Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 31

Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering

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  • 31
    49
    Feed-Forward Control in Half-Bridge Resonant DC Link Inverter
    Abstract:
    This paper proposes a feed-forward control in a halfbridge resonant dc link inverter. The configuration of feed-forward control is based on synchronous sigma-delta modulation and the halfbridge resonant dc link inverter consists of two inductors, one capacitor and two power switches. The simulation results show the proposed technique can reject non-ideal dc bus improving the total harmonic distortion.
    30
    1821
    Direct Power Control Strategies for Multilevel Inverter Based Custom Power Devices
    Abstract:
    Custom power is a technology driven product and service solution which embraces a family devices such as Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR), Distributed Shunt Compensator (DSTATCOM), Solid State Breaker (SSB) etc which will provide power quality functions at distribution voltages. The rapid response of these devices enables them to operate in real time, providing continuous and dynamic control of the supply including voltage and reactive power regulation, harmonic reduction and elimination of voltage dips. This paper presents the benefits of multilevel inverters when they are used for DPC based custom power devices. Power flow control mechanism, salient features, advantages and disadvantages of direct power control (DPC) using lookup table, SVM, predictive voltage vector and hybrid DPC strategies are discussed in this paper. Simulation results of three level inverter based STATCOM, harmonic analysis of multi level inverters are presented at the end.
    29
    1915
    Synchronization Technique for Random Switching Frequency Pulse-Width Modulation
    Abstract:

    This paper proposes a synchronized random switching frequency pulse width modulation (SRSFPWM). In this technique, the clock signal is used to control the random noise frequency which is produced by the feedback voltage of a hysteresis circuit. These make the triangular carrier frequency equaling to the random noise frequency in each switching period with the symmetrical positive and negative slopes of triangular carrier. Therefore, there is no error voltage in PWM signal. The PSpice simulated results shown the proposed technique improved the performance in case of low frequency harmonics of PWM signal comparing with conventional random switching frequency PWM.

    28
    2374
    A New Group Key Management Protocol for Wireless Ad-Hoc Networks
    Abstract:
    Ad hoc networks are characterized by multi-hop wireless connectivity and frequently changing network topology. Forming security association among a group of nodes in ad-hoc networks is more challenging than in conventional networks due to the lack of central authority, i.e. fixed infrastructure. With that view in mind, group key management plays an important building block of any secure group communication. The main contribution of this paper is a low complexity key management scheme that is suitable for fully self-organized ad-hoc networks. The protocol is also password authenticated, making it resilient against active attacks. Unlike other existing key agreement protocols, ours make no assumption about the structure of the underlying wireless network, making it suitable for “truly ad-hoc" networks. Finally, we will analyze our protocol to show the computation and communication burden on individual nodes for key establishment.
    27
    2413
    Accurate Time Domain Method for Simulation of Microstructured Electromagnetic and Photonic Structures
    Abstract:
    A time-domain numerical model within the framework of transmission line modeling (TLM) is developed to simulate electromagnetic pulse propagation inside multiple microcavities forming photonic crystal (PhC) structures. The model developed is quite general and is capable of simulating complex electromagnetic problems accurately. The field quantities can be mapped onto a passive electrical circuit equivalent what ensures that TLM is provably stable and conservative at a local level. Furthermore, the circuit representation allows a high level of hybridization of TLM with other techniques and lumped circuit models of components and devices. A photonic crystal structure formed by rods (or blocks) of high-permittivity dieletric material embedded in a low-dielectric background medium is simulated as an example. The model developed gives vital spatio-temporal information about the signal, and also gives spectral information over a wide frequency range in a single run. The model has wide applications in microwave communication systems, optical waveguides and electromagnetic materials simulations.
    26
    2795
    Model and Control of Renewable Energy Systems
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    This paper presents a developed method for controlling multi-renewable energy generators. The control system depends basically on three sensors (wind anemometer, solar sensor, and voltage sensor). These sensors represent PLC-s analogue inputs. Controlling the output voltage supply can be achieved by an enhanced method of interlocking between the renewable energy generators, depending on those sensors and output contactors.
