Energy Recovery Soft Switching Improved Efficiency Half Bridge Inverter for Electronic Ballast Applications
An improved topology of a voltage-fed quasi-resonant
soft switching LCrCdc series-parallel half bridge inverter with a constant-frequency for electronic ballast applications is proposed in this paper. This new topology introduces a low-cost solution to
reduce switching losses and circuit rating to achieve high-efficiency
ballast. Switching losses effect on ballast efficiency is discussed
through experimental point of view. In this discussion, an improved
topology in which accomplishes soft switching operation over a wide
power regulation range is proposed. The proposed structure uses reverse recovery diode to provide better operation for the ballast system. A symmetrical pulse wide modulation (PWM) control scheme is implemented to regulate a wide range of out-put power.
Simulation results are kindly verified with the experimental
measurements obtained by ballast-lamp laboratory prototype. Different load conditions are provided in order to clarify the
performance of the proposed converter.
Electronic Tool that Helps in Learning How to Play a Flute
This paper describes the development of an electronic
instrument that looks like a flute, which is able to sense the basic musical notes being executed by a specific user. The principal function of the instrument is to teach how to play a flute. This device
will generate a significant academic impact, in a field of virtual reality interactive that combine art and technology. With this example is expected to contribute in research and implementation of teaching devices around the world.
Gait Recognition System: Bundle Rectangle Approach
Biometrics methods include recognition techniques
such as fingerprint, iris, hand geometry, voice, face, ears and gait. The gait recognition approach has some advantages, for example it
does not need the prior concern of the observed subject and it can
record many biometric features in order to make deeper analysis, but
most of the research proposals use high computational cost. This
paper shows a gait recognition system with feature subtraction on a
bundle rectangle drawn over the observed person. Statistical results
within a database of 500 videos are shown.
The Performance Improvement of Automatic Modulation Recognition Using Simple Feature Manipulation, Analysis of the HOS, and Voted Decision
The use of High Order Statistics (HOS) analysis is
expected to provide so many candidates of features that can be selected for pattern recognition. More candidates of the feature can
be extracted using simple manipulation through a specific mathematical function prior to the HOS analysis. Feature extraction
method using HOS analysis combined with Difference to the Nth-Power manipulation has been examined in application for Automatic
Modulation Recognition (AMR) to perform scheme recognition of three digital modulation signal, i.e. QPSK-16QAM-64QAM in the
AWGN transmission channel. The simulation results is reported
when the analysis of HOS up to order-12 and the manipulation of Difference to the Nth-Power up to N = 4. The obtained accuracy rate
of AMR using the method of Simple Decision obtained 90% in SNR > 10 dB in its classifier, while using the method of Voted Decision is
96% in SNR > 2 dB.
Temporal Analysis of Magnetic Nerve Stimulation–Towards Enhanced Systems via Virtualisation
The triumph of inductive neuro-stimulation since its rediscovery in the 1980s has been quite spectacular. In lots of branches ranging from clinical applications to basic research this system is absolutely indispensable. Nevertheless, the basic knowledge about the processes underlying the stimulation effect is still very rough and rarely refined in a quantitative way. This seems to be not only an inexcusable blank spot in biophysics and for stimulation prediction, but also a fundamental hindrance for technological progress. The already very sophisticated devices have reached a stage where further optimization requires better strategies than provided by simple linear membrane models of integrate-and-fire style. Addressing this problem for the first time, we suggest in the following text a way for virtual quantitative analysis of a stimulation system. Concomitantly, this ansatz seems to provide a route towards a better understanding by using nonlinear signal processing and taking the nerve as a filter that is adapted for neuronal magnetic stimulation. The model is compact and easy to adjust. The whole setup behaved very robustly during all performed tests. Exemplarily a recent innovative stimulator design known as cTMS is analyzed and dimensioned with this approach in the following. The results show hitherto unforeseen potentials.
