Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 28

Computer, Electrical, Automation, Control and Information Engineering

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  • 28
    Optimal Path Planning under Priori Information in Stochastic, Time-varying Networks
    A novel path planning approach is presented to solve optimal path in stochastic, time-varying networks under priori traffic information. Most existing studies make use of dynamic programming to find optimal path. However, those methods are proved to be unable to obtain global optimal value, moreover, how to design efficient algorithms is also another challenge. This paper employs a decision theoretic framework for defining optimal path: for a given source S and destination D in urban transit network, we seek an S - D path of lowest expected travel time where its link travel times are discrete random variables. To solve deficiency caused by the methods of dynamic programming, such as curse of dimensionality and violation of optimal principle, an integer programming model is built to realize assignment of discrete travel time variables to arcs. Simultaneously, pruning techniques are also applied to reduce computation complexity in the algorithm. The final experiments show the feasibility of the novel approach.
    Supporting QoS-aware Multicasting in Differentiated Service Networks
    A scalable QoS aware multicast deployment in DiffServ networks has become an important research dimension in recent years. Although multicasting and differentiated services are two complementary technologies, the integration of the two technologies is a non-trivial task due to architectural conflicts between them. A popular solution proposed is to extend the functionality of the DiffServ components to support multicasting. In this paper, we propose an algorithm to construct an efficient QoSdriven multicast tree, taking into account the available bandwidth per service class. We also present an efficient way to provision the limited available bandwidth for supporting heterogeneous users. The proposed mechanism is evaluated using simulated tests. The simulated result reveals that our algorithm can effectively minimize the bandwidth use and transmission cost
    Multiscale Analysis and Change Detection Based on a Contrario Approach
    Automatic methods of detecting changes through satellite imaging are the object of growing interest, especially beca²use of numerous applications linked to analysis of the Earth’s surface or the environment (monitoring vegetation, updating maps, risk management, etc...). This work implemented spatial analysis techniques by using images with different spatial and spectral resolutions on different dates. The work was based on the principle of control charts in order to set the upper and lower limits beyond which a change would be noted. Later, the a contrario approach was used. This was done by testing different thresholds for which the difference calculated between two pixels was significant. Finally, labeled images were considered, giving a particularly low difference which meant that the number of “false changes” could be estimated according to a given limit.
    Dynamic Attribute Dependencies in Relational Attribute Grammars
    Considering the theory of attribute grammars, we use logical formulas instead of traditional functional semantic rules. Following the decoration of a derivation tree, a suitable algorithm should maintain the consistency of the formulas together with the evaluation of the attributes. This may be a Prolog-like resolution, but this paper examines a somewhat different strategy, based on production specialization, local consistency and propagation: given a derivation tree, it is interactively decorated, i.e. incrementally checked and evaluated. The non-directed dependencies are dynamically directed during attribute evaluation.
    Statistical Models of Network Traffic
    Model-based approaches have been applied successfully to a wide range of tasks such as specification, simulation, testing, and diagnosis. But one bottleneck often prevents the introduction of these ideas: Manual modeling is a non-trivial, time-consuming task. Automatically deriving models by observing and analyzing running systems is one possible way to amend this bottleneck. To derive a model automatically, some a-priori knowledge about the model structure–i.e. about the system–must exist. Such a model formalism would be used as follows: (i) By observing the network traffic, a model of the long-term system behavior could be generated automatically, (ii) Test vectors can be generated from the model, (iii) While the system is running, the model could be used to diagnose non-normal system behavior. The main contribution of this paper is the introduction of a model formalism called 'probabilistic regression automaton' suitable for the tasks mentioned above.
    PZ: A Z-based Formalism for Modeling Probabilistic Behavior
    Probabilistic techniques in computer programs are becoming more and more widely used. Therefore, there is a big interest in the formal specification, verification, and development of probabilistic programs. In our work-in-progress project, we are attempting to make a constructive framework for developing probabilistic programs formally. The main contribution of this paper is to introduce an intermediate artifact of our work, a Z-based formalism called PZ, by which one can build set theoretical models of probabilistic programs. We propose to use a constructive set theory, called CZ set theory, to interpret the specifications written in PZ. Since CZ has an interpretation in Martin-L¨of-s theory of types, this idea enables us to derive probabilistic programs from correctness proofs of their PZ specifications.