    25
    3688
    Piezoelectric Transducer Modeling: with System Identification (SI) Method
    Abstract:
    System identification is the process of creating models of dynamic process from input- output signals. The aim of system identification can be identified as “ to find a model with adjustable parameters and then to adjust them so that the predicted output matches the measured output". This paper presents a method of modeling and simulating with system identification to achieve the maximum fitness for transformation function. First by using optimized KLM equivalent circuit for PVDF piezoelectric transducer and assuming different inputs including: sinuside, step and sum of sinusides, get the outputs, then by using system identification toolbox in MATLAB, we estimate the transformation function from inputs and outputs resulted in last program. Then compare the fitness of transformation function resulted from using ARX,OE(Output- Error) and BJ(Box-Jenkins) models in system identification toolbox and primary transformation function form KLM equivalent circuit.
    24
    3862
    Centralized Monitoring and Self-protected against Fiber Fault in FTTH Access Network
    Abstract:
    This paper presented a new approach for centralized monitoring and self-protected against fiber fault in fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) access network by using Smart Access Network Testing, Analyzing and Database (SANTAD). SANTAD will be installed with optical line terminal (OLT) at central office (CO) for in-service transmission surveillance and fiber fault localization within FTTH with point-to-multipoint (P2MP) configuration downwardly from CO towards customer residential locations based on the graphical user interface (GUI) processing capabilities of MATLAB software. SANTAD is able to detect any fiber fault as well as identify the failure location in the network system. SANTAD enable the status of each optical network unit (ONU) connected line is displayed onto one screen with capability to configure the attenuation and detect the failure simultaneously. The analysis results and information will be delivered to the field engineer for promptly actions, meanwhile the failure line will be diverted to protection line to ensure the traffic flow continuously. This approach has a bright prospect to improve the survivability and reliability as well as increase the efficiency and monitoring capabilities in FTTH.
    23
    4405
    Real-Time Control of a Two-Wheeled Inverted Pendulum Mobile Robot
    Abstract:

    The research on two-wheeled inverted pendulum (TWIP) mobile robots or commonly known as balancing robots have gained momentum over the last decade in a number of robotic laboratories around the world. This paper describes the hardware design of such a robot. The objective of the design is to develop a TWIP mobile robot as well as MATLAB interfacing configuration to be used as flexible platform comprises of embedded unstable linear plant intended for research and teaching purposes. Issues such as selection of actuators and sensors, signal processing units, MATLAB Real Time Workshop coding, modeling and control scheme will be addressed and discussed. The system is then tested using a wellknown state feedback controller to verify its functionality.

    22
    4461
    Sensitivity and Removed THD of a Phase- Cutting Dimmer
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    In this paper, we consider a designed and implemented phase-cutting dimmer. In fact, the dimmer is closed loop and a microcontroller calculates and then regulates the firing delay angles of each channel. Depending on the firing angle, the harmonic distortion in the input current will not comply with international standards, such as IEC 61000-3-2 (class C equipments). For solving this problem, eight harmonic compensators have been added to the dimmer. So, the proposed dimmer has a little harmonic distortion in the input current whereas conventional phase-cutting dimmers are not so. Sensitivity and removed THD of the proposed dimmer will be presented.
    21
    4771
    Self-Organization of Clusters having Locally Distributed Patterns for Synchronized Inputs
    Abstract:
    Many experimental results suggest that more precise spike timing is significant in neural information processing. We construct a self-organization model using the spatiotemporal patterns, where Spike-Timing Dependent Plasticity (STDP) tunes the conduction delays between neurons. We show that the fluctuation of conduction delays causes globally continuous and locally distributed firing patterns through the self-organization.
