Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 26

Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering

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  • 26
    Routing in Mobile Wireless Networks for Realtime Multimedia Applications- Reuse of Virtual Circuits
    Routing places an important role in determining the quality of service in wireless networks. The routing methods adopted in wireless networks have many drawbacks. This paper aims to review the current routing methods used in wireless networks. This paper proposes an innovative solution to overcome the problems in routing. This solution is aimed at improving the Quality of Service. This solution is different from others as it involves the resuage of the part of the virtual circuits. This improvement in quality of service is important especially in propagation of multimedia applications like video, animations etc. So it is the dire need to propose a new solution to improve the quality of service in ATM wireless networks for multimedia applications especially during this era of multimedia based applications.
    Semantic Mobility Channel (SMC): Ubiquitous and Mobile Computing Meets the Semantic Web

    With the advent of emerging personal computing paradigms such as ubiquitous and mobile computing, Web contents are becoming accessible from a wide range of mobile devices. Since these devices do not have the same rendering capabilities, Web contents need to be adapted for transparent access from a variety of client agents. Such content adaptation is exploited for either an individual element or a set of consecutive elements in a Web document and results in better rendering and faster delivery to the client device. Nevertheless, Web content adaptation sets new challenges for semantic markup. This paper presents an advanced components platform, called SMC, enabling the development of mobility applications and services according to a channel model based on the principles of Services Oriented Architecture (SOA). It then goes on to describe the potential for integration with the Semantic Web through a novel framework of external semantic annotation that prescribes a scheme for representing semantic markup files and a way of associating Web documents with these external annotations. The role of semantic annotation in this framework is to describe the contents of individual documents themselves, assuring the preservation of the semantics during the process of adapting content rendering. Semantic Web content adaptation is a way of adding value to Web contents and facilitates repurposing of Web contents (enhanced browsing, Web Services location and access, etc).

    High-Individuality Voice Conversion Based on Concatenative Speech Synthesis
    Concatenative speech synthesis is a method that can make speech sound which has naturalness and high-individuality of a speaker by introducing a large speech corpus. Based on this method, in this paper, we propose a voice conversion method whose conversion speech has high-individuality and naturalness. The authors also have two subjective evaluation experiments for evaluating individuality and sound quality of conversion speech. From the results, following three facts have be confirmed: (a) the proposal method can convert the individuality of speakers well, (b) employing the framework of unit selection (especially join cost) of concatenative speech synthesis into conventional voice conversion improves the sound quality of conversion speech, and (c) the proposal method is robust against the difference of genders between a source speaker and a target speaker.
    Slovenian Text-to-Speech Synthesis for Speech User Interfaces
    The paper presents the design concept of a unitselection text-to-speech synthesis system for the Slovenian language. Due to its modular and upgradable architecture, the system can be used in a variety of speech user interface applications, ranging from server carrier-grade voice portal applications, desktop user interfaces to specialized embedded devices. Since memory and processing power requirements are important factors for a possible implementation in embedded devices, lexica and speech corpora need to be reduced. We describe a simple and efficient implementation of a greedy subset selection algorithm that extracts a compact subset of high coverage text sentences. The experiment on a reference text corpus showed that the subset selection algorithm produced a compact sentence subset with a small redundancy. The adequacy of the spoken output was evaluated by several subjective tests as they are recommended by the International Telecommunication Union ITU.
    VISUAL JESS: AN Expandable Visual Generator of Oriented Object Expert systems
    The utility of expert system generators has been widely recognized in many applications. Several generators based on concept of the paradigm object, have been recently proposed. The generator of oriented object expert system (GSEOO) offers languages that are often complex and difficult to use. We propose in this paper an extension of the expert system generator, JESS, which permits a friendly use of this expert system. The new tool, called VISUAL JESS, bring two main improvements to JESS. The first improvement concerns the easiness of its utilization while giving back transparency to the syntax and semantic aspects of the JESS programming language. The second improvement permits an easy access and modification of the JESS knowledge basis. The implementation of VISUAL JESS is made so that it is extensible and portable.
    Energy Consumption Analysis of Design Patterns
    The importance of low power consumption is widely acknowledged due to the increasing use of portable devices, which require minimizing the consumption of energy. Energy dissipation is heavily dependent on the software used in the system. Applying design patterns in object-oriented designs is a common practice nowadays. In this paper we analyze six design patterns and explore the effect of them on energy consumption and performance.
    Service Architecture for 3rd Party Operator's Participation

    Next generation networks with the idea of convergence of service and control layer in existing networks (fixed, mobile and data) and with the intention of providing services in an integrated network, has opened new horizon for telecom operators. On the other hand, economic problems have caused operators to look for new source of income including consider new services, subscription of more users and their promotion in using morenetwork resources and easy participation of service providers or 3rd party operators in utilizing networks. With this requirement, an architecture based on next generation objectives for service layer is necessary. In this paper, a new architecture based on IMS model explains participation of 3rd party operators in creation and implementation of services on an integrated telecom network.