    A Delay-Tolerant Distributed Query Processing Architecture for Mobile Environment
    The intermittent connectivity modifies the “always on" network assumption made by all the distributed query processing systems. In modern- day systems, the absence of network connectivity is considered as a fault. Since the last upload, it might not be feasible to transmit all the data accumulated right away over the available connection. It is possible that vital information may be delayed excessively when the less important information takes place of the vital information. Owing to the restricted and uneven bandwidth, it is vital that the mobile nodes make the most advantageous use of the connectivity when it arrives. Hence, in order to select the data that needs to be transmitted first, some sort of data prioritization is essential. A continuous query processing system for intermittently connected mobile networks that comprises of a delaytolerant continuous query processor distributed across the mobile hosts has been proposed in this paper. In addition, a mechanism for prioritizing query results has been designed that guarantees enhanced accuracy and reduced delay. It is illustrated that our architecture reduces the client power consumption, increases query efficiency by the extensive simulation results.
    Optimal Controllers with Actuator Saturation for Nonlinear Structures
    Since the actuator capacity is limited, in the real application of active control systems under sever earthquakes it is conceivable that the actuators saturate, hence the actuator saturation should be considered as a constraint in design of optimal controllers. In this paper optimal design of active controllers for nonlinear structures by considering actuator saturation, has been studied. The proposed method for designing optimal controllers is based on defining an optimization problem which the objective has been to minimize the maximum displacement of structure when a limited capacity for actuator has been used. To this end a single degree of freedom (SDF) structure with a bilinear hysteretic behavior has been simulated under a white noise ground acceleration of different amplitudes. Active tendon control mechanism, comprised of prestressed tendons and an actuator, and extended nonlinear Newmark method based instantaneous optimal control algorithm have been used. To achieve the best results, the weights corresponding to displacement, velocity, acceleration and control force in the performance index have been optimized by the Distributed Genetic Algorithm (DGA). Results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in considering actuator saturation. Also based on the numerical simulations it can be concluded that the actuator capacity and the average value of required control force are two important factors in designing nonlinear controllers which consider the actuator saturation.
    Fast Forecasting of Stock Market Prices by using New High Speed Time Delay Neural Networks
    Fast forecasting of stock market prices is very important for strategic planning. In this paper, a new approach for fast forecasting of stock market prices is presented. Such algorithm uses new high speed time delay neural networks (HSTDNNs). The operation of these networks relies on performing cross correlation in the frequency domain between the input data and the input weights of neural networks. It is proved mathematically and practically that the number of computation steps required for the presented HSTDNNs is less than that needed by traditional time delay neural networks (TTDNNs). Simulation results using MATLAB confirm the theoretical computations.
    Analysis of Classifications of Unsolicited Bulk Emails
    In recent times, the problem of Unsolicited Bulk Email (UBE) or commonly known as Spam Email, has increased at a tremendous growth rate. We present an analysis of survey based on classifications of UBE in various research works. There are many research instances for classification between spam and non-spam emails but very few research instances are available for classification of spam emails, per se. This paper does not intend to assert some UBE classification to be better than the others nor does it propose any new classification but it bemoans the lack of harmony on number and definition of categories proposed by different researchers. The paper also elaborates on factors like intent of spammer, content of UBE and ambiguity in different categories as proposed in related research works of classifications of UBE.
    Trust Managementfor Pervasive Computing Environments
    Trust is essential for further and wider acceptance of contemporary e-services. It was first addressed almost thirty years ago in Trusted Computer System Evaluation Criteria standard by the US DoD. But this and other proposed approaches of that period were actually solving security. Roughly some ten years ago, methodologies followed that addressed trust phenomenon at its core, and they were based on Bayesian statistics and its derivatives, while some approaches were based on game theory. However, trust is a manifestation of judgment and reasoning processes. It has to be dealt with in accordance with this fact and adequately supported in cyber environment. On the basis of the results in the field of psychology and our own findings, a methodology called qualitative algebra has been developed, which deals with so far overlooked elements of trust phenomenon. It complements existing methodologies and provides a basis for a practical technical solution that supports management of trust in contemporary computing environments. Such solution is also presented at the end of this paper.
