Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 16

Computer, Electrical, Automation, Control and Information Engineering

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  • 16
    701
    Vehicle Velocity Estimation for Traffic Surveillance System
    Abstract:

    This paper describes an algorithm to estimate realtime vehicle velocity using image processing technique from the known camera calibration parameters. The presented algorithm involves several main steps. First, the moving object is extracted by utilizing frame differencing technique. Second, the object tracking method is applied and the speed is estimated based on the displacement of the object-s centroid. Several assumptions are listed to simplify the transformation of 2D images from 3D real-world images. The results obtained from the experiment have been compared to the estimated ground truth. From this experiment, it exhibits that the proposed algorithm has achieved the velocity accuracy estimation of about ± 1.7 km/h.

    15
    710
    Mobile to Server Face Recognition: A System Overview
    Abstract:

    This paper presents a system overview of Mobile to Server Face Recognition, which is a face recognition application developed specifically for mobile phones. Images taken from mobile phone cameras lack of quality due to the low resolution of the cameras. Thus, a prototype is developed to experiment the chosen method. However, this paper shows a result of system backbone without the face recognition functionality. The result demonstrated in this paper indicates that the interaction between mobile phones and server is successfully working. The result shown before the database is completely ready. The system testing is currently going on using real images and a mock-up database to test the functionality of the face recognition algorithm used in this system. An overview of the whole system including screenshots and system flow-chart are presented in this paper. This paper also presents the inspiration or motivation and the justification in developing this system.

    14
    2566
    The Role of Contextual Ontologies in Enterprise Modeling
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    Information sharing and exchange, rather than information processing, is what characterizes information technology in the 21st century. Ontologies, as shared common understanding, gain increasing attention, as they appear as the most promising solution to enable information sharing both at a semantic level and in a machine-processable way. Domain Ontology-based modeling has been exploited to provide shareability and information exchange among diversified, heterogeneous applications of enterprises. Contextual ontologies are “an explicit specification of contextual conceptualization". That is: ontology is characterized by concepts that have multiple representations and they may exist in several contexts. Hence, contextual ontologies are a set of concepts and relationships, which are seen from different perspectives. Contextualization is to allow for ontologies to be partitioned according to their contexts. The need for contextual ontologies in enterprise modeling has become crucial due to the nature of today's competitive market. Information resources in enterprise is distributed and diversified and is in need to be shared and communicated locally through the intranet and globally though the internet. This paper discusses the roles that ontologies play in an enterprise modeling, and how ontologies assist in building a conceptual model in order to provide communicative and interoperable information systems. The issue of enterprise modeling based on contextual domain ontology is also investigated, and a framework is proposed for an enterprise model that consists of various applications.
    13
    4785
    Pattern Recognition as an Internalized Motor Programme
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    A new conceptual architecture for low-level neural pattern recognition is presented. The key ideas are that the brain implements support vector machines and that support vectors are represented as memory patterns in competitive queuing memories. A binary classifier is built from two competitive queuing memories holding positive and negative valence training examples respectively. The support vector machine classification function is calculated in synchronized evaluation cycles. The kernel is computed by bisymmetric feed-forward networks feed by sensory input and by competitive queuing memories traversing the complete sequence of support vectors. Temporary summation generates the output classification. It is speculated that perception apparatus in the brain reuses structures that have evolved for enabling fluent execution of prepared action sequences so that pattern recognition is built on internalized motor programmes.
    12
    5590
    Efficacy of Anti-phishing Measures and Strategies - A Research Analysis
    Abstract:

    Statistics indicate that more than 1000 phishing attacks are launched every month. With 57 million people hit by the fraud so far in America alone, how do we combat phishing?This publication aims to discuss strategies in the war against Phishing. This study is an examination of the analysis and critique found in the ways adopted at various levels to counter the crescendo of phishing attacks and new techniques being adopted for the same. An analysis of the measures taken up by the varied popular Mail servers and popular browsers is done under this study. This work intends to increase the understanding and awareness of the internet user across the globe and even discusses plausible countermeasures at the users as well as the developers end. This conceptual paper will contribute to future research on similar topics.