Efficient Dimensionality Reduction of Directional Overcurrent Relays Optimal Coordination Problem
Directional over current relays (DOCR) are commonly used in power system protection as a primary protection in distribution and sub-transmission electrical systems and as a secondary protection in transmission systems. Coordination of protective relays is necessary to obtain selective tripping. In this paper, an approach for efficiency reduction of DOCRs nonlinear optimum coordination (OC) is proposed. This was achieved by modifying the objective function and relaxing several constraints depending on the four constraints classification, non-valid, redundant, pre-obtained and valid constraints. According to this classification, the far end fault effect on the objective function and constraints, and in consequently on relay operating time, was studied. The study was carried out, firstly by taking into account the near-end and far-end faults in DOCRs coordination problem formulation; and then faults very close to the primary relays (nearend faults). The optimal coordination (OC) was achieved by simultaneously optimizing all variables (TDS and Ip) in nonlinear environment by using of Genetic algorithm nonlinear programming techniques. The results application of the above two approaches on 6-bus and 26-bus system verify that the far-end faults consideration on OC problem formulation don-t lose the optimality.
A Methodological Approach for Detecting Burst Noise in the Time Domain
The burst noise is a kind of noises that are destructive
and frequently found in semiconductor devices and ICs, yet detecting
and removing the noise has proved challenging for IC designers or users. According to the properties of burst noise, a methodological
approach is presented (proposed) in the paper, by which the burst noise
can be analysed and detected in time domain. In this paper, principles
and properties of burst noise are expounded first, Afterwards,
feasibility (viable) of burst noise detection by means of wavelet
transform in the time domain is corroborated in the paper, and the multi-resolution characters of Gaussian noise, burst noise and blurred
burst noise are discussed in details by computer emulation. Furthermore, the practical method to decide parameters of wavelet
transform is acquired through a great deal of experiment and data statistics. The methodology may yield an expectation in a wide variety of applications.
Fuzzy Logic Controlled Shunt Active Power Filter for Three-phase Four-wire Systems with Balanced and Unbalanced Loads
This paper presents a fuzzy logic controlled shunt
active power filter used to compensate for harmonic distortion in three-phase four-wire systems. The shunt active filter employs a
simple method for the calculation of the reference compensation current based of Fast Fourier Transform. This presented filter is able
to operate in both balanced and unbalanced load conditions. A fuzzy
logic based current controller strategy is used to regulate the filter current and hence ensure harmonic free supply current. The validity
of the presented approach in harmonic mitigation is verified via
simulation results of the proposed test system under different loading
A Power Reduction Technique for Built-In-Self Testing Using Modified Linear Feedback Shift Register
A linear feedback shift register (LFSR) is proposed which targets to reduce the power consumption from within. It reduces the power consumption during testing of a Circuit Under Test (CUT) at two stages. At first stage,
Control Logic (CL) makes the clocks of the switching units
of the register inactive for a time period when output from
them is going to be same as previous one and thus reducing
unnecessary switching of the flip-flops. And at second stage,
the LFSR reorders the test vectors by interchanging the bit
with its next and closest neighbor bit. It keeps fault coverage
capacity of the vectors unchanged but reduces the Total Hamming Distance (THD) so that there is reduction in power
while shifting operation.
Difference of Properties on Surface Leakage and Discharge Currents of Porcelain Insulator Material
This paper presents the experimental results of
comparison between leakage currents and discharge currents. The leakage currents were obtained on polluted porcelain insulator.
Whereas, the discharge currents were obtained on lightly artificial
polluted porcelain specimen. The conducted measurements were
leakage current or discharge current and applied voltage. The insulator or specimen was in a hermetically sealed chamber, and the
current waveforms were analyzed using FFT.
The result indicated that the leakage current (LC) on low RH condition the fifth harmonic would be visible, and followed by the
seventh harmonic. The insulator had capacitive property. Otherwise,
on 99% relative humidity, the fifth harmonic would also be visible,
and the phase angle reached up to 12.2 degree. Whereas, on discharge current, the third harmonic would be visible, and followed
by fifth harmonic. The third harmonic would increase as pressure reduced. On this condition, the specimen had a non-linear characteristics
Study on Position Polarity Compensation for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor Based on High Frequency Signal Injection
The application of a high frequency signal injection method as speed and position observer in PMSM drives has been a research focus. At present, the precision of this method is nearly good as that of ten-bit encoder. But there are some questions for estimating position polarity. Based on high frequency signal injection, this paper presents a method to compensate position polarity for permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM). Experiments were performed to test the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm and results present the good performance.
