Excellence in Research and Innovation for Humanity

International Science Index

Commenced in January 1999 Frequency: Monthly Edition: International Paper Count: 48

Electrical, Computer, Energetic, Electronic and Communication Engineering

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  • 48
    265
    Estimation of Load Impedance in Presence of Harmonics
    Abstract:

    This paper presents a fast and efficient on-line technique for estimating impedance of unbalanced loads in power systems. The proposed technique is an application of a discrete timedynamic filter based on stochastic estimation theory which is suitable for estimating parameters in noisy environment. The algorithm uses sets of digital samples of the distorted voltage and current waveforms of the non-linear load to estimate the harmonic contents of these two signal. The non-linear load impedance is then calculated from these contents. The method is tested using practical data. Results are reported and compared with those obtained using the conventional least error squares technique. In addition to the very accurate results obtained, the method can detect and reject bad measurements. This can be considered as a very important advantage over the conventional static estimation methods such as the least error square method.

    47
    435
    Acoustic Noise Reduction in Single Phase SRM Drives by Random Switching Technique
    Abstract:
    It is known that if harmonic spectra are decreased, then acoustic noise also decreased. Hence, this paper deals with a new random switching strategy using DSP TMS320F2812 to decrease the harmonics spectra of single phase switched reluctance motor. The proposed method which combines random turn-on, turn-off angle technique and random pulse width modulation technique is shown. A harmonic spread factor (HSF) is used to evaluate the random modulation scheme. In order to confirm the effectiveness of the new method, the experimental results show that the harmonic intensity of output voltage for the proposed method is better than that for conventional methods.
    46
    1073
    Statistical (Radio) Path Loss Modelling: For RF Propagations within localized Indoor and Outdoor Environments of the Academic Building of INTI University College (Laureate International Universities)
    Abstract:

    A handful of propagation textbooks that discuss radio frequency (RF) propagation models merely list out the models and perhaps discuss them rather briefly; this may well be frustrating for the potential first time modeller who's got no idea on how these models could have been derived. This paper fundamentally provides an overture in modelling the radio channel. Explicitly, for the modelling practice discussed here, signal strength field measurements had to be conducted beforehand (this was done at 469 MHz); to be precise, this paper primarily concerns empirically/statistically modelling the radio channel, and thus provides results obtained from empirically modelling the environments in question. This paper, on the whole, proposes three propagation models, corresponding to three experimented environments. Perceptibly, the models have been derived by way of making the most use of statistical measures. Generally speaking, the first two models were derived via simple linear regression analysis, whereas the third have been originated using multiple regression analysis (with five various predictors). Additionally, as implied by the title of this paper, both indoor and outdoor environments have been experimented; however, (somewhat) two of the environments are neither entirely indoor nor entirely outdoor. The other environment, however, is completely indoor.

    45
    1470
    A Blind SLM Scheme for Reduction of PAPR in OFDM Systems
    Abstract:

    In this paper we propose a blind algorithm for peakto- average power ratio (PAPR) reduction in OFDM systems, based on selected mapping (SLM) algorithm as a distortionless method. The main drawback of the conventional SLM technique is the need for transmission of several side information bits, for each data block, which results in loss in data rate transmission. In the proposed method some special number of carriers in the OFDM frame is reserved to be rotated with one of the possible phases according to the number of phase sequence blocks in SLM algorithm. Reserving some limited number of carriers wont effect the reduction in PAPR of OFDM signal. Simulation results show using ML criteria at the receiver will lead to the same system-performance as the conventional SLM algorithm, while there is no need to send any side information to the receiver.

    44
    1955
    Degradation in Organic Light Emitting Diodes
    Abstract:
    The objective is to fabricate organic light emitting diode and to study its degradation process in atmosphere condition in which PFO as an emitting material and PEDOT:PSS as a hole injecting material were used on ITO substrate. Thus degradation process of the OLED was studied upon its current-voltage characteristic. By fabricating this OLED and obtaining blue light and analysis of current-voltage characteristic during the time after fabrication, it was observed that the current of the OLED was exponentially decreased. Current reduction during the initial hours of fabrication was outstanding and after few days its reduction rate was dropped significantly, while the diode was dying.
    43
    2299
    Capacitive Air Bubble Detector Operated at Different Frequencies for Application in Hemodialysis
    Abstract:
    Air bubbles have been detected in human circulation of end-stage renal disease patients who are treated by hemodialysis. The consequence of air embolism, air bubbles, is under recognized and usually overlooked in daily practice. This paper shows results of a capacitor based detection method that capable of detecting the presence of air bubbles in the blood stream in different frequencies. The method is based on a parallel plates capacitor made of platinum with an area of 1.5 cm2 and a distance between the two plates is 1cm. The dielectric material used in this capacitor is Dextran70 solution which mimics blood rheology. Simulations were carried out using RC circuit at two frequencies 30Hz and 3 kHz and results compared with experiments and theory. It is observed that by injecting air bubbles of different diameters into the device, there were significant changes in the capacitance of the capacitor. Furthermore, it is observed that the output voltage from the circuit increased with increasing air bubble diameter. These results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach in improving air bubble detection in Hemodialysis.
    42
    2470
    Coverage Strategies for Wireless Sensor Networks
    Abstract:

    Coverage is one of the main research interests in wireless sensor networks (WSN), it is used to determine the quality of service (QoS) of the networks. Therefore this paper aims to review the common strategies use in solving coverage problem in WSN. The strategies studied are used during deployment phase where the coverage is calculated based on the placement of the sensors on the region of interest (ROI). The strategies reviewed are categorized into three groups based on the approaches used, namely; force based, grid based or computational geometry based approach.

    41
    2791
    Signalling Cost Analysis of PDE-NEMO
    Abstract:
    A Personal Distributed Environment (PDE) is an example of an IP-based system architecture designed for future mobile communications. In a single PDE, there exist several Subnetworks hosting devices located across the infrastructure, which will inter-work with one another through the coordination of a Device Management Entity (DME). Some of these Sub-networks are fixed and some are mobile. In order to support Mobile Sub-networks mobility in the PDE, the PDE-NEMO protocol was proposed. This paper discussed the signalling cost analysis of PDE-NEMO by use of a detailed simulation model. The paper started with the introduction of the protocol, followed by the experiments and results and then followed by discussions.
    40
    3052
    Enhancing Performance of Bluetooth Piconets Using Priority Scheduling and Exponential Back-Off Mechanism
    Abstract:
    Bluetooth is a personal wireless communication technology and is being applied in many scenarios. It is an emerging standard for short range, low cost, low power wireless access technology. Current existing MAC (Medium Access Control) scheduling schemes only provide best-effort service for all masterslave connections. It is very challenging to provide QoS (Quality of Service) support for different connections due to the feature of Master Driven TDD (Time Division Duplex). However, there is no solution available to support both delay and bandwidth guarantees required by real time applications. This paper addresses the issue of how to enhance QoS support in a Bluetooth piconet. The Bluetooth specification proposes a Round Robin scheduler as possible solution for scheduling the transmissions in a Bluetooth Piconet. We propose an algorithm which will reduce the bandwidth waste and enhance the efficiency of network. We define token counters to estimate traffic of real-time slaves. To increase bandwidth utilization, a back-off mechanism is then presented for best-effort slaves to decrease the frequency of polling idle slaves. Simulation results demonstrate that our scheme achieves better performance over the Round Robin scheduling.
    39
    3202
    Parallel Distributed Computational Microcontroller System for Adaptive Antenna Downlink Transmitter Power Optimization
    Abstract:
    This paper presents a tested research concept that implements a complex evolutionary algorithm, genetic algorithm (GA), in a multi-microcontroller environment. Parallel Distributed Genetic Algorithm (PDGA) is employed in adaptive beam forming technique to reduce power usage of adaptive antenna at WCDMA base station. Adaptive antenna has dynamic beam that requires more advanced beam forming algorithm such as genetic algorithm which requires heavy computation and memory space. Microcontrollers are low resource platforms that are normally not associated with GAs, which are typically resource intensive. The aim of this project was to design a cooperative multiprocessor system by expanding the role of small scale PIC microcontrollers to optimize WCDMA base station transmitter power. Implementation results have shown that PDGA multi-microcontroller system returned optimal transmitted power compared to conventional GA.
    38
    3896
    Damping of Power System Oscillations by using coordinated tuning of POD and PSS with STATCOM
    Abstract:

    Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) is a shunt connected voltage source converter (VSC), which can affect rapid control of reactive flow in the transmission line by controlling the generated a.c. voltage. The main aim of the paper is to design a power system installed with a Static synchronous compensator (STATCOM) and demonstrates the application of the linearised Phillips-heffron model in analyzing the damping effect of the STATCOM to improve power system oscillation stability. The proposed PI controller is designed to coordinate two control inputs: Voltage of the injection bus and capacitor voltage of the STATCOM, to improve the Dynamic stability of a SMIB system .The power oscillations damping (POD) control and power system stabilizer (PSS) and their coordinated action with proposed controllers are tested. The simulation result shows that the proposed damping controllers provide satisfactory performance in terms of improvements of dynamic stability of the system.

