Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 34

Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering

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  • 34
    1269
    Design Optimization Methodology of CMOS Active Mixers for Multi-Standard Receivers
    Abstract:
    A design flow of multi-standard down-conversion CMOS mixers for three modern standards: Global System Mobile, Digital Enhanced Cordless Telephone and Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems is presented. Three active mixer-s structures are studied. The first is based on the Gilbert cell which gives a tolerable noise figure and linearity with a low conversion gain. The second and third structures use the current bleeding and charge injection techniques in order to increase the conversion gain. An improvement of about 2 dB of the conversion gain is achieved without a considerable degradation of the other characteristics. The models used for noise figure, conversion gain and IIP3 used are studied. This study describes the nature of trade-offs inherent in such structures and gives insights that help in identifying which structure is better for given conditions.
    33
    2196
    The Performance of Genetic Algorithm for Synchronized Chaotic Chen System in CDMA Satellite Channel
    Abstract:
    Synchronization is a difficult problem in CDMA satellite communications. Due to the influence of additive noise and fading in the mobile channel, it is not easy to keep up with the attenuation and offset. This paper considers a recently proposed approach to solve the problem of synchronization chaotic Chen system in CDMA satellite communication in the presence of constant attenuation and offset. An analytic algorithm that provides closed form channel and carrier offset estimates is presented. The principle of this approach is based on adding a compensation block before the receiver to compensate the distortion of the imperfect channel by using genetic algorithm. The resultants presented, show that the receiver is able to recover rapidly the synchronization with the transmitter.
    32
    2354
    EEG Spikes Detection, Sorting, and Localization
    Abstract:
    This study introduces a new method for detecting, sorting, and localizing spikes from multiunit EEG recordings. The method combines the wavelet transform, which localizes distinctive spike features, with Super-Paramagnetic Clustering (SPC) algorithm, which allows automatic classification of the data without assumptions such as low variance or Gaussian distributions. Moreover, the method is capable of setting amplitude thresholds for spike detection. The method makes use of several real EEG data sets, and accordingly the spikes are detected, clustered and their times were detected.
    31
    2606
    Time-Delay Estimation Using Cross-ΨB-Energy Operator
    Abstract:
    In this paper, a new time-delay estimation technique based on the cross IB-energy operator [5] is introduced. This quadratic energy detector measures how much a signal is present in another one. The location of the peak of the energy operator, corresponding to the maximum of interaction between the two signals, is the estimate of the delay. The method is a fully data-driven approach. The discrete version of the continuous-time form of the cross IBenergy operator, for its implementation, is presented. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated on real underwater acoustic signals arriving from targets and the results compared to the cross-correlation method.
    30
    3072
    FIR Filter Design via Linear Complementarity Problem, Messy Genetic Algorithm, and Ising Messy Genetic Algorithm
    Abstract:
    In this paper the design of maximally flat linear phase finite impulse response (FIR) filters is considered. The problem is handled with totally two different approaches. The first one is completely deterministic numerical approach where the problem is formulated as a Linear Complementarity Problem (LCP). The other one is based on a combination of Markov Random Fields (MRF's) approach with messy genetic algorithm (MGA). Markov Random Fields (MRFs) are a class of probabilistic models that have been applied for many years to the analysis of visual patterns or textures. Our objective is to establish MRFs as an interesting approach to modeling messy genetic algorithms. We establish a theoretical result that every genetic algorithm problem can be characterized in terms of a MRF model. This allows us to construct an explicit probabilistic model of the MGA fitness function and introduce the Ising MGA. Experimentations done with Ising MGA are less costly than those done with standard MGA since much less computations are involved. The least computations of all is for the LCP. Results of the LCP, random search, random seeded search, MGA, and Ising MGA are discussed.
    29
    3661
    A PSO-based SSSC Controller for Improvement of Transient Stability Performance
    Abstract:

    The application of a Static Synchronous Series Compensator (SSSC) controller to improve the transient stability performance of a power system is thoroughly investigated in this paper. The design problem of SSSC controller is formulated as an optimization problem and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) Technique is employed to search for optimal controller parameters. By minimizing the time-domain based objective function, in which the deviation in the oscillatory rotor angle of the generator is involved; transient stability performance of the system is improved. The proposed controller is tested on a weakly connected power system subjected to different severe disturbances. The non-linear simulation results are presented to show the effectiveness of the proposed controller and its ability to provide efficient damping of low frequency oscillations. It is also observed that the proposed SSSC controller improves greatly the voltage profile of the system under severe disturbances.