    Context Generation with Image Based Sensors: An Interdisciplinary Enquiry on Technical and Social Issues and their Implications for System Design
    Image data holds a large amount of different context information. However, as of today, these resources remain largely untouched. It is thus the aim of this paper to present a basic technical framework which allows for a quick and easy exploitation of context information from image data especially by non-expert users. Furthermore, the proposed framework is discussed in detail concerning important social and ethical issues which demand special requirements in system design. Finally, a first sensor prototype is presented which meets the identified requirements. Additionally, necessary implications for the software and hardware design of the system are discussed, rendering a sensor system which could be regarded as a good, acceptable and justifiable technical and thereby enabling the extraction of context information from image data.
    A Hamiltonian Decomposition of 5-star

    Star graphs are Cayley graphs of symmetric groups of permutations, with transpositions as the generating sets. A star graph is a preferred interconnection network topology to a hypercube for its ability to connect a greater number of nodes with lower degree. However, an attractive property of the hypercube is that it has a Hamiltonian decomposition, i.e. its edges can be partitioned into disjoint Hamiltonian cycles, and therefore a simple routing can be found in the case of an edge failure. The existence of Hamiltonian cycles in Cayley graphs has been known for some time. So far, there are no published results on the much stronger condition of the existence of Hamiltonian decompositions. In this paper, we give a construction of a Hamiltonian decomposition of the star graph 5-star of degree 4, by defining an automorphism for 5-star and a Hamiltonian cycle which is edge-disjoint with its image under the automorphism.

    Watermarking Scheme for Color Images using Wavelet Transform based Texture Properties and Secret Sharing
    In this paper, a new secure watermarking scheme for color image is proposed. It splits the watermark into two shares using (2, 2)- threshold Visual Cryptography Scheme (V CS) with Adaptive Order Dithering technique and embeds one share into high textured subband of Luminance channel of the color image. The other share is used as the key and is available only with the super-user or the author of the image. In this scheme only the super-user can reveal the original watermark. The proposed scheme is dynamic in the sense that to maintain the perceptual similarity between the original and the watermarked image the selected subband coefficients are modified by varying the watermark scaling factor. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed scheme. Further, the proposed scheme is able to resist all common attacks even with strong amplitude.
    Performance Evaluation of Popular Hash Functions
    This paper describes the results of an extensive study and comparison of popular hash functions SHA-1, SHA-256, RIPEMD-160 and RIPEMD-320 with JERIM-320, a 320-bit hash function. The compression functions of hash functions like SHA-1 and SHA-256 are designed using serial successive iteration whereas those like RIPEMD-160 and RIPEMD-320 are designed using two parallel lines of message processing. JERIM-320 uses four parallel lines of message processing resulting in higher level of security than other hash functions at comparable speed and memory requirement. The performance evaluation of these methods has been done by using practical implementation and also by using step computation methods. JERIM-320 proves to be secure and ensures the integrity of messages at a higher degree. The focus of this work is to establish JERIM-320 as an alternative of the present day hash functions for the fast growing internet applications.
    Persian Printed Numeral Characters Recognition Using Geometrical Central Moments and Fuzzy Min-Max Neural Network
    In this paper, a new proposed system for Persian printed numeral characters recognition with emphasis on representation and recognition stages is introduced. For the first time, in Persian optical character recognition, geometrical central moments as character image descriptor and fuzzy min-max neural network for Persian numeral character recognition has been used. Set of different experiments on binary images of regular, translated, rotated and scaled Persian numeral characters has been done and variety of results has been presented. The best result was 99.16% correct recognition demonstrating geometrical central moments and fuzzy min-max neural network are adequate for Persian printed numeral character recognition.
    Interpreting the Out-of-Control Signals of Multivariate Control Charts Employing Neural Networks

    Multivariate quality control charts show some advantages to monitor several variables in comparison with the simultaneous use of univariate charts, nevertheless, there are some disadvantages. The main problem is how to interpret the out-ofcontrol signal of a multivariate chart. For example, in the case of control charts designed to monitor the mean vector, the chart signals showing that it must be accepted that there is a shift in the vector, but no indication is given about the variables that have produced this shift. The MEWMA quality control chart is a very powerful scheme to detect small shifts in the mean vector. There are no previous specific works about the interpretation of the out-of-control signal of this chart. In this paper neural networks are designed to interpret the out-of-control signal of the MEWMA chart, and the percentage of correct classifications is studied for different cases.