    37
    4094
    MATLAB-based System for Centralized Monitoring and Self Restoration against Fiber Fault in FTTH
    Abstract:

    This paper presented a MATLAB-based system named Smart Access Network Testing, Analyzing and Database (SANTAD), purposely for in-service transmission surveillance and self restoration against fiber fault in fiber-to-the-home (FTTH) access network. The developed program will be installed with optical line terminal (OLT) at central office (CO) to monitor the status and detect any fiber fault that occurs in FTTH downwardly from CO towards residential customer locations. SANTAD is interfaced with optical time domain reflectometer (OTDR) to accumulate every network testing result to be displayed on a single computer screen for further analysis. This program will identify and present the parameters of each optical fiber line such as the line's status either in working or nonworking condition, magnitude of decreasing at each point, failure location, and other details as shown in the OTDR's screen. The failure status will be delivered to field engineers for promptly actions, meanwhile the failure line will be diverted to protection line to ensure the traffic flow continuously. This approach has a bright prospect to improve the survivability and reliability as well as increase the efficiency and monitoring capabilities in FTTH.

    36
    4152
    Decentralized Handoff for Microcellular Mobile Communication System using Fuzzy Logic
    Abstract:
    Efficient handoff algorithms are a cost-effective way of enhancing the capacity and QoS of cellular system. The higher value of hysteresis effectively prevents unnecessary handoffs but causes undesired cell dragging. This undesired cell dragging causes interference or could lead to dropped calls in microcellular environment. The problems are further exacerbated by the corner effect phenomenon which causes the signal level to drop by 20-30 dB in 10-20 meters. Thus, in order to maintain reliable communication in a microcellular system new and better handoff algorithms must be developed. A fuzzy based handoff algorithm is proposed in this paper as a solution to this problem. Handoff on the basis of ratio of slopes of normal signal loss to the actual signal loss is presented. The fuzzy based solution is supported by comparing its results with the results obtained in analytical solution.
    35
    4410
    A Talking Head System for Korean Text
    Abstract:
    A talking head system (THS) is presented to animate the face of a speaking 3D avatar in such a way that it realistically pronounces the given Korean text. The proposed system consists of SAPI compliant text-to-speech (TTS) engine and MPEG-4 compliant face animation generator. The input to the THS is a unicode text that is to be spoken with synchronized lip shape. The TTS engine generates a phoneme sequence with their duration and audio data. The TTS applies the coarticulation rules to the phoneme sequence and sends a mouth animation sequence to the face modeler. The proposed THS can make more natural lip sync and facial expression by using the face animation generator than those using the conventional visemes only. The experimental results show that our system has great potential for the implementation of talking head for Korean text.
    34
    5999
    Multicast Optimization Techniques using Best Effort Genetic Algorithms
    Abstract:
    Multicast Network Technology has pervaded our lives-a few examples of the Networking Techniques and also for the improvement of various routing devices we use. As we know the Multicast Data is a technology offers many applications to the user such as high speed voice, high speed data services, which is presently dominated by the Normal networking and the cable system and digital subscriber line (DSL) technologies. Advantages of Multi cast Broadcast such as over other routing techniques. Usually QoS (Quality of Service) Guarantees are required in most of Multicast applications. The bandwidth-delay constrained optimization and we use a multi objective model and routing approach based on genetic algorithm that optimizes multiple QoS parameters simultaneously. The proposed approach is non-dominated routes and the performance with high efficiency of GA. Its betterment and high optimization has been verified. We have also introduced and correlate the result of multicast GA with the Broadband wireless to minimize the delay in the path.
    33
    6029
    Simulations of Routing Protocols of Wireless Sensor Networks
    Abstract:

    Wireless Sensor Network is widely used in electronics. Wireless sensor networks are now used in many applications including military, environmental, healthcare applications, home automation and traffic control. We will study one area of wireless sensor networks, which is the routing protocol. Routing protocols are needed to send data between sensor nodes and the base station. In this paper, we will discuss two routing protocols, such as datacentric and hierarchical routing protocol. We will show the output of the protocols using the NS-2 simulator. This paper will compare the simulation output of the two routing protocol using Nam. We will simulate using Xgraph to find the throughput and delay of the protocol.