    Speech Activated Automation

    This article presents a simple way to perform programmed voice commands for the interface with commercial Digital and Analogue Input/Output PCI cards, used in Robotics and Automation applications. Robots and Automation equipment can "listen" to voice commands and perform several different tasks, approaching to the human behavior, and improving the human- machine interfaces for the Automation Industry. Since most PCI Digital and Analogue Input/Output cards are sold with several DLLs included (for use with different programming languages), it is possible to add speech recognition capability, using a standard speech recognition engine, compatible with the programming languages used. It was created in this work a Visual Basic 6 (the world's most popular language) application, that listens to several voice commands, and is capable to communicate directly with several standard 128 Digital I/O PCI Cards, used to control complete Automation Systems, with up to (number of boards used) x 128 Sensors and/or Actuators.

    Performance Evaluation of Low Density Parity Check Codes
    This paper mainly about the study on one of the widely used error correcting codes that is Low parity check Codes (LDPC). In this paper, the Regular LDPC code has been discussed The LDPC codes explained in this paper is about the Regular Binary LDPC codes or the Gallager.
    Evaluation of Handover Latency in Intra- Domain Mobility

    Mobile IPv6 (MIPv6) describes how mobile node can change its point of attachment from one access router to another. As a demand for wireless mobile devices increases, many enhancements for macro-mobility (inter-domain) protocols have been proposed, designed and implemented in Mobile IPv6. Hierarchical Mobile IPv6 (HMIPv6) is one of them that is designed to reduce the amount of signaling required and to improve handover speed for mobile connections. This is achieved by introducing a new network entity called Mobility Anchor Point (MAP). This report presents a comparative study of the Hierarchical Mobility IPv6 and Mobile IPv6 protocols and we have narrowed down the scope to micro-mobility (intra-domain). The architecture and operation of each protocol is studied and they are evaluated based on the Quality of Service (QoS) parameter; handover latency. The simulation was carried out by using the Network Simulator-2. The outcome from this simulation has been discussed. From the results, it shows that, HMIPv6 performs best under intra-domain mobility compared to MIPv6. The MIPv6 suffers large handover latency. As enhancement we proposed to HMIPv6 to locate the MAP to be in the middle of the domain with respect to all Access Routers. That gives approximately same distance between MAP and Mobile Node (MN) regardless of the new location of MN, and possible shorter distance. This will reduce the delay since the distance is shorter. As a future work performance analysis is to be carried for the proposed HMIPv6 and compared to HMIPv6.

    Performance Improvement in the Bivariate Models by using Modified Marginal Variance of Noisy Observations for Image-Denoising Applications
    Most simple nonlinear thresholding rules for wavelet- based denoising assume that the wavelet coefficients are independent. However, wavelet coefficients of natural images have significant dependencies. This paper attempts to give a recipe for selecting one of the popular image-denoising algorithms based on VisuShrink, SureShrink, OracleShrink, BayesShrink and BiShrink and also this paper compares different Bivariate models used for image denoising applications. The first part of the paper compares different Shrinkage functions used for image-denoising. The second part of the paper compares different bivariate models and the third part of this paper uses the Bivariate model with modified marginal variance which is based on Laplacian assumption. This paper gives an experimental comparison on six 512x512 commonly used images, Lenna, Barbara, Goldhill, Clown, Boat and Stonehenge. The following noise powers 25dB,26dB, 27dB, 28dB and 29dB are added to the six standard images and the corresponding Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) values are calculated for each noise level.
    Change Detector Combination in Remotely Sensed Images Using Fuzzy Integral
    Decision fusion is one of hot research topics in classification area, which aims to achieve the best possible performance for the task at hand. In this paper, we investigate the usefulness of this concept to improve change detection accuracy in remote sensing. Thereby, outputs of two fuzzy change detectors based respectively on simultaneous and comparative analysis of multitemporal data are fused by using fuzzy integral operators. This method fuses the objective evidences produced by the change detectors with respect to fuzzy measures that express the difference of performance between them. The proposed fusion framework is evaluated in comparison with some ordinary fuzzy aggregation operators. Experiments carried out on two SPOT images showed that the fuzzy integral was the best performing. It improves the change detection accuracy while attempting to equalize the accuracy rate in both change and no change classes.
    Direction of Arrival Estimation Based on a Single Port Smart Antenna Using MUSIC Algorithm with Periodic Signals