    28
    3732
    Optimization of Transmitter Aperture by Genetic Algorithm in Optical Satellite
    Abstract:
    To establish optical communication between any two satellites, the transmitter satellite must track the beacon of the receiver satellite and point the information optical beam in its direction. Optical tracking and pointing systems for free space suffer during tracking from high-amplitude vibration because of background radiation from interstellar objects such as the Sun, Moon, Earth, and stars in the tracking field of view or the mechanical impact from satellite internal and external sources. The vibrations of beam pointing increase the bit error rate and jam communication between the two satellites. One way to overcome this problem is the use of very small transmitter beam divergence angles of too narrow divergence angle is that the transmitter beam may sometimes miss the receiver satellite, due to pointing vibrations. In this paper we propose the use of genetic algorithm to optimize the BER as function of transmitter optics aperture.
    27
    3859
    Complex-Valued Neural Networks for Blind Equalization of Time-Varying Channels
    Authors:
    Abstract:

    Most of the commonly used blind equalization algorithms are based on the minimization of a nonconvex and nonlinear cost function and a neural network gives smaller residual error as compared to a linear structure. The efficacy of complex valued feedforward neural networks for blind equalization of linear and nonlinear communication channels has been confirmed by many studies. In this paper we present two neural network models for blind equalization of time-varying channels, for M-ary QAM and PSK signals. The complex valued activation functions, suitable for these signal constellations in time-varying environment, are introduced and the learning algorithms based on the CMA cost function are derived. The improved performance of the proposed models is confirmed through computer simulations.

    26
    4051
    Evaluating Sinusoidal Functions by a Low Complexity Cubic Spline Interpolator with Error Optimization
    Abstract:

    We present a novel scheme to evaluate sinusoidal functions with low complexity and high precision using cubic spline interpolation. To this end, two different approaches are proposed to find the interpolating polynomial of sin(x) within the range [- π , π]. The first one deals with only a single data point while the other with two to keep the realization cost as low as possible. An approximation error optimization technique for cubic spline interpolation is introduced next and is shown to increase the interpolator accuracy without increasing complexity of the associated hardware. The architectures for the proposed approaches are also developed, which exhibit flexibility of implementation with low power requirement.

    25
    4283
    Automatic Vehicle Identification by Plate Recognition
    Abstract:
    Automatic Vehicle Identification (AVI) has many applications in traffic systems (highway electronic toll collection, red light violation enforcement, border and customs checkpoints, etc.). License Plate Recognition is an effective form of AVI systems. In this study, a smart and simple algorithm is presented for vehicle-s license plate recognition system. The proposed algorithm consists of three major parts: Extraction of plate region, segmentation of characters and recognition of plate characters. For extracting the plate region, edge detection algorithms and smearing algorithms are used. In segmentation part, smearing algorithms, filtering and some morphological algorithms are used. And finally statistical based template matching is used for recognition of plate characters. The performance of the proposed algorithm has been tested on real images. Based on the experimental results, we noted that our algorithm shows superior performance in car license plate recognition.
    24
    4284
    A Technique for Improving the Performance of Median Smoothers at the Corners Characterized by Low Order Polynomials
    Abstract:

    Median filters with larger windows offer greater smoothing and are more robust than the median filters of smaller windows. However, the larger median smoothers (the median filters with the larger windows) fail to track low order polynomial trends in the signals. Due to this, constant regions are produced at the signal corners, leading to the loss of fine details. In this paper, an algorithm, which combines the ability of the 3-point median smoother in preserving the low order polynomial trends and the superior noise filtering characteristics of the larger median smoother, is introduced. The proposed algorithm (called the combiner algorithm in this paper) is evaluated for its performance on a test image corrupted with different types of noise and the results obtained are included.