    32
    6321
    The Effects of RCA Clean Variables on Particle Removal Efficiency
    Abstract:
    Shrunken patterning for integrated device manufacturing requires surface cleanliness and surface smoothness in wet chemical processing [1]. It is necessary to control all process parameters perfectly especially for the common cleaning technique RCA clean (SC-1 and SC-2) [2]. In this paper the characteristic and effect of surface preparation parameters are discussed. The properties of RCA wet chemical processing in silicon technology is based on processing time, temperature, concentration and megasonic power of SC-1 and QDR. An improvement of wafer surface preparation by the enhanced variables of the wet cleaning chemical process is proposed.
    Keywords:
    31
    6565
    Harmonic Reduction In Three-Phase Parallel Connected Inverter
    Abstract:
    This paper presents the design and analysis of a parallel connected inverter configuration of. The configuration consists of parallel connected three-phase dc/ac inverter. Series resistors added to the inverter output to maintain same current in each inverter of the two parallel inverters, and to reduce the circulating current in the parallel inverters to the minimum. High frequency third harmonic injection PWM (THIPWM) employed to reduce the total harmonic distortion and to make maximum use of the voltage source. DSP was used to generate the THIPWM and the control algorithm for the converter. Selected experimental results have been shown to validate the proposed system.
    30
    6669
    Capacity Optimization for Local and Cooperative Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio Networks
    Abstract:
    The dynamic spectrum allocation solutions such as cognitive radio networks have been proposed as a key technology to exploit the frequency segments that are spectrally underutilized. Cognitive radio users work as secondary users who need to constantly and rapidly sense the presence of primary users or licensees to utilize their frequency bands if they are inactive. Short sensing cycles should be run by the secondary users to achieve higher throughput rates as well as to provide low level of interference to the primary users by immediately vacating their channels once they have been detected. In this paper, the throughput-sensing time relationship in local and cooperative spectrum sensing has been investigated under two distinct scenarios, namely, constant primary user protection (CPUP) and constant secondary user spectrum usability (CSUSU) scenarios. The simulation results show that the design of sensing slot duration is very critical and depends on the number of cooperating users under CPUP scenario whereas under CSUSU, cooperating more users has no effect if the sensing time used exceeds 5% of the total frame duration.
    29
    6702
    Uniform Overlapped Multi-Carrier PWM for a Six-Level Diode Clamped Inverter
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    Multi-level voltage source inverters offer several advantages such as; derivation of a refined output voltage with reduced total harmonic distortion (THD), reduction of voltage ratings of the power semiconductor switching devices and also the reduced electro-magnetic-interference problems etc. In this paper, new carrier-overlapped phase-disposition or sub-harmonic sinusoidal pulse width modulation (CO-PD-SPWM) and also the carrieroverlapped phase-disposition space vector modulation (CO-PDSVPWM) schemes for a six-level diode-clamped inverter topology are proposed. The principle of the proposed PWM schemes is similar to the conventional PD-PWM with a little deviation from it in the sense that the triangular carriers are all overlapped. The overlapping of the triangular carriers on one hand results in an increased number of switchings, on the other hand this facilitates an improved spectral performance of the output voltage. It is demonstrated through simulation studies that the six-level diode-clamped inverter with the use of CO-PD-SPWM and CO-PD-SVPWM proposed in this paper is capable of generating multiple levels in its output voltage. The advantages of the proposed PWM schemes can be derived to benefit, especially at lower modulation indices of the inverter and hence this aspect of the proposed PWM schemes can be well exploited in high power applications requiring low speeds of operation of the drive.
    28
    6884
    Comparison of S-transform and Wavelet Transform in Power Quality Analysis
    Abstract:
    In the power quality analysis non-stationary nature of voltage distortions require some precise and powerful analytical techniques. The time-frequency representation (TFR) provides a powerful method for identification of the non-stationary of the signals. This paper investigates a comparative study on two techniques for analysis and visualization of voltage distortions with time-varying amplitudes. The techniques include the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT), and the S-Transform. Several power quality problems are analyzed using both the discrete wavelet transform and S–transform, showing clearly the advantage of the S– transform in detecting, localizing, and classifying the power quality problems.
    27
    7666
    Fuzzy Logic PID Control of Automatic Voltage Regulator System
    Authors:
    Abstract:
    The application of a simple microcontroller to deal with a three variable input and a single output fuzzy logic controller, with Proportional – Integral – Derivative (PID) response control built-in has been tested for an automatic voltage regulator. The fuzzifiers are based on fixed range of the variables of output voltage. The control output is used to control the wiper motor of the auto transformer to adjust the voltage, using fuzzy logic principles, so that the voltage is stabilized. In this report, the author will demonstrate how fuzzy logic might provide elegant and efficient solutions in the design of multivariable control based on experimental results rather than on mathematical models.
    26
    7910
    An Improved Algorithm for Channel Estimations of OFDM System based Pilot Signal
    Abstract:

    This paper presents a new algorithm for the channel estimation of the OFDM system based on a pilot signal for the new generation of high data rate communication systems. In orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) systems over fast-varying fading channels, channel estimation and tracking is generally carried out by transmitting known pilot symbols in given positions of the frequency-time grid. In this paper, we propose to derive an improved algorithm based on the calculation of the mean and the variance of the adjacent pilot signals for a specific distribution of the pilot signals in the OFDM frequency-time grid then calculating of the entire unknown channel coefficients from the equation of the mean and the variance. Simulation results shows that the performance of the OFDM system increase as the length of the channel increase where the accuracy of the estimated channel will be increased using this low complexity algorithm, also the number of the pilot signal needed to be inserted in the OFDM signal will be reduced which lead to increase in the throughput of the signal over the OFDM system in compared with other type of the distribution such as Comb type and Block type channel estimation.

    25
    7961
    Access Control System: Monitoring Tool for Fiber to the Home Passive Optical Network
    Abstract:
    An optical fault monitoring in FTTH-PON using ACS is demonstrated. This device can achieve real-time fault monitoring for protection feeder fiber. In addition, the ACS can distinguish optical fiber fault from the transmission services to other customers in the FTTH-PON. It is essential to use a wavelength different from the triple-play services operating wavelengths for failure detection. ACS is using the operating wavelength 1625 nm for monitoring and failure detection control. Our solution works on a standard local area network (LAN) using a specially designed hardware interfaced with a microcontroller integrated Ethernet.
    24
    8451
    Application of Neural Networks for 24-Hour-Ahead Load Forecasting
    Abstract:
    One of the most important requirements for the operation and planning activities of an electrical utility is the prediction of load for the next hour to several days out, known as short term load forecasting. This paper presents the development of an artificial neural network based short-term load forecasting model. The model can forecast daily load profiles with a load time of one day for next 24 hours. In this method can divide days of year with using average temperature. Groups make according linearity rate of curve. Ultimate forecast for each group obtain with considering weekday and weekend. This paper investigates effects of temperature and humidity on consuming curve. For forecasting load curve of holidays at first forecast pick and valley and then the neural network forecast is re-shaped with the new data. The ANN-based load models are trained using hourly historical. Load data and daily historical max/min temperature and humidity data. The results of testing the system on data from Yazd utility are reported.
    23
    9514
    Meandered Microstrip Open Circuited Stub with Bandstop Characteristic
    Abstract:
    This paper presents a microstrip meandered open circuited stub with bandstop characteristic. The proposed structure is designed on a high frequency laminate with dielectric constant of 4.0 and board thickness of 0.508 millimeters. The scattering parameters and electromagnetic field distributions at various frequencies are investigated by modeling the structure with three dimensional electromagnetic simulation tool. In order to describe the resonant and bandstop characteristic of the meandered open circuited stub, a Smith chart as well as electric field at various frequencies and phases is illustrated accordingly. The structure can be an alternative method in suppressing the harmonic response of a bandpass filter.
    22
    9936
    A Real-Time Signal Processing Technique for MIDI Generation
    Abstract:
    This paper presents a new hardware interface using a microcontroller which processes audio music signals to standard MIDI data. A technique for processing music signals by extracting note parameters from music signals is described. An algorithm to convert the voice samples for real-time processing without complex calculations is proposed. A high frequency microcontroller as the main processor is deployed to execute the outlined algorithm. The MIDI data generated is transmitted using the EIA-232 protocol. The analyses of data generated show the feasibility of using microcontrollers for real-time MIDI generation hardware interface.
    21
    11116
    Structure-vibration Analysis of a Power Transformer(154kV/60MVA/Single Phase)
    Abstract:
    The most common cause of power transformer failures is mechanical defect brought about by excessive vibration, which is formed by the combination of multiples of a frequency of 120 Hz. In this paper, the types of mechanical exciting forces applied to the power transformer were classified, and the mechanical damage mechanism of the power transformer was identified using the vibration transfer route to the machine or structure. The general effects of 120 Hz-vibration on the enclosure, bushing, Buchholz relay, pressure release valve and tap changer of the transformer were also examined.
    20
    11124
    Efficient Scheduling Algorithm for QoS Support in High Speed Downlink Packet Access Networks
    Abstract:
    In this paper, we propose APO, a new packet scheduling scheme with Quality of Service (QoS) support for hybrid of real and non-real time services in HSDPA networks. The APO scheduling algorithm is based on the effective channel anticipation model. In contrast to the traditional schemes, the proposed method is implemented based on a cyclic non-work-conserving discipline. Simulation results indicated that proposed scheme has good capability to maximize the channel usage efficiency in compared to another exist scheduling methods. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
    19
    11467
    The Traffic Prediction Multi-path Energy-aware Source Routing (TP-MESR)in Ad hoc Networks
    Abstract:
    The purpose of this study is to suggest energy efficient routing for ad hoc networks which are composed of nodes with limited energy. There are diverse problems including limitation of energy supply of node, and the node energy management problem has been presented. And a number of protocols have been proposed for energy conservation and energy efficiency. In this study, the critical point of the EA-MPDSR, that is the type of energy efficient routing using only two paths, is improved and developed. The proposed TP-MESR uses multi-path routing technique and traffic prediction function to increase number of path more than 2. It also verifies its efficiency compared to EA-MPDSR using network simulator (NS-2). Also, To give a academic value and explain protocol systematically, research guidelines which the Hevner(2004) suggests are applied. This proposed TP-MESR solved the existing multi-path routing problem related to overhead, radio interference, packet reassembly and it confirmed its contribution to effective use of energy in ad hoc networks.
    18
    12055
    Bit-Error-Rate Performance Analysis of an Overlap-based CSS System
    Abstract:
    In a chirp spread spectrum (CSS) system, the overlap technique is used for increasing bit rate. More overlaps can offer higher data throughput; however, they may cause more intersymbol interference (ISI) at the same time, resulting in serious bit error rate (BER) performance degradation. In this paper, we perform the BER analysis and derive a closed form BER expression for the overlap-based CSS system. The derived BER expression includes the number of overlaps as a parameter, and thus, would be very useful in determining the number of overlaps for a specified BER. The numerical results demonstrate that the BER derived in a closed form closely agrees with the simulated BER.
    Keywords:
    17
    12066
    No-Reference Image Quality Assessment using Blur and Noise
    Abstract:
    Assessment for image quality traditionally needs its original image as a reference. The conventional method for assessment like Mean Square Error (MSE) or Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) is invalid when there is no reference. In this paper, we present a new No-Reference (NR) assessment of image quality using blur and noise. The recent camera applications provide high quality images by help of digital Image Signal Processor (ISP). Since the images taken by the high performance of digital camera have few blocking and ringing artifacts, we only focus on the blur and noise for predicting the objective image quality. The experimental results show that the proposed assessment method gives high correlation with subjective Difference Mean Opinion Score (DMOS). Furthermore, the proposed method provides very low computational load in spatial domain and similar extraction of characteristics to human perceptional assessment.
    16
    12091
    A Stable Pose Estimation Method for the Biped Robot using Image Information
    Abstract:

    This paper proposes a balance control scheme for a biped robot to trace an arbitrary path using image information. While moving, it estimates the zero moment point(ZMP) of the biped robot in the next step using a Kalman filter and renders an appropriate balanced pose of the robot. The ZMP can be calculated from the robot's pose, which is measured from the reference object image acquired by a CCD camera on the robot's head. For simplifying the kinematical model, the coordinates systems of individual joints of each leg are aligned and the robot motion is approximated as an inverted pendulum so that a simple linear dynamics, 3D-LIPM(3D-Linear Inverted Pendulum Mode) can be applied. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm has been proven by the experiments performed on unknown trajectory.

    15
    12299
    A Compact Pi Network for Reducing Bit Error Rate in Dispersive FIR Channel Noise Model
    Abstract:
    During signal transmission, the combined effect of the transmitter filter, the transmission medium, and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) are included in the channel which distort and add noise to the signal. This causes the well defined signal constellation to spread causing errors in bit detection. A compact pi neural network with minimum number of nodes is proposed. The replacement of summation at each node by multiplication results in more powerful mapping. The resultant pi network is tested on six different channels.
    14
    12345
    Design of Multi-disease Diagnosis Processor using Hypernetworks Technique
    Abstract:
    In this paper, we propose disease diagnosis hardware architecture by using Hypernetworks technique. It can be used to diagnose 3 different diseases (SPECT Heart, Leukemia, Prostate cancer). Generally, the disparate diseases require specified diagnosis hardware model for each disease. Using similarities of three diseases diagnosis processor, we design diagnosis processor that can diagnose three different diseases. Our proposed architecture that is combining three processors to one processor can reduce hardware size without decrease of the accuracy.
    13
    12628
    Wireless Sensor Networks:Delay Guarentee and Energy Efficient MAC Protocols
    Abstract:
    Wireless sensor networks is an emerging technology that serves as environment monitors in many applications. Yet these miniatures suffer from constrained resources in terms of computation capabilities and energy resources. Limited energy resource in these nodes demands an efficient consumption of that resource either by developing the modules itself or by providing an efficient communication protocols. This paper presents a comprehensive summarization and a comparative study of the available MAC protocols proposed for Wireless Sensor Networks showing their capabilities and efficiency in terms of energy consumption and delay guarantee.
    12
    12642
    A High Precision Temperature Insensitive Current and Voltage Reference Generator
    Abstract:

    A high precision temperature insensitive current and voltage reference generator is presented. It is specifically developed for temperature compensated oscillator. The circuit, designed using MXIC 0.5um CMOS technology, has an operating voltage that ranges from 2.6V to 5V and generates a voltage of 1.21V and a current of 6.38 ӴA. It exhibits a variation of ±0.3nA for the current reference and a stable output for voltage reference as the temperature is varied from 0°C to 70°C. The power supply rejection ratio obtained without any filtering capacitor at 100Hz and 10MHz is -30dB and -12dB respectively.

    11
    12792
    The Performance Analysis of CSS-based Communication Systems in the Jamming Environment
    Abstract:
    Due to its capability to resist jamming signals, chirp spread spectrum (CSS) technique has attracted much attention in the area of wireless communications. However, there has been little rigorous analysis for the performance of the CSS communication system in jamming environments. In this paper, we present analytic results on the performance of a CSS system by deriving symbol error rate (SER) expressions for a CSS M-ary phase shift keying (MPSK) system in the presence of broadband and tone jamming signals, respectively. The numerical results show that the empirical SER closely agrees with the analytic result.
    10
    12999
    Understanding Charge Dynamics in Elastomers Adopting Pulsed Electro Acoustic (PEA) Technique
    Abstract:
    In the present work, Pulsed Electro Acoustic (PEA) technique was adopted to understand the space charge dynamics in elastomeric material. It is observed that the polarity of the applied DC voltage voltage and its magnitude alters the space charge dynamics in insulation structure. It is also noticed that any addition of compound to the base material/processing technique have characteristic variation in the space charge injection process. It could be concluded based on the present work that the plasticizer could inject heterocharges into the insulation medium. Also it is realized that space charge magnitude is less with the addition of plasticizer. In the PEA studies, it is observed that local electric field in the insulating material can be much more than applied electric field due to space charge formation. One of the important conclusions arrived at based on PEA technique is that one could understand the safe operating electric field of an insulation material and the charge trap sites.
    9
    13103
    Totally Integrated Smart Energy System through Data Acquisition via Remote Location
    Abstract:
    This paper discusses the approach of real-time controlling of the energy management system using the data acquisition tool of LabVIEW. The main idea of this inspiration was to interface the Station (PC) with the system and publish the data on internet using LabVIEW. In this venture, controlling and switching of 3 phase AC loads are effectively and efficiently done. The phases are also sensed through devices. In case of any failure the attached generator starts functioning automatically. The computer sends command to the system and system respond to the request. The modern feature is to access and control the system world-wide using world wide web (internet). This controlling can be done at any time from anywhere to effectively use the energy especially in developing countries where energy management is a big problem. In this system totally integrated devices are used to operate via remote location.
    8
    13122
    Comparison of SVC and STATCOM in Static Voltage Stability Margin Enhancement
    Abstract:

    One of the major causes of voltage instability is the reactive power limit of the system. Improving the system's reactive power handling capacity via Flexible AC transmission System (FACTS) devices is a remedy for prevention of voltage instability and hence voltage collapse. In this paper, the effects of SVC and STATCOM in Static Voltage Stability Margin Enhancement will be studied. AC and DC representations of SVC and STATCOM are used in the continuation power flow process in static voltage stability study. The IEEE-14 bus system is simulated to test the increasing loadability. It is found that these controllers significantly increase the loadability margin of power systems.

    7
    13284
    Parameters Extraction for Pseudomorphic HEMTs Using Genetic Algorithms
    Abstract:

    A proposed small-signal model parameters for a pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (PHEMT) is presented. Both extrinsic and intrinsic circuit elements of a smallsignal model are determined using genetic algorithm (GA) as a stochastic global search and optimization tool. The parameters extraction of the small-signal model is performed on 200-μm gate width AlGaAs/InGaAs PHEMT. The equivalent circuit elements for a proposed 18 elements model are determined directly from the measured S- parameters. The GA is used to extract the parameters of the proposed small-signal model from 0.5 up to 18 GHz.