    11
    6223
    Fast Search Method for Large Video Database Using Histogram Features and Temporal Division
    Abstract:
    In this paper, we propose an improved fast search algorithm using combined histogram features and temporal division method for short MPEG video clips from large video database. There are two types of histogram features used to generate more robust features. The first one is based on the adjacent pixel intensity difference quantization (APIDQ) algorithm, which had been reliably applied to human face recognition previously. An APIDQ histogram is utilized as the feature vector of the frame image. Another one is ordinal feature which is robust to color distortion. Combined with active search [4], a temporal pruning algorithm, fast and robust video search can be realized. The proposed search algorithm has been evaluated by 6 hours of video to search for given 200 MPEG video clips which each length is 30 seconds. Experimental results show the proposed algorithm can detect the similar video clip in merely 120ms, and Equal Error Rate (ERR) of 1% is achieved, which is more accurately and robust than conventional fast video search algorithm.
    10
    6849
    Hierarchical Clustering Analysis with SOM Networks
    Abstract:
    This work presents a neural network model for the clustering analysis of data based on Self Organizing Maps (SOM). The model evolves during the training stage towards a hierarchical structure according to the input requirements. The hierarchical structure symbolizes a specialization tool that provides refinements of the classification process. The structure behaves like a single map with different resolutions depending on the region to analyze. The benefits and performance of the algorithm are discussed in application to the Iris dataset, a classical example for pattern recognition.
    9
    8317
    Enhanced-Delivery Overlay Multicasting Scheme by Optimizing Bandwidth and Latency Discrepancy Ratios
    Abstract:

    With optimized bandwidth and latency discrepancy ratios, Node Gain Scores (NGSs) are determined and used as a basis for shaping the max-heap overlay. The NGSs - determined as the respective bandwidth-latency-products - govern the construction of max-heap-form overlays. Each NGS is earned as a synergy of discrepancy ratio of the bandwidth requested with respect to the estimated available bandwidth, and latency discrepancy ratio between the nodes and the source node. The tree leads to enhanceddelivery overlay multicasting – increasing packet delivery which could, otherwise, be hindered by induced packet loss occurring in other schemes not considering the synergy of these parameters on placing the nodes on the overlays. The NGS is a function of four main parameters – estimated available bandwidth, Ba; individual node's requested bandwidth, Br; proposed node latency to its prospective parent (Lp); and suggested best latency as advised by source node (Lb). Bandwidth discrepancy ratio (BDR) and latency discrepancy ratio (LDR) carry weights of α and (1,000 - α ) , respectively, with arbitrary chosen α ranging between 0 and 1,000 to ensure that the NGS values, used as node IDs, maintain a good possibility of uniqueness and balance between the most critical factor between the BDR and the LDR. A max-heap-form tree is constructed with assumption that all nodes possess NGS less than the source node. To maintain a sense of load balance, children of each level's siblings are evenly distributed such that a node can not accept a second child, and so on, until all its siblings able to do so, have already acquired the same number of children. That is so logically done from left to right in a conceptual overlay tree. The records of the pair-wise approximate available bandwidths as measured by a pathChirp scheme at individual nodes are maintained. Evaluation measures as compared to other schemes – Bandwidth Aware multicaSt architecturE (BASE), Tree Building Control Protocol (TBCP), and Host Multicast Tree Protocol (HMTP) - have been conducted. This new scheme generally performs better in terms of trade-off between packet delivery ratio; link stress; control overhead; and end-to-end delays.

    8
    8781
    Limitations of the Analytic Hierarchy Process Technique with Respect to Geographically Distributed Stakeholders
    Abstract:
    The selection of appropriate requirements for product releases can make a big difference in a product success. The selection of requirements is done by different requirements prioritization techniques. These techniques are based on pre-defined and systematic steps to calculate the requirements relative weight. Prioritization is complicated by new development settings, shifting from traditional co-located development to geographically distributed development. Stakeholders, connected to a project, are distributed all over the world. These geographically distributions of stakeholders make it hard to prioritize requirements as each stakeholder have their own perception and expectations of the requirements in a software project. This paper discusses limitations of the Analytical Hierarchy Process with respect to geographically distributed stakeholders- (GDS) prioritization of requirements. This paper also provides a solution, in the form of a modified AHP, in order to prioritize requirements for GDS. We will conduct two experiments in this paper and will analyze the results in order to discuss AHP limitations with respect to GDS. The modified AHP variant is also validated in this paper.
    7
    8785
    Simulation of the Performance of Novel Nonlinear Optimal Control Technique on Two Cart-inverted Pendulum System
    Abstract:
    The two cart inverted pendulum system is a good bench mark for testing the performance of system dynamics and control engineering principles. Devasia introduced this system to study the asymptotic tracking problem for nonlinear systems. In this paper the problem of asymptotic tracking of the two-cart with an inverted-pendulum system to a sinusoidal reference inputs via introducing a novel method for solving finite-horizon nonlinear optimal control problems is presented. In this method, an iterative method applied to state dependent Riccati equation (SDRE) to obtain a reliable algorithm. The superiority of this technique has been shown by simulation and comparison with the nonlinear approach.
    6
    11017
    Genetic-Based Multi Resolution Noisy Color Image Segmentation
    Abstract:
    Segmentation of a color image composed of different kinds of regions can be a hard problem, namely to compute for an exact texture fields. The decision of the optimum number of segmentation areas in an image when it contains similar and/or un stationary texture fields. A novel neighborhood-based segmentation approach is proposed. A genetic algorithm is used in the proposed segment-pass optimization process. In this pass, an energy function, which is defined based on Markov Random Fields, is minimized. In this paper we use an adaptive threshold estimation method for image thresholding in the wavelet domain based on the generalized Gaussian distribution (GGD) modeling of sub band coefficients. This method called Normal Shrink is computationally more efficient and adaptive because the parameters required for estimating the threshold depend on sub band data energy that used in the pre-stage of segmentation. A quad tree is employed to implement the multi resolution framework, which enables the use of different strategies at different resolution levels, and hence, the computation can be accelerated. The experimental results using the proposed segmentation approach are very encouraging.
    5
    13580
    Research on Software Security Testing
    Abstract:

    Software security testing is an important means to ensure software security and trustiness. This paper first mainly discusses the definition and classification of software security testing, and investigates methods and tools of software security testing widely. Then it analyzes and concludes the advantages and disadvantages of various methods and the scope of application, presents a taxonomy of security testing tools. Finally, the paper points out future focus and development directions of software security testing technology.

    4
    14090
    Rapid Frequency Response Measurement of Power Conversion Products with Coherence-Based Confidence Analysis
    Abstract:
    Switched-mode converters play now a significant role in modern society. Their operation are often crucial in various electrical applications affecting the every day life. Therefore, the quality of the converters needs to be reliably verified. Recent studies have shown that the converters can be fully characterized by a set of frequency responses which can be efficiently used to validate the proper operation of the converters. Consequently, several methods have been proposed to measure the frequency responses fast and accurately. Most often correlation-based techniques have been applied. The presented measurement methods are highly sensitive to external errors and system nonlinearities. This fact has been often forgotten and the necessary uncertainty analysis of the measured responses has been neglected. This paper presents a simple approach to analyze the noise and nonlinearities in the frequency-response measurements of switched-mode converters. Coherence analysis is applied to form a confidence interval characterizing the noise and nonlinearities involved in the measurements. The presented method is verified by practical measurements from a high-frequency switchedmode converter.
    3
    14264
    Rigid Registration of Reduced Dimension Images using 1D Binary Projections
    Abstract:
    The purpose of this work is to present a method for rigid registration of medical images using 1D binary projections when a part of one of the two images is missing. We use 1D binary projections and we adjust the projection limits according to the reduced image in order to perform accurate registration. We use the variance of the weighted ratio as a registration function which we have shown is able to register 2D and 3D images more accurately and robustly than mutual information methods. The function is computed explicitly for n=5 Chebyshev points in a [-9,+9] interval and it is approximated using Chebyshev polynomials for all other points. The images used are MR scans of the head. We find that the method is able to register the two images with average accuracy 0.3degrees for rotations and 0.2 pixels for translations for a y dimension of 156 with initial dimension 256. For y dimension 128/256 the accuracy decreases to 0.7 degrees for rotations and 0.6 pixels for translations.
    2
    14958
    An Automatic Tool for Checking Consistency between Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs)
    Abstract:
    System development life cycle (SDLC) is a process uses during the development of any system. SDLC consists of four main phases: analysis, design, implement and testing. During analysis phase, context diagram and data flow diagrams are used to produce the process model of a system. A consistency of the context diagram to lower-level data flow diagrams is very important in smoothing up developing process of a system. However, manual consistency check from context diagram to lower-level data flow diagrams by using a checklist is time-consuming process. At the same time, the limitation of human ability to validate the errors is one of the factors that influence the correctness and balancing of the diagrams. This paper presents a tool that automates the consistency check between Data Flow Diagrams (DFDs) based on the rules of DFDs. The tool serves two purposes: as an editor to draw the diagrams and as a checker to check the correctness of the diagrams drawn. The consistency check from context diagram to lower-level data flow diagrams is embedded inside the tool to overcome the manual checking problem.
    1
    15011
    Fuzzy Rules Emulated Network Adaptive Controller with Unfixed Learning Rate for a Class of Unknown Discrete-time Nonlinear Systems
    Abstract:

    A direct adaptive controller for a class of unknown nonlinear discrete-time systems is presented in this article. The proposed controller is constructed by fuzzy rules emulated network (FREN). With its simple structure, the human knowledge about the plant is transferred to be if-then rules for setting the network. These adjustable parameters inside FREN are tuned by the learning mechanism with time varying step size or learning rate. The variation of learning rate is introduced by main theorem to improve the system performance and stabilization. Furthermore, the boundary of adjustable parameters is guaranteed through the on-line learning and membership functions properties. The validation of the theoretical findings is represented by some illustrated examples.