    23
    5278
    Classification of Defects by the SVM Method and the Principal Component Analysis (PCA)
    Abstract:
    Analyses carried out on examples of detected defects echoes showed clearly that one can describe these detected forms according to a whole of characteristic parameters in order to be able to make discrimination between a planar defect and a volumic defect. This work answers to a problem of ultrasonics NDT like Identification of the defects. The problems as well as the objective of this realized work, are divided in three parts: Extractions of the parameters of wavelets from the ultrasonic echo of the detected defect - the second part is devoted to principal components analysis (PCA) for optimization of the attributes vector. And finally to establish the algorithm of classification (SVM, Support Vector Machine) which allows discrimination between a plane defect and a volumic defect. We have completed this work by a conclusion where we draw up a summary of the completed works, as well as the robustness of the various algorithms proposed in this study.
    Keywords:
    22
    5283
    High Order Cascade Multibit ΣΔ Modulator for Wide Bandwidth Applications
    Abstract:
    A wideband 2-1-1 cascaded ΣΔ modulator with a single-bit quantizer in the two first stages and a 4-bit quantizer in the final stage is developed. To reduce sensitivity of digital-to-analog converter (DAC) nonlinearities in the feedback of the last stage, dynamic element matching (DEM) is introduced. This paper presents two modelling approaches: The first is MATLAB description and the second is VHDL-AMS modelling of the proposed architecture and exposes some high-level-simulation results allowing a behavioural study. The detail of both ideal and non-ideal behaviour modelling are presented. Then, the study of the effect of building blocks nonidealities is presented; especially the influences of nonlinearity, finite operational amplifier gain, amplifier slew rate limitation and capacitor mismatch. A VHDL-AMS description presents a good solution to predict system-s performances and can provide sensitivity curves giving the impact of nonidealities on the system performance.
    21
    5303
    Trispectral Analysis of Voiced Sounds Defective Audition and Tracheotomisian Cases
    Abstract:
    This paper presents the cepstral and trispectral analysis of a speech signal produced by normal men, men with defective audition (deaf, deep deaf) and others affected by tracheotomy, the trispectral analysis based on parametric methods (Autoregressive AR) using the fourth order cumulant. These analyses are used to detect and compare the pitches and the formants of corresponding voiced sounds (vowel \a\, \i\ and \u\). The first results appear promising, since- it seems after several experimentsthere is no deformation of the spectrum as one could have supposed it at the beginning, however these pathologies influenced the two characteristics: The defective audition influences to the formants contrary to the tracheotomy, which influences the fundamental frequency (pitch).
    20
    5332
    Neural Network Tuned Fuzzy Controller for MIMO System
    Abstract:
    In this paper, a neural network tuned fuzzy controller is proposed for controlling Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) systems. For the convenience of analysis, the structure of MIMO fuzzy controller is divided into single input single-output (SISO) controllers for controlling each degree of freedom. Secondly, according to the characteristics of the system-s dynamics coupling, an appropriate coupling fuzzy controller is incorporated to improve the performance. The simulation analysis on a two-level mass–spring MIMO vibration system is carried out and results show the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy controller. The performance though improved, the computational time and memory used is comparatively higher, because it has four fuzzy reasoning blocks and number may increase in case of other MIMO system. Then a fuzzy neural network is designed from a set of input-output training data to reduce the computing burden during implementation. This control strategy can not only simplify the implementation problem of fuzzy control, but also reduce computational time and consume less memory.
    19
    5541
    Fuzzy Error Recovery in Feedback Control for Three Wheel Omnidirectional Soccer Robot
    Abstract:

    This paper is described one of the intelligent control method in Autonomous systems, which is called fuzzy control to correct the three wheel omnidirectional robot movement while it make mistake to catch the target. Fuzzy logic is especially advantageous for problems that can not be easily represented by mathematical modeling because data is either unavailable, incomplete or the process is too complex. Such systems can be easily up grated by adding new rules to improve performance or add new features. In many cases , fuzzy control can be used to improve existing traditional controller systems by adding an extra layer of intelligence to the current control method. The fuzzy controller designed here is more accurate and flexible than the traditional controllers. The project is done at MRL middle size soccer robot team.