    Methods for Case Maintenance in Case-Based Reasoning
    Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) is one of machine learning algorithms for problem solving and learning that caught a lot of attention over the last few years. In general, CBR is composed of four main phases: retrieve the most similar case or cases, reuse the case to solve the problem, revise or adapt the proposed solution, and retain the learned cases before returning them to the case base for learning purpose. Unfortunately, in many cases, this retain process causes the uncontrolled case base growth. The problem affects competence and performance of CBR systems. This paper proposes competence-based maintenance method based on deletion policy strategy for CBR. There are three main steps in this method. Step 1, formulate problems. Step 2, determine coverage and reachability set based on coverage value. Step 3, reduce case base size. The results obtained show that this proposed method performs better than the existing methods currently discussed in literature.
    Mapping Knowledge Model Onto Java Codes
    This paper gives an overview of the mapping mechanism of SEAM-a methodology for the automatic generation of knowledge models and its mapping onto Java codes. It discusses the rules that will be used to map the different components in the knowledge model automatically onto Java classes, properties and methods. The aim of developing this mechanism is to help in the creation of a prototype which will be used to validate the knowledge model which has been generated automatically. It will also help to link the modeling phase with the implementation phase as existing knowledge engineering methodologies do not provide for proper guidelines for the transition from the knowledge modeling phase to development phase. This will decrease the development overheads associated to the development of Knowledge Based Systems.
    Automatic Feature Recognition for GPR Image Processing
    This paper presents an automatic feature recognition method based on center-surround difference detecting and fuzzy logic that can be applied in ground-penetrating radar (GPR) image processing. Adopted center-surround difference method, the salient local image regions are extracted from the GPR images as features of detected objects. And fuzzy logic strategy is used to match the detected features and features in template database. This way, the problem of objects detecting, which is the key problem in GPR image processing, can be converted into two steps, feature extracting and matching. The contributions of these skills make the system have the ability to deal with changes in scale, antenna and noises. The results of experiments also prove that the system has higher ratio of features sensing in using GPR to image the subsurface structures.
    A Hybrid Data Mining Method for the Medical Classification of Chest Pain
    Data mining techniques have been used in medical research for many years and have been known to be effective. In order to solve such problems as long-waiting time, congestion, and delayed patient care, faced by emergency departments, this study concentrates on building a hybrid methodology, combining data mining techniques such as association rules and classification trees. The methodology is applied to real-world emergency data collected from a hospital and is evaluated by comparing with other techniques. The methodology is expected to help physicians to make a faster and more accurate classification of chest pain diseases.
    MTSSM - A Framework for Multi-Track Segmentation of Symbolic Music
    Music segmentation is a key issue in music information retrieval (MIR) as it provides an insight into the internal structure of a composition. Structural information about a composition can improve several tasks related to MIR such as searching and browsing large music collections, visualizing musical structure, lyric alignment, and music summarization. The authors of this paper present the MTSSM framework, a twolayer framework for the multi-track segmentation of symbolic music. The strength of this framework lies in the combination of existing methods for local track segmentation and the application of global structure information spanning via multiple tracks. The first layer of the MTSSM uses various string matching techniques to detect the best candidate segmentations for each track of a multi-track composition independently. The second layer combines all single track results and determines the best segmentation for each track in respect to the global structure of the composition.
    Communication and Quality in Distributed Agile Development: An Empirical Case Study
    Through inward perceptions, we intuitively expect distributed software development to increase the risks associated with achieving cost, schedule, and quality goals. To compound this problem, agile software development (ASD) insists one of the main ingredients of its success is cohesive communication attributed to collocation of the development team. The following study identified the degree of communication richness needed to achieve comparable software quality (reduce pre-release defects) between distributed and collocated teams. This paper explores the relevancy of communication richness in various development phases and its impact on quality. Through examination of a large distributed agile development project, this investigation seeks to understand the levels of communication required within each ASD phase to produce comparable quality results achieved by collocated teams. Obviously, a multitude of factors affects the outcome of software projects. However, within distributed agile software development teams, the mode of communication is one of the critical components required to achieve team cohesiveness and effectiveness. As such, this study constructs a distributed agile communication model (DAC-M) for potential application to similar distributed agile development efforts using the measurement of the suitable level of communication. The results of the study show that less rich communication methods, in the appropriate phase, might be satisfactory to achieve equivalent quality in distributed ASD efforts.