    20
    5098
    OXADM Asymmetrical Optical Device: Extending the Application to FTTH System
    Abstract:
    With the drastically growth in optical communication technology, a lossless, low-crosstalk and multifunction optical switch is most desirable for large-scale photonic network. To realize such a switch, we have introduced the new architecture of optical switch that embedded many functions on single device. The asymmetrical architecture of OXADM consists of 3 parts; selective port, add/drop operation, and path routing. Selective port permits only the interest wavelength pass through and acts as a filter. While add and drop function can be implemented in second part of OXADM architecture. The signals can then be re-routed to any output port or/and perform an accumulation function which multiplex all signals onto single path and then exit to any interest output port. This will be done by path routing operation. The unique features offered by OXADM has extended its application to Fiber to-the Home Technology (FTTH), here the OXADM is used as a wavelength management element in Optical Line Terminal (OLT). Each port is assigned specifically with the operating wavelengths and with the dynamic routing management to ensure no traffic combustion occurs in OLT.
    19
    5299
    Investigation of Various PWM Techniques for Shunt Active Filter
    Abstract:
    Pulse width modulation (PWM) techniques have been the subject of intensive research for different industrial and power sector applications. A large variety of methods, different in concept and performance, have been newly developed and described. This paper analyzes the comparative merits of Sinusoidal Pulse Width Modulation (SPWM) and Space Vector Pulse Width Modulation (SVPWM) techniques and the suitability of these techniques in a Shunt Active Filter (SAF). The objective is to select the scheme that offers effective utilization of DC bus voltage and also harmonic reduction at the input side. The effectiveness of the PWM techniques is tested in the SAF configuration with a non linear load. The performance of the SAF with the SPWM and (SVPWM) techniques are compared with respect to the THD in source current. The study reveals that in the context of closed loop SAF control with the SVPWM technique there is only a minor improvement in THD. The utilization of the DC bus with SVPWM is also not significant compared to that with SPWM because of the non sinusoidal modulating signal from the controller in SAF configuration.
    18
    5966
    Impact of Loading Conditions on the Emission- Economic Dispatch
    Abstract:
    Environmental awareness and the recent environmental policies have forced many electric utilities to restructure their operational practices to account for their emission impacts. One way to accomplish this is by reformulating the traditional economic dispatch problem such that emission effects are included in the mathematical model. This paper presents a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) algorithm to solve the Economic- Emission Dispatch problem (EED) which gained recent attention due to the deregulation of the power industry and strict environmental regulations. The problem is formulated as a multi-objective one with two competing functions, namely economic cost and emission functions, subject to different constraints. The inequality constraints considered are the generating unit capacity limits while the equality constraint is generation-demand balance. A novel equality constraint handling mechanism is proposed in this paper. PSO algorithm is tested on a 30-bus standard test system. Results obtained show that PSO algorithm has a great potential in handling multi-objective optimization problems and is capable of capturing Pareto optimal solution set under different loading conditions.
    17
    6211
    Source Direction Detection based on Stationary Electronic Nose System
    Abstract:
    Electronic nose (array of chemical sensors) are widely used in food industry and pollution control. Also it could be used to locate or detect the direction of the source of emission odors. Usually this task is performed by electronic nose (ENose) cooperated with mobile vehicles, but when a source is instantaneous or surrounding is hard for vehicles to reach, problem occurs. Thus a method for stationary ENose to detect the direction of the source and locate the source will be required. A novel method which uses the ratio between the responses of different sensors as a discriminant to determine the direction of source in natural wind surroundings is presented in this paper. The result shows that the method is accurate and easily to be implemented. This method could be also used in movably, as an optimized algorithm for robot tracking source location.
    16
    7511
    Counterpropagation Neural Network for Solving Power Flow Problem
    Abstract:
    Power flow (PF) study, which is performed to determine the power system static states (voltage magnitudes and voltage angles) at each bus to find the steady state operating condition of a system, is very important and is the most frequently carried out study by power utilities for power system planning, operation and control. In this paper, a counterpropagation neural network (CPNN) is proposed to solve power flow problem under different loading/contingency conditions for computing bus voltage magnitudes and angles of the power system. The counterpropagation network uses a different mapping strategy namely counterpropagation and provides a practical approach for implementing a pattern mapping task, since learning is fast in this network. The composition of the input variables for the proposed neural network has been selected to emulate the solution process of a conventional power flow program. The effectiveness of the proposed CPNN based approach for solving power flow is demonstrated by computation of bus voltage magnitudes and voltage angles for different loading conditions and single line-outage contingencies in IEEE 14-bus system.