Enhanced QoS Mechanisms for IEEE 802.11e Wireless Networks
The quality-of-service (QoS) support for wireless
LANs has been a hot research topic during the past few years. In this paper, two QoS provisioning mechanisms are proposed for the employment in 802.11e EDCA MAC scheme. First, the proposed call
admission control mechanism can not only guarantee the QoS for the higher priority existing connections but also provide the minimum reserved bandwidth for traffic flows with lower priority. In addition, the adaptive contention window adjustment mechanism can adjust the
maximum and minimum contention window size dynamically according to the existing connection number of each AC. The collision
probability as well as the packet delay will thus be reduced effectively.
Performance results via simulations have revealed the enhanced QoS property achieved by employing these two mechanisms.
Universal Qibla and Prayer Time Finder
People nowadays love to travel around the world.
Regardless of their location and time, they especially Muslims still need to perform their five times prayer. Normally for travelers, they
need to bring maps, compass and for Muslim, they even have to bring Qibla pointer when they travel. It is slightly difficult to
determine the Qibla direction and to know the time for each prayer. In this paper we present a new electronic device called Universal Qibla and Prayer Time Finder to locate the Qibla direction and to determine each prayer time based on the current user-s location. This device use PIC microcontroller equipped with digital compass and
Global Positioning System (GPS) where it will display the exact Qibla direction and prayer time automatically at any place in the world. This device is reliable, user friendly and accurate in
determining the Qibla direction and prayer time.
Three Dimensional MEMS Supercapacitor Fabricated by DRIE on Silicon Substrate
Micro power sources are required to be used in autonomous microelectromechanical system (MEMS). In this paper,
we designed and fabricated a three dimensional (3D) MEMS supercapacitor, which is consisting of conformal silicon
dioxide/titanium/polypyrrole (PPy) layers on silicon substrate. At first, ''through-structure'' was fabricated on the silicon substrate by high-aspect-ratio deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) method, which enlarges the available surface area significantly. Then the SiO2/Ti/PPy layers grew sequentially on the ³through-structure´. Finally, the supercapacitor was investigated by electrochemical methods.
Mobile Velocity Based Bidirectional Call Overflow Scheme in Hierarchical Cellular System
In the age of global communications, heterogeneous
networks are seen to be the best choice of strategy to ensure continuous and uninterruptible services. This will allow mobile
terminal to stay in connection even they are migrating into different segment coverage through the handoff process. With the increase of
teletraffic demands in mobile cellular system, hierarchical cellular systems have been adopted extensively for more efficient channel
utilization and better QoS (Quality of Service). This paper presents a
bidirectional call overflow scheme between two layers of microcells and macrocells, where handoffs are decided by the velocity of mobile
making the call. To ensure that handoff calls are given higher priorities, it is assumed that guard channels are assigned in both
macrocells and microcells. A hysteresis value introduced in mobile velocity is used to allow mobile roam in the same cell if its velocity
changes back within the set threshold values. By doing this the number of handoffs is reduced thereby reducing the processing overhead and enhancing the quality of service to the end user.
Wearable Sensing Application- Carbon Dioxide Monitoring for Emergency Personnel Using Wearable Sensors
The development of wearable sensing technologies is a great challenge which is being addressed by the Proetex FP6 project (www.proetex.org). Its main aim is the development of wearable sensors to improve the safety and efficiency of emergency personnel. This will be achieved by continuous, real-time monitoring of vital signs, posture, activity, and external hazards surrounding emergency workers. We report here the development of carbon dioxide (CO2) sensing boot by incorporating commercially available CO2 sensor with a wireless platform into the boot assembly. Carefully selected commercially available sensors have been tested. Some of the key characteristics of the selected sensors are high selectivity and sensitivity, robustness and the power demand. This paper discusses some of the results of CO2 sensor tests and sensor integration with wireless data transmission
Control Algorithm for Shunt Active Power Filter using Synchronous Reference Frame Theory
This paper presents a method for obtaining the
desired reference current for Voltage Source Converter (VSC) of the Shunt Active Power Filter (SAPF) using Synchronous Reference Frame Theory. The method relies on the performance of the Proportional-Integral (PI) controller for
obtaining the best control performance of the SAPF. To
improve the performance of the PI controller, the feedback
path to the integral term is introduced to compensate the
winding up phenomenon due to integrator. Using Reference
Frame Transformation, reference signals are transformed from
a - b - c stationery frame to 0 - d - q rotating frame.