    6
    13462
    Low-MAC FEC Controller for JPEG2000 Image Transmission Over IEEE 802.15.4
    Abstract:

    In this paper, we propose the low-MAC FEC controller for practical implementation of JPEG2000 image transmission using IEEE 802.15.4. The proposed low-MAC FEC controller has very small HW size and spends little computation to estimate channel state. Because of this advantage, it is acceptable to apply IEEE 802.15.4 which has to operate more than 1 year with battery. For the image transmission, we integrate the low-MAC FEC controller and RCPC coder in sensor node of LR-WPAN. The modified sensor node has increase of 3% hardware size than conventional zigbee sensor node.

    5
    14843
    Fuzzy PID based PSS Design Using Genetic Algorithm
    Abstract:

    This paper presents PSS (Power system stabilizer) design based on optimal fuzzy PID (OFPID). OFPID based PSS design is considered for single-machine power systems. The main motivation for this design is to stabilize or to control low-frequency oscillation on power systems. Firstly, describing the linear PID control then to combine this PID control with fuzzy logic control mechanism. Finally, Fuzzy PID parameters (Kp. Kd, KI, Kupd, Kui) are tuned by Genetic Algorthm (GA) to reach optimal global stability. The effectiveness of the proposed PSS in increasing the damping of system electromechanical oscillation is demonstrated in a one-machine-infinite-bus system

    4
    14948
    Adaptive Motion Estimator Based on Variable Block Size Scheme
    Abstract:
    This paper presents an adaptive motion estimator that can be dynamically reconfigured by the best algorithm depending on the variation of the video nature during the lifetime of an application under running. The 4 Step Search (4SS) and the Gradient Search (GS) algorithms are integrated in the estimator in order to be used in the case of rapid and slow video sequences respectively. The Full Search Block Matching (FSBM) algorithm has been also integrated in order to be used in the case of the video sequences which are not real time oriented. In order to efficiently reduce the computational cost while achieving better visual quality with low cost power, the proposed motion estimator is based on a Variable Block Size (VBS) scheme that uses only the 16x16, 16x8, 8x16 and 8x8 modes. Experimental results show that the adaptive motion estimator allows better results in term of Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), computational cost, FPGA occupied area, and dissipated power relatively to the most popular variable block size schemes presented in the literature.
    3
    15111
    Image Contrast Enhancement based Sub-histogram Equalization Technique without Over-equalization Noise
    Abstract:

    In order to enhance the contrast in the regions where the pixels have similar intensities, this paper presents a new histogram equalization scheme. Conventional global equalization schemes over-equalizes these regions so that too bright or dark pixels are resulted and local equalization schemes produce unexpected discontinuities at the boundaries of the blocks. The proposed algorithm segments the original histogram into sub-histograms with reference to brightness level and equalizes each sub-histogram with the limited extents of equalization considering its mean and variance. The final image is determined as the weighted sum of the equalized images obtained by using the sub-histogram equalizations. By limiting the maximum and minimum ranges of equalization operations on individual sub-histograms, the over-equalization effect is eliminated. Also the result image does not miss feature information in low density histogram region since the remaining these area is applied separating equalization. This paper includes how to determine the segmentation points in the histogram. The proposed algorithm has been tested with more than 100 images having various contrasts in the images and the results are compared to the conventional approaches to show its superiority.

    2
    15634
    Effect of Atmospheric Turbulence on AcquisitionTime of Ground to Deep Space Optical Communication System
    Abstract:
    The performance of ground to deep space optical communication systems is degraded by distortion of the beam as it propagates through the turbulent atmosphere. Turbulence causes fluctuations in the intensity of the received signal which ultimately affects the acquisition time required to acquire and locate the spaceborne target using narrow laser beam. In this paper, performance of free-space optical (FSO) communication system in atmospheric turbulence has been analyzed in terms of acquisition time for coherent and non-coherent modulation schemes. Numerical results presented in graphical and tabular forms show that the acquisition time increases with the increase in turbulence level. This is true for both schemes. The BPSK has lowest acquisition time among all schemes. In non-coherent schemes, M-PPM performs better than the other schemes. With the increase in M, acquisition time becomes lower, but at the cost of increase in system complexity.
    1
    15947
    Static Voltage Stability Assessment Considering the Power System Contingencies using Continuation Power Flow Method
    Abstract:

    According to the increasing utilization in power system, the transmission lines and power plants often operate in stability boundary and system probably lose its stable condition by over loading or occurring disturbance. According to the reasons that are mentioned, the prediction and recognition of voltage instability in power system has particular importance and it makes the network security stronger.This paper, by considering of power system contingencies based on the effects of them on Mega Watt Margin (MWM) and maximum loading point is focused in order to analyse the static voltage stability using continuation power flow method. The study has been carried out on IEEE 14-Bus Test System using Matlab and Psat softwares and results are presented.