditions. With the SA strategy, we proposed a multirate neural control of an AUV trajectory for a nontrivial mid-small size AUV “r2D4" stochastic model. This control system has been demonstrated and evaluated by simulation of diving maneuvers using software package Simulink. From the simulation results it can be seen that the chosen AUV model is stable in the presence of noises, and also can be concluded that the proposed research technique will be useful for fast SA of similar AUV systems in real-time search-and-rescue operations.

    Performance of QoS Parameters in MANET Application Traffics in Large Scale Scenarios
    A mobile Ad-hoc network consists of wireless nodes communicating without the need for a centralized administration. A user can move anytime in an ad hoc scenario and, as a result, such a network needs to have routing protocols which can adopt dynamically changing topology. To accomplish this, a number of ad hoc routing protocols have been proposed and implemented, which include DSR, OLSR and AODV. This paper presents a study on the QoS parameters for MANET application traffics in large-scale scenarios with 50 and 120 nodes. The application traffics analyzed in this study is File Transfer Protocol (FTP). In large scale networks (120 nodes) OLSR shows better performance and in smaller scale networks (50 nodes)AODV shows less packet drop rate and OLSR shows better throughput.
    Recurrent Radial Basis Function Network for Failure Time Series Prediction
    An adaptive software reliability prediction model using evolutionary connectionist approach based on Recurrent Radial Basis Function architecture is proposed. Based on the currently available software failure time data, Fuzzy Min-Max algorithm is used to globally optimize the number of the k Gaussian nodes. The corresponding optimized neural network architecture is iteratively and dynamically reconfigured in real-time as new actual failure time data arrives. The performance of our proposed approach has been tested using sixteen real-time software failure data. Numerical results show that our proposed approach is robust across different software projects, and has a better performance with respect to next-steppredictability compared to existing neural network model for failure time prediction.
    A Grid-based Neural Network Framework for Multimodal Biometrics
    Recent scientific investigations indicate that multimodal biometrics overcome the technical limitations of unimodal biometrics, making them ideally suited for everyday life applications that require a reliable authentication system. However, for a successful adoption of multimodal biometrics, such systems would require large heterogeneous datasets with complex multimodal fusion and privacy schemes spanning various distributed environments. From experimental investigations of current multimodal systems, this paper reports the various issues related to speed, error-recovery and privacy that impede the diffusion of such systems in real-life. This calls for a robust mechanism that caters to the desired real-time performance, robust fusion schemes, interoperability and adaptable privacy policies. The main objective of this paper is to present a framework that addresses the abovementioned issues by leveraging on the heterogeneous resource sharing capacities of Grid services and the efficient machine learning capabilities of artificial neural networks (ANN). Hence, this paper proposes a Grid-based neural network framework for adopting multimodal biometrics with the view of overcoming the barriers of performance, privacy and risk issues that are associated with shared heterogeneous multimodal data centres. The framework combines the concept of Grid services for reliable brokering and privacy policy management of shared biometric resources along with a momentum back propagation ANN (MBPANN) model of machine learning for efficient multimodal fusion and authentication schemes. Real-life applications would be able to adopt the proposed framework to cater to the varying business requirements and user privacies for a successful diffusion of multimodal biometrics in various day-to-day transactions.
    Relation between Significance of Attribute Set and Single Attribute

    In the research field of Rough Set, few papers concern the significance of attribute set. However, there is important relation between the significance of single attribute and that of attribute set, which should not be ignored. In this paper, we draw conclusions by case analysis that (1) the attribute set including single attributes with high significance is certainly significant, while, (2)the attribute set which consists of single attributes with low significance possibly has high significance. We validate the conclusions on discernibility matrix and the results demonstrate the contribution of our conclusions.

    A Study on Early Prediction of Fault Proneness in Software Modules using Genetic Algorithm
    Fault-proneness of a software module is the probability that the module contains faults. To predict faultproneness of modules different techniques have been proposed which includes statistical methods, machine learning techniques, neural network techniques and clustering techniques. The aim of proposed study is to explore whether metrics available in the early lifecycle (i.e. requirement metrics), metrics available in the late lifecycle (i.e. code metrics) and metrics available in the early lifecycle (i.e. requirement metrics) combined with metrics available in the late lifecycle (i.e. code metrics) can be used to identify fault prone modules using Genetic Algorithm technique. This approach has been tested with real time defect C Programming language datasets of NASA software projects. The results show that the fusion of requirement and code metric is the best prediction model for detecting the faults as compared with commonly used code based model.
    Applying Half-Circle Fuzzy Numbers to Control System: A Preliminary Study on Development of Intelligent System on Marine Environment and Engineering

    This study focuses on the development of triangular fuzzy numbers, the revising of triangular fuzzy numbers, and the constructing of a HCFN (half-circle fuzzy number) model which can be utilized to perform more plural operations. They are further transformed for trigonometric functions and polar coordinates. From half-circle fuzzy numbers we can conceive cylindrical fuzzy numbers, which work better in algebraic operations. An example of fuzzy control is given in a simulation to show the applicability of the proposed half-circle fuzzy numbers.