Using the PI controller, the reference signals in the 0 - d - q rotating frame are controlled to get the desired reference signals for the Pulse Width Modulation. The synchronizer, the Phase Locked Loop (PLL) with PI filter is used for
synchronization, with much emphasis on minimizing delays. The system performance is examined with Shunt Active Power Filter simulation model.
Increasing Directional Intensity of Output Light Beam from Photonic Crystal Slab Outlet Including Micro Cavity Resonators
in this paper we modified a simple two-dimensional
photonic crystal waveguide by creating micro cavity resonators in order to increase the output light emission which can be applicable to photonic integrated circuits. The micro cavity resonators are constructed by removing two tubes close to the waveguide output. Coupling emitted light from waveguide with those micro cavities, results increasing intensity of waveguide output light. Inserting a tube
in last row of waveguide, we have improved directionality of output
A Low Complexity Frequency Offset Estimation for MB-OFDM based UWB Systems
A low-complexity, high-accurate frequency offset
estimation for multi-band orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (MB-OFDM) based ultra-wide band systems is presented regarding different carrier frequency offsets, different channel frequency
responses, different preamble patterns in different bands. Utilizing a
half-cycle Constant Amplitude Zero Auto Correlation (CAZAC) sequence as the preamble sequence, the estimator with a semi-cross
contrast scheme between two successive OFDM symbols is proposed. The CRLB and complexity of the proposed algorithm are derived.
Compared to the reference estimators, the proposed method achieves
significantly less complexity (about 50%) for all preamble patterns of the MB-OFDM systems. The CRLBs turn out to be of well performance.
A NonLinear Observer of an Electrical Transformer: A Bond Graph Approach
A bond graph model of an electrical transformer
including the nonlinear saturation is presented. A nonlinear observer for the transformer based on multivariable circle
criterion in the physical domain is proposed. In order to show the saturation and hysteresis effects on the electrical transformer,
simulation results are obtained. Finally, the paper describes that convergence of the estimates to the true states is achieved.
The Potential of Natural Waste (Corn Husk) for Production of Environmental Friendly Biodegradable Film for Seedling
The use of plastic materials in agriculture causes
serious hazards to the environment. The introduction of biodegradable materials, which can be disposed directly into the soil
can be one possible solution to this problem. In the present research results of experimental tests carried out on biodegradable film
fabricated from natural waste (corn husk) are presented. The film was
characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR),
differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), thermal gravimetric analysis
(TGA) and atomic force microscope (AFM) observation. The film is
shown to be readily degraded within 7-9 months under controlled soil
conditions, indicating a high biodegradability rate. The film
fabricated was use to produce biodegradable pot (BioPot) for
seedlings plantation. The introduction and the expanding use of
biodegradable materials represent a really promising alternative for
enhancing sustainable and environmentally friendly agricultural
Optimum Control Strategy of Three-Phase Shunt Active Filter System
The aim of this paper is to identify an optimum
control strategy of three-phase shunt active filters to minimize the total harmonic distortion factor of the supply current. A classical PIPI cascade control solution of the output current of the active filterand the voltage across the DC capacitor based on Modulus–Optimum
criterion is taken into consideration. The control system operation
has been simulated using Matlab-Simulink environment and the results agree with the theoretical expectation. It is shown that there is
an optimum value of the DC-bus voltage which minimizes the supply current harmonic distortion factor. It corresponds to the equality of the apparent power at the output of the active filter and the apparent power across the capacitor. Finally, predicted results are verified experimentally on a MaxSine active power filter.