    A novel direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation technique, which uses a conventional multiple signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm with periodic signals, is applied to a single RF-port parasitic array antenna for direction finding. Simulation results show that the proposed method gives high resolution (1 degree) DOA estimation in an uncorrelated signal environment. The novelty lies in that the MUSIC algorithm is applied to a simplified antenna configuration. Only one RF port and one analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) are used in this antenna, which features low DC power consumption, low cost, and ease of fabrication. Modifications to the conventional MUSIC algorithm do not bring much additional complexity. The proposed technique is also free from the negative influence by the mutual coupling between elements. Therefore, the technique has great potential to be implemented into the existing wireless mobile communications systems, especially at the power consumption limited mobile terminals, to provide additional position location (PL) services.

    SySRA: A System of a Continuous Speech Recognition in Arab Language
    We report in this paper the model adopted by our system of continuous speech recognition in Arab language SySRA and the results obtained until now. This system uses the database Arabdic-10 which is a corpus of word for the Arab language and which was manually segmented. Phonetic decoding is represented by an expert system where the knowledge base is translated in the form of production rules. This expert system transforms a vocal signal into a phonetic lattice. The higher level of the system takes care of the recognition of the lattice thus obtained by deferring it in the form of written sentences (orthographical Form). This level contains initially the lexical analyzer which is not other than the module of recognition. We subjected this analyzer to a set of spectrograms obtained by dictating a score of sentences in Arab language. The rate of recognition of these sentences is about 70% which is, to our knowledge, the best result for the recognition of the Arab language. The test set consists of twenty sentences from four speakers not having taken part in the training.
    Formal Verification of a Multicast Protocol in Mobile Networks
    As computer network technology becomes increasingly complex, it becomes necessary to place greater requirements on the validity of developing standards and the resulting technology. Communication networks are based on large amounts of protocols. The validity of these protocols have to be proved either individually or in an integral fashion. One strategy for achieving this is to apply the growing field of formal methods. Formal methods research defines systems in high order logic so that automated reasoning can be applied for verification. In this research we represent and implement a formerly announced multicast protocol in Prolog language so that certain properties of the protocol can be verified. It is shown that by using this approach some minor faults in the protocol were found and repaired. Describing the protocol as facts and rules also have other benefits i.e. leads to a process-able knowledge. This knowledge can be transferred as ontology between systems in KQML format. Since the Prolog language can increase its knowledge base every time, this method can also be used to learn an intelligent network.
    Performance Evaluation of Single-mode and Multimode Fiber in LAN Environment
    Optical networks are high capacity networks that meet the rapidly growing demand for bandwidth in the terrestrial telecommunications industry. This paper studies and evaluates singlemode and multimode fiber transmission by varying the distance. It focuses on their performance in LAN environment. This is achieved by observing the pulse spreading and attenuation in optical spectrum and eye-diagram that are obtained using OptSim simulator. The behaviors of two modes with different distance of data transmission are studied, evaluated and compared.
    VoIP Source Model based on the Hyperexponential Distribution
    In this paper we present a statistical analysis of Voice over IP (VoIP) packet streams produced by the G.711 voice coder with voice activity detection (VAD). During telephone conversation, depending whether the interlocutor speaks (ON) or remains silent (OFF), packets are produced or not by a voice coder. As index of dispersion for both ON and OFF times distribution was greater than one, we used hyperexponential distribution for approximation of streams duration. For each stage of the hyperexponential distribution, we tested goodness of our fits using graphical methods, we calculated estimation errors, and performed Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Obtained results showed that the precise VoIP source model can be based on the five-state Markov process.
    Emission Constrained Hydrothermal Scheduling Algorithm
    This paper presents an efficient emission constrained hydrothermal scheduling algorithm that deals with nonlinear functions such as the water discharge characteristics, thermal cost, and transmission loss. It is then incorporated into the hydrothermal coordination program. The program has been tested on a practical utility system having 32 thermal and 12 hydro generating units. Test results show that a slight increase in production cost causes a substantial reduction in emission.
    Improved Weighted Matching for Speaker Recognition
    Matching algorithms have significant importance in speaker recognition. Feature vectors of the unknown utterance are compared to feature vectors of the modeled speakers as a last step in speaker recognition. A similarity score is found for every model in the speaker database. Depending on the type of speaker recognition, these scores are used to determine the author of unknown speech samples. For speaker verification, similarity score is tested against a predefined threshold and either acceptance or rejection result is obtained. In the case of speaker identification, the result depends on whether the identification is open set or closed set. In closed set identification, the model that yields the best similarity score is accepted. In open set identification, the best score is tested against a threshold, so there is one more possible output satisfying the condition that the speaker is not one of the registered speakers in existing database. This paper focuses on closed set speaker identification using a modified version of a well known matching algorithm. The results of new matching algorithm indicated better performance on YOHO international speaker recognition database.
    Unit Commitment Solution Methods
    An effort to develop a unit commitment approach capable of handling large power systems consisting of both thermal and hydro generating units offers a large profitable return. In order to be feasible, the method to be developed must be flexible, efficient and reliable. In this paper, various proposed methods have been described along with their strengths and weaknesses. As all of these methods have some sort of weaknesses, a comprehensive algorithm that combines the strengths of different methods and overcomes each other-s weaknesses would be a suitable approach for solving industry-grade unit commitment problem.
    A Security Module for Car Appliances
    In this paper we discuss on the security module for the car appliances to prevent stealing and illegal use on other cars. We proposed an open structure including authentication and encryption by embed a security module in each to protect car appliances. Illegal moving and use a car appliance with the security module without permission will lead the appliance to useless. This paper also presents the component identification and deal with relevant procedures. It is at low cost to recover from destroys by the burglar. Expect this paper to offer the new business opportunity to the automotive and technology industry.
    A New Construction of 16-QAM Codewords with Low Peak Power