    Discrete Polynomial Moments and Savitzky-Golay Smoothing
    This paper presents unified theory for local (Savitzky- Golay) and global polynomial smoothing. The algebraic framework can represent any polynomial approximation and is seamless from low degree local, to high degree global approximations. The representation of the smoothing operator as a projection onto orthonormal basis functions enables the computation of: the covariance matrix for noise propagation through the filter; the noise gain and; the frequency response of the polynomial filters. A virtually perfect Gram polynomial basis is synthesized, whereby polynomials of degree d = 1000 can be synthesized without significant errors. The perfect basis ensures that the filters are strictly polynomial preserving. Given n points and a support length ls = 2m + 1 then the smoothing operator is strictly linear phase for the points xi, i = m+1. . . n-m. The method is demonstrated on geometric surfaces data lying on an invariant 2D lattice.
    A Quality Optimization Approach: An Application on Next Generation Networks
    The next generation wireless systems, especially the cognitive radio networks aim at utilizing network resources more efficiently. They share a wide range of available spectrum in an opportunistic manner. In this paper, we propose a quality management model for short-term sub-lease of unutilized spectrum bands to different service providers. We built our model on competitive secondary market architecture. To establish the necessary conditions for convergent behavior, we utilize techniques from game theory. Our proposed model is based on potential game approach that is suitable for systems with dynamic decision making. The Nash equilibrium point tells the spectrum holders the ideal price values where profit is maximized at the highest level of customer satisfaction. Our numerical results show that the price decisions of the network providers depend on the price and QoS of their own bands as well as the prices and QoS levels of their opponents- bands.
    OHASD: The First On-Line Arabic Sentence Database Handwritten on Tablet PC
    In this paper we present the first Arabic sentence dataset for on-line handwriting recognition written on tablet pc. The dataset is natural, simple and clear. Texts are sampled from daily newspapers. To collect naturally written handwriting, forms are dictated to writers. The current version of our dataset includes 154 paragraphs written by 48 writers. It contains more than 3800 words and more than 19,400 characters. Handwritten texts are mainly written by researchers from different research centers. In order to use this dataset in a recognition system word extraction is needed. In this paper a new word extraction technique based on the Arabic handwriting cursive nature is also presented. The technique is applied to this dataset and good results are obtained. The results can be considered as a bench mark for future research to be compared with.
    A K-Means Based Clustering Approach for Finding Faulty Modules in Open Source Software Systems
    Prediction of fault-prone modules provides one way to support software quality engineering. Clustering is used to determine the intrinsic grouping in a set of unlabeled data. Among various clustering techniques available in literature K-Means clustering approach is most widely being used. This paper introduces K-Means based Clustering approach for software finding the fault proneness of the Object-Oriented systems. The contribution of this paper is that it has used Metric values of JEdit open source software for generation of the rules for the categorization of software modules in the categories of Faulty and non faulty modules and thereafter empirically validation is performed. The results are measured in terms of accuracy of prediction, probability of Detection and Probability of False Alarms.
    Implementation of a Reed-Solomon Code as an ECC in Yet Another Flash File System
    Flash memory has become an important storage device in many embedded systems because of its high performance, low power consumption and shock resistance. Multi-level cell (MLC) is developed as an effective solution for reducing the cost and increasing the storage density in recent years. However, most of flash file system cannot handle the error correction sufficiently. To correct more errors for MLC, we implement Reed-Solomon (RS) code to YAFFS, what is widely used for flash-based file system. RS code has longer computing time but the correcting ability is much higher than that of Hamming code.
    A Proposed Hybrid Approach for Feature Selection in Text Document Categorization
    Text document categorization involves large amount of data or features. The high dimensionality of features is a troublesome and can affect the performance of the classification. Therefore, feature selection is strongly considered as one of the crucial part in text document categorization. Selecting the best features to represent documents can reduce the dimensionality of feature space hence increase the performance. There were many approaches has been implemented by various researchers to overcome this problem. This paper proposed a novel hybrid approach for feature selection in text document categorization based on Ant Colony Optimization (ACO) and Information Gain (IG). We also presented state-of-the-art algorithms by several other researchers.
    Development of User Interface for Multiple Devices Connecting Path Planning System for Bus Network
    Recently, web services to access from many type devices are often used. We have developed the shortest path planning system called "Bus-Net" in Tottori prefecture as a web application to sustain the public transport. And it used the same user interface for both devices. To support both devices, the interface cannot use JavaScript and so on. Thus, we developed the method that use individual user interface for each device type to improve its convenience. To be concrete, we defined formats of condition input to the path planning system and result output from it and separate the system into the request processing part and user interface parts that depend on device types. By this method, we have also developed special device for Bus-Net named "Intelligent-Bus-Stop".
    Face Localization Using Illumination-dependent Face Model for Visual Speech Recognition
    A robust still image face localization algorithm capable of operating in an unconstrained visual environment is proposed. First, construction of a robust skin classifier within a shifted HSV color space is described. Then various filtering operations are performed to better isolate face candidates and mitigate the effect of substantial non-skin regions. Finally, a novel Bhattacharyya-based face detection algorithm is used to compare candidate regions of interest with a unique illumination-dependent face model probability distribution function approximation. Experimental results show a 90% face detection success rate despite the demands of the visually noisy environment.