    15
    7725
    A Novel Four-Transistor SRAM Cell with Low Dynamic Power Consumption
    Abstract:
    This paper presents a novel CMOS four-transistor SRAM cell for very high density and low power embedded SRAM applications as well as for stand-alone SRAM applications. This cell retains its data with leakage current and positive feedback without refresh cycle. The new cell size is 20% smaller than a conventional six-transistor cell using same design rules. Also proposed cell uses two word-lines and one pair bit-line. Read operation perform from one side of cell, and write operation perform from another side of cell, and swing voltage reduced on word-lines thus dynamic power during read/write operation reduced. The fabrication process is fully compatible with high-performance CMOS logic technologies, because there is no need to integrate a poly-Si resistor or a TFT load. HSPICE simulation in standard 0.25μm CMOS technology confirms all results obtained from this paper.
    14
    8523
    Transmitter Design for LMS-MIMO-MCCDMA Systems with Pilot Channel Estimates and Zero Forcing Equalizer
    Abstract:
    We propose a downlink multiple-input multipleoutput (MIMO) multi-carrier code division multiple access (MCCDMA) system with adaptive beamforming algorithm for smart antennas. The algorithm used in this paper is based on the Least Mean Square (LMS), with pilot channel estimation (PCE) and the zero forcing equalizer (ZFE) in the receiver, requiring reference signal and no knowledge channel. MC-CDMA is studied in a multiple antenna context in order to efficiently exploit robustness against multipath effects and multi-user flexibility of MC-CDMA and channel diversity offered by MIMO systems for radio mobile channels. Computer simulations, considering multi-path Rayleigh Fading Channel, interference inter symbol and interference are presented to verify the performance. Simulation results show that the scheme achieves good performance in a multi-user system.
    13
    8908
    An Intelligent Cascaded Fuzzy Logic Based Controller for Controlling the Room Temperature in Hydronic Heating System
    Abstract:
    Heating systems are a necessity for regions which brace extreme cold weather throughout the year. To maintain a comfortable temperature inside a given place, heating systems making use of- Hydronic boilers- are used. The principle of a single pipe system serves as a base for their working. It is mandatory for these heating systems to control the room temperature, thus maintaining a warm environment. In this paper, the concept of regulation of the room temperature over a wide range is established by using an Adaptive Fuzzy Controller (AFC). This fuzzy controller automatically detects the changes in the outside temperatures and correspondingly maintains the inside temperature to a palatial value. Two separate AFC's are put to use to carry out this function: one to determine the quantity of heat needed to reach the prospective temperature required and to set the desired temperature; the other to control the position of the valve, which is directly proportional to the error between the present room temperature and the user desired temperature. The fuzzy logic controls the position of the valve as per the requirement of the heat. The amount by which the valve opens or closes is controlled by 5 knob positions, which vary from minimum to maximum, thereby regulating the amount of heat flowing through the valve. For the given test system data, different de-fuzzifier methods have been implemented and the results are compared. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, a fuzzy controller has been designed by obtaining a test data from a real time system. The simulations are performed in MATLAB and are verified with standard system data. The proposed approach can be implemented for real time applications.
    12
    9482
    VFAST TCP: A delay-based enhanced version of FAST TCP
    Abstract:
    This paper is aimed at describing a delay-based endto- end (e2e) congestion control algorithm, called Very FAST TCP (VFAST), which is an enhanced version of FAST TCP. The main idea behind this enhancement is to smoothly estimate the Round-Trip Time (RTT) based on a nonlinear filter, which eliminates throughput and queue oscillation when RTT fluctuates. In this context, an evaluation of the suggested scheme through simulation is introduced, by comparing our VFAST prototype with FAST in terms of throughput, queue behavior, fairness, stability, RTT and adaptivity to changes in network. The achieved simulation results indicate that the suggested protocol offer better performance than FAST TCP in terms of RTT estimation and throughput.