    18
    5688
    Theoretical Study on a Thermal Model for Large Power Transformer Units
    Abstract:

    The paper analyzes the large power transformer unit regimes, indicating the criteria for the management of the voltage operating conditions, as well as the change in the operating conditions with the load connected to the secondary winding of the transformer unit. Further, the paper presents the software application for the evaluation of the transformer unit operation under different conditions. The software application was developed by means of virtual instrumentation.

    17
    5727
    A Comparison of Adaline and MLP Neural Network based Predictors in SIR Estimation in Mobile DS/CDMA Systems
    Abstract:
    In this paper we compare the response of linear and nonlinear neural network-based prediction schemes in prediction of received Signal-to-Interference Power Ratio (SIR) in Direct Sequence Code Division Multiple Access (DS/CDMA) systems. The nonlinear predictor is Multilayer Perceptron MLP and the linear predictor is an Adaptive Linear (Adaline) predictor. We solve the problem of complexity by using the Minimum Mean Squared Error (MMSE) principle to select the optimal predictors. The optimized Adaline predictor is compared to optimized MLP by employing noisy Rayleigh fading signals with 1.8 GHZ carrier frequency in an urban environment. The results show that the Adaline predictor can estimates SIR with the same error as MLP when the user has the velocity of 5 km/h and 60 km/h but by increasing the velocity up-to 120 km/h the mean squared error of MLP is two times more than Adaline predictor. This makes the Adaline predictor (with lower complexity) more suitable than MLP for closed-loop power control where efficient and accurate identification of the time-varying inverse dynamics of the multi path fading channel is required.
    16
    5788
    A New Particle Filter Inspired by Biological Evolution: Genetic Filter
    Abstract:
    In this paper, we consider a new particle filter inspired by biological evolution. In the standard particle filter, a resampling scheme is used to decrease the degeneracy phenomenon and improve estimation performance. Unfortunately, however, it could cause the undesired the particle deprivation problem, as well. In order to overcome this problem of the particle filter, we propose a novel filtering method called the genetic filter. In the proposed filter, we embed the genetic algorithm into the particle filter and overcome the problems of the standard particle filter. The validity of the proposed method is demonstrated by computer simulation.
    15
    5870
    Definition and Implementation of a Simulation Model for the Physical Layer and the Radio Channel in Dedicated Short Range Communication Systems
    Abstract:
    This paper proposes a vehicle-to-vehicle propagation model implemented with SDL. To estimate the channel characteristics for Inter-Vehicle communication, we first define a predicted propagation pathloss between the moving vehicles under three typical scenarios. A Ray-tracing method is used for the simple gamma model performance.
    14
    9063
    Genetic-Fuzzy Inverse Controller for a Robot Arm Suitable for On Line Applications
    Abstract:
    The robot is a repeated task plant. The control of such a plant under parameter variations and load disturbances is one of the important problems. The aim of this work is to design Geno-Fuzzy controller suitable for online applications to control single link rigid robot arm plant. The genetic-fuzzy online controller (indirect controller) has two genetic-fuzzy blocks, the first as controller, the second as identifier. The identification method is based on inverse identification technique. The proposed controller it tested in normal and load disturbance conditions.
    13
    11816
    Speaker Identification by Joint Statistical Characterization in the Log Gabor Wavelet Domain
    Abstract:
    Real world Speaker Identification (SI) application differs from ideal or laboratory conditions causing perturbations that leads to a mismatch between the training and testing environment and degrade the performance drastically. Many strategies have been adopted to cope with acoustical degradation; wavelet based Bayesian marginal model is one of them. But Bayesian marginal models cannot model the inter-scale statistical dependencies of different wavelet scales. Simple nonlinear estimators for wavelet based denoising assume that the wavelet coefficients in different scales are independent in nature. However wavelet coefficients have significant inter-scale dependency. This paper enhances this inter-scale dependency property by a Circularly Symmetric Probability Density Function (CS-PDF) related to the family of Spherically Invariant Random Processes (SIRPs) in Log Gabor Wavelet (LGW) domain and corresponding joint shrinkage estimator is derived by Maximum a Posteriori (MAP) estimator. A framework is proposed based on these to denoise speech signal for automatic speaker identification problems. The robustness of the proposed framework is tested for Text Independent Speaker Identification application on 100 speakers of POLYCOST and 100 speakers of YOHO speech database in three different noise environments. Experimental results show that the proposed estimator yields a higher improvement in identification accuracy compared to other estimators on popular Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) based speaker model and Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficient (MFCC) features.
    12
    12419
    Robust H∞ Filter Design for Uncertain Fuzzy Descriptor Systems: LMI-Based Design
    Abstract:

    This paper examines the problem of designing a robust H∞ filter for a class of uncertain fuzzy descriptor systems described by a Takagi-Sugeno (TS) fuzzy model. Based on a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach, LMI-based sufficient conditions for the uncertain nonlinear descriptor systems to have an H∞ performance are derived. To alleviate the ill-conditioning resulting from the interaction of slow and fast dynamic modes, solutions to the problem are given in terms of linear matrix inequalities which are independent of the singular perturbation ε, when ε is sufficiently small. The proposed approach does not involve the separation of states into slow and fast ones and it can be applied not only to standard, but also to nonstandard uncertain nonlinear descriptor systems. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the design developed in this paper.

    11
    12572
    Simple and Advanced Models for Calculating Single-Phase Diode Rectifier Line-Side Harmonics
    Abstract:
    This paper proposes different methods for estimation of the harmonic currents of the single-phase diode bridge rectifier. Both simple and advanced methods are compared and the models are put into a context of practical use for calculating the harmonic distortion in a typical application. Finally, the different models are compared to measurements of a real application and convincing results are achieved.
    10
    13069
    Cooperative Multi Agent Soccer Robot Team
    Abstract:
    This paper introduces our first efforts of developing a new team for RoboCup Middle Size Competition. In our robots we have applied omni directional based mobile system with omnidirectional vision system and fuzzy control algorithm to navigate robots. The control architecture of MRL middle-size robots is a three layered architecture, Planning, Sequencing, and Executing. It also uses Blackboard system to achieve coordination among agents. Moreover, the architecture should have minimum dependency on low level structure and have a uniform protocol to interact with real robot.
    9
    13124
    Fast Extraction of Edge Histogram in DCT Domain based on MPEG7
    Abstract:
    In these days, multimedia data is transmitted and processed in compressed format. Due to the decoding procedure and filtering for edge detection, the feature extraction process of MPEG-7 Edge Histogram Descriptor is time-consuming as well as computationally expensive. To improve efficiency of compressed image retrieval, we propose a new edge histogram generation algorithm in DCT domain in this paper. Using the edge information provided by only two AC coefficients of DCT coefficients, we can get edge directions and strengths directly in DCT domain. The experimental results demonstrate that our system has good performance in terms of retrieval efficiency and effectiveness.
    Keywords:
    8
    13656
    Implementing High Performance VPN Router using Cavium-s CN2560 Security Processor
    Abstract:
    IPsec protocol[1] is a set of security extensions developed by the IETF and it provides privacy and authentication services at the IP layer by using modern cryptography. In this paper, we describe both of H/W and S/W architectures of our router system, SRS-10. The system is designed to support high performance routing and IPsec VPN. Especially, we used Cavium-s CN2560 processor to implement IPsec processing in inline-mode.
    Keywords:
    7
    13830
    Multi Band Frequency Synthesizer Based on ISPD PLL with Adapted LC Tuned VCO
    Abstract:
    The 4G front-end transceiver needs a high performance which can be obtained mainly with an optimal architecture and a multi-band Local Oscillator. In this study, we proposed and presented a new architecture of multi-band frequency synthesizer based on an Inverse Sine Phase Detector Phase Locked Loop (ISPD PLL) without any filters and any controlled gain block and associated with adapted multi band LC tuned VCO using a several numeric controlled capacitive branches but not binary weighted. The proposed architecture, based on 0.35μm CMOS process technology, supporting Multi-band GSM/DCS/DECT/ UMTS/WiMax application and gives a good performances: a phase noise @1MHz -127dBc and a Factor Of Merit (FOM) @ 1MHz - 186dB and a wide band frequency range (from 0.83GHz to 3.5GHz), that make the proposed architecture amenable for monolithic integration and 4G multi-band application.
    6
    13941
    The Effects of Speed on the Performance of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-hoc Networks
    Abstract:
    Mobile ad hoc network is a collection of mobile nodes communicating through wireless channels without any existing network infrastructure or centralized administration. Because of the limited transmission range of wireless network interfaces, multiple "hops" may be needed to exchange data across the network. Consequently, many routing algorithms have come into existence to satisfy the needs of communications in such networks. Researchers have conducted many simulations comparing the performance of these routing protocols under various conditions and constraints. One question that arises is whether speed of nodes affects the relative performance of routing protocols being studied. This paper addresses the question by simulating two routing protocols AODV and DSDV. Protocols were simulated using the ns-2 and were compared in terms of packet delivery fraction, normalized routing load and average delay, while varying number of nodes, and speed.
    5
    14278
    Two Area Power Systems Economic Dispatch Problem Solving Considering Transmission Capacity Constraints
    Abstract:
    This paper describes an efficient and practical method for economic dispatch problem in one and two area electrical power systems with considering the constraint of the tie transmission line capacity constraint. Direct search method (DSM) is used with some equality and inequality constraints of the production units with any kind of fuel cost function. By this method, it is possible to use several inequality constraints without having difficulty for complex cost functions or in the case of unavailability of the cost function derivative. To minimize the number of total iterations in searching, process multi-level convergence is incorporated in the DSM. Enhanced direct search method (EDSM) for two area power system will be investigated. The initial calculation step size that causes less iterations and then less calculation time is presented. Effect of the transmission tie line capacity, between areas, on economic dispatch problem and on total generation cost will be studied; line compensation and active power with reactive power dispatch are proposed to overcome the high generation costs for this multi-area system.
    4
    14418
    Investigation of Chaotic Behavior in DC-DC Converters
    Abstract:

    DC-DC converters are widely used in regulated switched mode power supplies and in DC motor drive applications. There are several sources of unwanted nonlinearity in practical power converters. In addition, their operation is characterized by switching that gives birth to a variety of nonlinear dynamics. DC-DC buck and boost converters controlled by pulse-width modulation (PWM) have been simulated. The voltage waveforms and attractors obtained from the circuit simulation have been studied. With the onset of instability, the phenomenon of subharmonic oscillations, quasi-periodicity, bifurcations, and chaos have been observed. This paper is mainly motivated by potential contributions of chaos theory in the design, analysis and control of power converters, in particular and power electronics circuits, in general.

    3
    14601
    Visual Object Tracking and Interception in Industrial Settings
    Abstract:
    This paper presents a solution for a robotic manipulation problem. We formulate the problem as combining target identification, tracking and interception. The task in our solution is sensing a target on a conveyor belt and then intercepting robot-s end-effector at a convenient rendezvous point. We used an object recognition method which identifies the target and finds its position from visualized scene picture, then the robot system generates a solution for rendezvous problem using the target-s initial position and belt velocity . The interception of the target and the end-effector is executed at a convenient rendezvous point along the target-s calculated trajectory. Experimental results are obtained using a real platform with an industrial robot and a vision system over it.
    2
    14872
    Non-Parametric Histogram-Based Thresholding Methods for Weld Defect Detection in Radiography
    Abstract:
    In non destructive testing by radiography, a perfect knowledge of the weld defect shape is an essential step to appreciate the quality of the weld and make decision on its acceptability or rejection. Because of the complex nature of the considered images, and in order that the detected defect region represents the most accurately possible the real defect, the choice of thresholding methods must be done judiciously. In this paper, performance criteria are used to conduct a comparative study of four non parametric histogram thresholding methods for automatic extraction of weld defect in radiographic images.
    1
    15117
    Spread Spectrum Code Estimation by Genetic Algorithm
    Abstract:
    In the context of spectrum surveillance, a method to recover the code of spread spectrum signal is presented, whereas the receiver has no knowledge of the transmitter-s spreading sequence. The approach is based on a genetic algorithm (GA), which is forced to model the received signal. Genetic algorithms (GAs) are well known for their robustness in solving complex optimization problems. Experimental results show that the method provides a good estimation, even when the signal power is below the noise power.