    We present a novel construction of 16-QAM codewords of length n = 2k . The number of constructed codewords is 162×[4k-1×k-k+1] . When these constructed codewords are utilized as a code in OFDM systems, their peak-to-mean envelope power ratios (PMEPR) are bounded above by 3.6 . The principle of our scheme is illustrated with a four subcarrier example.

    A Multiagent System for Distributed Systems Management
    The demand for autonomous resource management for distributed systems has increased in recent years. Distributed systems require an efficient and powerful communication mechanism between applications running on different hosts and networks. The use of mobile agent technology to distribute and delegate management tasks promises to overcome the scalability and flexibility limitations of the currently used centralized management approach. This work proposes a multiagent system that adopts mobile agents as a technology for tasks distribution, results collection, and management of resources in large-scale distributed systems. A new mobile agent-based approach for collecting results from distributed system elements is presented. The technique of artificial intelligence based on intelligent agents giving the system a proactive behavior. The presented results are based on a design example of an application operating in a mobile environment.
    A High Accuracy Measurement Circuit for Soil Moisture Detection
    The study of soil for agriculture purposes has remained the main focus of research since the beginning of civilization as humans- food related requirements remained closely linked with the soil. The study of soil has generated an interest among the researchers for very similar other reasons including transmission, reflection and refraction of signals for deploying wireless underground sensor networks or for the monitoring of objects on (or in ) soil in the form of better understanding of soil electromagnetic characteristics properties. The moisture content has been very instrumental in such studies as it decides on the resistance of the soil, and hence the attenuation on signals traveling through soil or the attenuation the signals may suffer upon their impact on soil. This work is related testing and characterizing a measurement circuit meant for the detection of moisture level content in soil.
    Artifacts in Spiral X-ray CT Scanners: Problems and Solutions
    Artifact is one of the most important factors in degrading the CT image quality and plays an important role in diagnostic accuracy. In this paper, some artifacts typically appear in Spiral CT are introduced. The different factors such as patient, equipment and interpolation algorithm which cause the artifacts are discussed and new developments and image processing algorithms to prevent or reduce them are presented.
    GA based Optimal Sizing and Placement of Distributed Generation for Loss Minimization

    This paper addresses a novel technique for placement of distributed generation (DG) in electric power systems. A GA based approach for sizing and placement of DG keeping in view of system power loss minimization in different loading conditions is explained. Minimal system power loss is obtained under voltage and line loading constraints. Proposed strategy is applied to power distribution systems and its effectiveness is verified through simulation results on 16, 37-bus and 75-bus test systems.