    11
    10033
    Intelligent Agent Approach to the Control of Critical Infrastructure Networks
    Abstract:
    In this paper we propose an intelligent agent approach to control the electric power grid at a smaller granularity in order to give it self-healing capabilities. We develop a method using the influence model to transform transmission substations into information processing, analyzing and decision making (intelligent behavior) units. We also develop a wireless communication method to deliver real-time uncorrupted information to an intelligent controller in a power system environment. A combined networking and information theoretic approach is adopted in meeting both the delay and error probability requirements. We use a mobile agent approach in optimizing the achievable information rate vector and in the distribution of rates to users (sensors). We developed the concept and the quantitative tools require in the creation of cooperating semiautonomous subsystems which puts the electric grid on the path towards intelligent and self-healing system.
    10
    10439
    A Novel Fuzzy Logic Based Controller to Adjust the Brightness of the Television Screen with Respect to Surrounding Light
    Abstract:
    One of the major cause of eye strain and other problems caused while watching television is the relative illumination between the screen and its surrounding. This can be overcome by adjusting the brightness of the screen with respect to the surrounding light. A controller based on fuzzy logic is proposed in this paper. The fuzzy controller takes in the intensity of light surrounding the screen and the present brightness of the screen as input. The output of the fuzzy controller is the grid voltage corresponding to the required brightness. This voltage is given to CRT and brightness is controller dynamically. For the given test system data, different de-fuzzifier methods have been implemented and the results are compared. In order to validate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, a fuzzy controller has been designed by obtaining a test data from a real time system. The simulations are performed in MATLAB and are verified with standard system data. The proposed approach can be implemented for real time applications.
    9
    10712
    Central Pattern Generator Incorporating the Actuator Dynamics for a Hexapod Robot
    Abstract:
    We proposed the use of a Toda-Rayleigh ring as a central pattern generator (CPG) for controlling hexapodal robots. We show that the ring composed of six Toda-Rayleigh units coupled to the limb actuators reproduces the most common hexapodal gaits. We provide an electrical circuit implementation of the CPG and test our theoretical results obtaining fixed gaits. Then we propose a method of incorporation of the actuator (motor) dynamics in the CPG. With this approach we close the loop CPG – environment – CPG, thus obtaining a decentralized model for the leg control that does not require higher level intervention to the CPG during locomotion in a nonhomogeneous environments. The gaits generated by the novel CPG are not fixed, but adapt to the current robot bahvior.
    8
    11228
    Fusion of ETM+ Multispectral and Panchromatic Texture for Remote Sensing Classification
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    This paper proposes to use ETM+ multispectral data and panchromatic band as well as texture features derived from the panchromatic band for land cover classification. Four texture features including one 'internal texture' and three GLCM based textures namely correlation, entropy, and inverse different moment were used in combination with ETM+ multispectral data. Two data sets involving combination of multispectral, panchromatic band and its texture were used and results were compared with those obtained by using multispectral data alone. A decision tree classifier with and without boosting were used to classify different datasets. Results from this study suggest that the dataset consisting of panchromatic band, four of its texture features and multispectral data was able to increase the classification accuracy by about 2%. In comparison, a boosted decision tree was able to increase the classification accuracy by about 3% with the same dataset.
    7
    12615
    A Tool for Audio Quality Evaluation Under Hostile Environment
    Abstract:
    In this paper is to evaluate audio and speech quality with the help of Digital Audio Watermarking Technique under the different types of attacks (signal impairments) like Gaussian Noise, Compression Error and Jittering Effect. Further attacks are considered as Hostile Environment. Audio and Speech Quality Evaluation is an important research topic. The traditional way for speech quality evaluation is using subjective tests. They are reliable, but very expensive, time consuming, and cannot be used in certain applications such as online monitoring. Objective models, based on human perception, were developed to predict the results of subjective tests. The existing objective methods require either the original speech or complicated computation model, which makes some applications of quality evaluation impossible.
    6
    13647
    Feed-Forward Control in Resonant DC Link Inverter
    Abstract:
    This paper proposes a feed-forward control in resonant dc link inverter. The feed-forward control configuration is based on synchronous sigma-delta modulation. The simulation results showing the proposed technique can reject non-ideal dc bus improving the total harmonic distortion.