    Optimal Combination for Modal Pushover Analysis by Using Genetic Algorithm
    In order to consider the effects of the higher modes in the pushover analysis, during the recent years several multi-modal pushover procedures have been presented. In these methods the response of the considered modes are combined by the square-rootof- sum-of-squares (SRSS) rule while application of the elastic modal combination rules in the inelastic phases is no longer valid. In this research the feasibility of defining an efficient alternative combination method is investigated. Two steel moment-frame buildings denoted SAC-9 and SAC-20 under ten earthquake records are considered. The nonlinear responses of the structures are estimated by the directed algebraic combination of the weighted responses of the separate modes. The weight of the each mode is defined so that the resulted response of the combination has a minimum error to the nonlinear time history analysis. The genetic algorithm (GA) is used to minimize the error and optimize the weight factors. The obtained optimal factors for each mode in different cases are compared together to find unique appropriate weight factors for each mode in all cases.
    The Effect of Response Feedback on Performance of Active Controlled Nonlinear Frames
    The effect of different combinations of response feedback on the performance of active control system on nonlinear frames has been studied in this paper. To this end different feedback combinations including displacement, velocity, acceleration and full response feedback have been utilized in controlling the response of an eight story bilinear hysteretic frame which has been subjected to a white noise excitation and controlled by eight actuators which could fully control the frame. For active control of nonlinear frame Newmark nonlinear instantaneous optimal control algorithm has been used which a diagonal matrix has been selected for weighting matrices in performance index. For optimal design of active control system while the objective has been to reduce the maximum drift to below the yielding level, Distributed Genetic Algorithm (DGA) has been used to determine the proper set of weighting matrices. The criteria to assess the effect of each combination of response feedback have been the minimum required control force to reduce the maximum drift to below the yielding drift. The results of numerical simulation show that the performance of active control system is dependent on the type of response feedback where the velocity feedback is more effective in designing optimal control system in comparison with displacement and acceleration feedback. Also using full feedback of response in controller design leads to minimum control force amongst other combinations. Also the distributed genetic algorithm shows acceptable convergence speed in solving the optimization problem of designing active control systems.
    Incremental Algorithm to Cluster the Categorical Data with Frequency Based Similarity Measure
    Clustering categorical data is more complicated than the numerical clustering because of its special properties. Scalability and memory constraint is the challenging problem in clustering large data set. This paper presents an incremental algorithm to cluster the categorical data. Frequencies of attribute values contribute much in clustering similar categorical objects. In this paper we propose new similarity measures based on the frequencies of attribute values and its cardinalities. The proposed measures and the algorithm are experimented with the data sets from UCI data repository. Results prove that the proposed method generates better clusters than the existing one.
    Autonomous Virtual Agent Navigation in Virtual Environments
    This paper presents a solution for the behavioural animation of autonomous virtual agent navigation in virtual environments. We focus on using Dempster-Shafer-s Theory of Evidence in developing visual sensor for virtual agent. The role of the visual sensor is to capture the information about the virtual environment or identifie which part of an obstacle can be seen from the position of the virtual agent. This information is require for vitual agent to coordinate navigation in virtual environment. The virual agent uses fuzzy controller as a navigation system and Fuzzy α - level for the action selection method. The result clearly demonstrates the path produced is reasonably smooth even though there is some sharp turn and also still not diverted too far from the potential shortest path. This had indicated the benefit of our method, where more reliable and accurate paths produced during navigation task.
    Impact of the Decoder Connection Schemes on Iterative Decoding of GPCB Codes

    In this paper we present a study of the impact of connection schemes on the performance of iterative decoding of Generalized Parallel Concatenated block (GPCB) constructed from one step majority logic decodable (OSMLD) codes and we propose a new connection scheme for decoding them. All iterative decoding connection schemes use a soft-input soft-output threshold decoding algorithm as a component decoder. Numerical result for GPCB codes transmitted over Additive White Gaussian Noise (AWGN) channel are provided. It will show that the proposed scheme is better than Hagenauer-s scheme and Lucas-s scheme [1] and slightly better than the Pyndiah-s scheme.