    5
    14370
    A Simplified Approach for Load Flow Analysis of Radial Distribution Network
    Abstract:
    This paper presents a simple approach for load flow analysis of a radial distribution network. The proposed approach utilizes forward and backward sweep algorithm based on Kirchoff-s current law (KCL) and Kirchoff-s voltage law (KVL) for evaluating the node voltages iteratively. In this approach, computation of branch current depends only on the current injected at the neighbouring node and the current in the adjacent branch. This approach starts from the end nodes of sub lateral line, lateral line and main line and moves towards the root node during branch current computation. The node voltage evaluation begins from the root node and moves towards the nodes located at the far end of the main, lateral and sub lateral lines. The proposed approach has been tested using four radial distribution systems of different size and configuration and found to be computationally efficient.
    4
    14711
    Design of a Three Phase Active Power Filter with Sliding Mode Control and Energy Feedback
    Abstract:
    Nonlinear and unbalance loads in three phase networks create harmonics and losses. Active and passive filters are used for elimination or reduction of these effects. Passive filters have some limitations. For example, they are designed only for a specific frequency and they may cause to resonance in the network at the point of common coupling. The other drawback of a passive filter is that the sizes of required elements are normally large. The active filter can improve some of limitations of passive filter for example; they can eliminate more than one harmonic and don't cause resonance in the network. In this paper inverter analysis have been done simultaneously in three phase and the RL impedance of the line have been considered. A sliding mode control based on energy feedback of capacitors is employed in the design with this method, the dynamic speed of the filter is improved effectively and harmonics and load unbalance is compensating quickly.
    3
    14759
    Improved Modulo 2n +1 Adder Design
    Abstract:
    Efficient modulo 2n+1 adders are important for several applications including residue number system, digital signal processors and cryptography algorithms. In this paper we present a novel modulo 2n+1 addition algorithm for a recently represented number system. The proposed approach is introduced for the reduction of the power dissipated. In a conventional modulo 2n+1 adder, all operands have (n+1)-bit length. To avoid using (n+1)-bit circuits, the diminished-1 and carry save diminished-1 number systems can be effectively used in applications. In the paper, we also derive two new architectures for designing modulo 2n+1 adder, based on n-bit ripple-carry adder. The first architecture is a faster design whereas the second one uses less hardware. In the proposed method, the special treatment required for zero operands in Diminished-1 number system is removed. In the fastest modulo 2n+1 adders in normal binary system, there are 3-operand adders. This problem is also resolved in this paper. The proposed architectures are compared with some efficient adders based on ripple-carry adder and highspeed adder. It is shown that the hardware overhead and power consumption will be reduced. As well as power reduction, in some cases, power-delay product will be also reduced.
    2
    14853
    Design and Layout of a X-Band MMIC Power Amplifier in a Phemt Technology
    Abstract:
    The design of Class A and Class AB 2-stage X band Power Amplifier is described in this report. This power amplifier is part of a transceiver used in radar for monitoring iron characteristics in a blast furnace. The circuit was designed using foundry WIN Semiconductors. The specification requires 15dB gain in the linear region, VSWR nearly 1 at input as well as at the output, an output power of 10 dBm and good stable performance in the band 10.9-12.2 GHz. The design was implemented by using inter-stage configuration, the Class A amplifier was chosen for driver stage i.e. the first amplifier focusing on the gain and the output amplifier conducted at Class AB with more emphasis on output power.
    1
    15321
    Simulation of Superconducting Nanowire Single-Photon Detector with Circuit Modeling
    Abstract:
    Single photon detectors have been fabricated NbN nano wire. These detectors are fabricated from high quality, ultra high vacuum sputtered NbN thin films on a sapphire substrate. In this work a typical schematic of the nanowire Single Photon Detector structure and then driving and measurement electronic circuit are shown. The response of superconducting nanowire single photon detectors during a photo detection event, is modeled by a special electrical circuits (two circuit). Finally, current through the wire is calculated by solving equations of models.